Zanthoxylum americanum Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
northern prickly-ash prickly-ash toothachetree

Zanthoxylum americanum, the Common Prickly-ash, Common Pricklyash, Common Prickly Ash or Northern Prickly-ash, is an aromatic shrub or small tree native to central and eastern portions of the United States and Canada. It is the northernmost New World species in the Citrus family, and is part of the same genus as sichuan pepper. It can grow to 10 meters tall with a diameter at breast height of 15 cm. It produces membranous leaflets and axillary flower clusters. The wood is not commercially valuable, but oil extracts from the bark have been used in traditional and alternative medicine, and have been studied for antifungal and cytotoxic properties. The genus name is sometimes spelled Xanthoxylum.

Zanthoxylum americanum

Medical use

Economic importance of Zanthoxylum americanum

Food additives flavoring
Medicines folklore
Vertebrate poisons mamals

Gallery

Zanthoxylum americanum Zanthoxylum americanum Zanthoxylum americanum Zanthoxylum americanum Zanthoxylum americanum Zanthoxylum americanum Zanthoxylum americanum Zanthoxylum americanum Zanthoxylum americanum Zanthoxylum americanum

Geografical distribution

  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Native
    • Eastern Canada: Canada - Ontario , Quebec
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Illinois, Iowa, Kansas , Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska , North Dakota , Oklahoma, South Dakota , Wisconsin
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Alabama, Arkansas, Florida , Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland , South Carolina, Virginia

Biological activities

12-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Chelerythrine found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Chelerythrine found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Abortifacient
Berberine found in Plant
Skimmianine found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Adrenolytic
Berberine found in Plant
Adrenostimulant
Skimmianine found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Amebicide
Berberine found in Plant
Analgesic
Berberine found in Plant
Chelerythrine found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Skimmianine found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Androgenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Anesthetic
Berberine found in Plant
Angiogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Anorexic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Antiacetylcholinesterase
Berberine found in Plant
Chelerythrine found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Antiacne
Berberine found in Plant
Antiadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Antiadrenergic
Berberine found in Plant
Antiaflatoxin
Imperatorin found in Fruit (19 ppm)
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Antiaggregant
Berberine found in Plant
Chelerythrine found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Imperatorin found in Fruit (19 ppm)
Antialopecic
Imperatorin found in Fruit (19 ppm)
Antialzheimeran
Berberine found in Plant
Antiamnesic
Berberine found in Plant
Antiandrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Antiangiogenic
Berberine found in Plant
Antiarrhythmic
Berberine found in Plant
Antiarthritic
Berberine found in Plant
Antibacillus
Berberine found in Plant
Antibacterial
Berberine found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Chelerythrine found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Magnoflorine found in Bark ;found in Stem Bark ;found in Root Bark
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Antibiotic
Berberine found in Plant
Anticancer
Berberine found in Plant
Anticariogenic
Berberine found in Plant
Antichlamydial
Berberine found in Plant
Anticholecystitic
Berberine found in Plant
Anticholera
Berberine found in Plant
Anticirrhotic
Berberine found in Plant
Anticonjunctivitic
Berberine found in Plant
Anticonvulsant
Berberine found in Plant
Imperatorin found in Fruit (19 ppm)
Skimmianine found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Xanthoxyletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark ;found in Plant ;found in Stem Bark
Antidepressant
Psoralen found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Antidermatitic
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Antidiarrheic
Berberine found in Plant
Antidiuretic
Skimmianine found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antidysenteric
Berberine found in Plant
Antiedemic
Berberine found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Antiendotoxic
Berberine found in Plant
Antienterotoxic
Berberine found in Plant
Antiesherichic
Berberine found in Plant
Antiestrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Antifeedant
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Xanthoxylin found in Plant
Antifertility
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Antigiardial
Berberine found in Plant
Antiglaucomic
Berberine found in Plant
Antigonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Antigonorrhea
Berberine found in Plant
Antihepatomic
Berberine found in Plant
Antihepatotic
Berberine found in Plant
Antiherpetic
Berberine found in Plant
Antihistaminic
Berberine found in Plant
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Antihyperlipoproteinaemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Antiinflammatory
Berberine found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Chelerythrine found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Imperatorin found in Fruit (19 ppm)
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Antiischemic
Berberine found in Plant
Antikeratotic
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Antileishmanic
Berberine found in Plant
Antileucodermic
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Antileukemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Nitidine found in Bark ;found in Plant ;found in Root Bark
Antileukodermic
Imperatorin found in Fruit (19 ppm)
Psoralen found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Antilipogenic
Berberine found in Plant
Antilymphomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Antimalarial
Berberine found in Plant
Skimmianine found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antimitotic
Berberine found in Plant
Chelerythrine found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Imperatorin found in Fruit (19 ppm)
Psoralen found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Antimuscarinic
Berberine found in Plant
Antimutagenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Imperatorin found in Fruit (19 ppm)
Psoralen found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Antimyalgic
Berberine found in Plant
Antimycotic
Berberine found in Plant
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Antineoplastic
Berberine found in Plant
Chelerythrine found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Antinephritic
Berberine found in Plant
Antineuromuscular
Magnoflorine found in Bark ;found in Stem Bark ;found in Root Bark
Antiophidic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Antioxidant
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Antiperistaltic
Berberine found in Plant
Antipharyngitic
Berberine found in Plant
Antiphotooxidative
Berberine found in Plant
Antipityriasic
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Antiplasmodial
Berberine found in Plant
Antiplatelet
Imperatorin found in Fruit (19 ppm)
Antipneumonic
Berberine found in Plant
Antiprogestational
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Antiprostaglandin
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Xanthoxylin found in Plant
Antiprostatadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Antiprostatitic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Antipruritic
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Antipsoriac
Psoralen found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Antipyretic
Berberine found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Skimmianine found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antisalmonella
Berberine found in Plant
Antiscleromyxoedemic
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Antisecretory
Berberine found in Plant
Antiseptic
Berberine found in Plant
Chelerythrine found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Antishigellic
Berberine found in Plant
Antispasmodic
Berberine found in Plant
Magnoflorine found in Bark ;found in Stem Bark ;found in Root Bark
Psoralen found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Skimmianine found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Antispermigenic
Berberine found in Plant
Antistaphylococcic
Berberine found in Plant
Antistrep
Berberine found in Plant
Antisyphilitic
Berberine found in Plant
Antitrachomic
Berberine found in Plant
Antitrypanosomic
Berberine found in Plant
Antitubercular
Berberine found in Plant
Psoralen found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Antitumor-Promoter
Imperatorin found in Fruit (19 ppm)
Isoimperatorin found in Fruit (12.5 ppm)
Psoralen found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Antitumor
Chelerythrine found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Nitidine found in Bark ;found in Plant ;found in Root Bark
Psoralen found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Xanthoxylin found in Plant
Antitussive
Chelerythrine found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Antiulcer
Berberine found in Plant
Antivaginitic
Berberine found in Plant
Antiviral
Berberine found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Chelerythrine found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Psoralen found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Antivitiligic
Imperatorin found in Fruit (19 ppm)
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Apoptotic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Artemicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Isoimperatorin found in Fruit (12.5 ppm)
Psoralen found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Astringent
Berberine found in Plant
Bacteriophagicide
Psoralen found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Bilirubinolytic
Berberine found in Plant
Bufocide
Imperatorin found in Fruit (19 ppm)
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
CNS-Depressant
Magnoflorine found in Bark ;found in Stem Bark ;found in Root Bark
Skimmianine found in Bark ;found in Leaf
CNS-Stimulant
Skimmianine found in Bark ;found in Leaf
COX-2-Inhibitor
Berberine found in Plant
Calcium-Antagonist
Berberine found in Plant
Imperatorin found in Fruit (19 ppm)
Isoimperatorin found in Fruit (12.5 ppm)
Psoralen found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Cancer-Preventive
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Imperatorin found in Fruit (19 ppm)
Psoralen found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Candidicide
Berberine found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Chelerythrine found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Skimmianine found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Cardiodepressant
Berberine found in Plant
Cardiotonic
Berberine found in Plant
Carminative
Berberine found in Plant
Caspase-8-Inducer
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Cholagogue
Berberine found in Plant
Cholekinetic
Berberine found in Plant
Choleretic
Berberine found in Plant
Collyrium
Berberine found in Plant
Contraceptive
Psoralen found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Curare
Candicine found in Bark ;found in Stem Bark ;found in Root Bark
Curaroid
Magnoflorine found in Bark ;found in Stem Bark ;found in Root Bark
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Berberine found in Plant
Cytochrome-P450-Inhibitor
Imperatorin found in Fruit (19 ppm)
Isoimperatorin found in Fruit (12.5 ppm)
Cytotoxic
Berberine found in Plant
Chelerythrine found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Psoralen found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
DME-Inhibitor
Imperatorin found in Fruit (19 ppm)
Isoimperatorin found in Fruit (12.5 ppm)
Xanthyletin found in Bark ;found in Stem Bark ;found in Root Bark
DNA-Intercalator
Chelerythrine found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Dermatitigenic
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Digestive
Berberine found in Plant
Diuretic
Berberine found in Plant
Ecbolic
Skimmianine found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Emetic
Berberine found in Plant
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Epileptigenic
Candicine found in Bark ;found in Stem Bark ;found in Root Bark
Estrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Febrifuge
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Fungicide
Berberine found in Plant
Chelerythrine found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Psoralen found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Fungistat
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Genotoxic
Psoralen found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Glaucomagenic
Berberine found in Plant
Gonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Hemostat
Berberine found in Plant
Hepatoprotective
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Imperatorin found in Fruit (19 ppm)
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Hepatotoxic
Imperatorin found in Fruit (19 ppm)
Herbicide
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Hypertensive
Candicine found in Bark ;found in Stem Bark ;found in Root Bark
Chelerythrine found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Skimmianine found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Hypertrichotic
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Hypocholesterolemic
Berberine found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Hypoglycemic
Berberine found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Hypolipidemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Hypotensive
Berberine found in Plant
Chelerythrine found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Magnoflorine found in Bark ;found in Stem Bark ;found in Root Bark
Psoralen found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Hypothermic
Skimmianine found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Immunostimulant
Berberine found in Plant
Chelerythrine found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Insecticide
Psoralen found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Irritant
Chelerythrine found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Lachrymatory
Berberine found in Plant
Larvicide
Berberine found in Plant
Leucocytogenic
Berberine found in Plant
Lipase-Inhibitor
Berberine found in Plant
Chelerythrine found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Lipolytic
Imperatorin found in Fruit (19 ppm)
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Berberine found in Plant
Xanthoxylin found in Plant
MAO-A-Inhibitor
Psoralen found in Fruit (15 ppm)
MAO-B-Inhibitor
Psoralen found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Molluscicide
Chelerythrine found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Imperatorin found in Fruit (19 ppm)
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Mutagenic
Berberine found in Plant
Psoralen found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Mycobactericide
Berberine found in Plant
Mydriatic
Berberine found in Plant
Myocardiodepressant
Berberine found in Plant
Myorelaxant
Berberine found in Plant
Skimmianine found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Myotonic
Skimmianine found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Nematicide
Chelerythrine found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Nicotinic
Candicine found in Bark ;found in Stem Bark ;found in Root Bark
Occulotensive
Chelerythrine found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
PAF-Inhibitor
Magnoflorine found in Bark ;found in Stem Bark ;found in Root Bark
Paralytic
Chelerythrine found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Magnoflorine found in Bark ;found in Stem Bark ;found in Root Bark
Pesticide
Berberine found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Chelerythrine found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Isoimperatorin found in Fruit (12.5 ppm)
Magnoflorine found in Bark ;found in Stem Bark ;found in Root Bark
Psoralen found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Skimmianine found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Photocarcinogenic
Psoralen found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Phototoxic
Berberine found in Plant
Psoralen found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Skimmianine found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Phytoalexin
Psoralen found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Piscicide
Imperatorin found in Fruit (19 ppm)
Xanthotoxin found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Plasmodicide
Berberine found in Plant
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Berberine found in Plant
Protisticide
Berberine found in Plant
RNA-Depressant
Berberine found in Plant
RT-Inhibitor
Berberine found in Plant
Respiradepressant
Berberine found in Plant
Respirainhibitor
Chelerythrine found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Reverse-Transcriptase-Inhibitor
Nitidine found in Bark ;found in Plant ;found in Root Bark
Sedative
Berberine found in Plant
Imperatorin found in Fruit (19 ppm)
Skimmianine found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Spermicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Stomachic
Berberine found in Plant
Tetanic
Chelerythrine found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor
Chelerythrine found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Nitidine found in Bark ;found in Plant ;found in Root Bark
Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor
Berberine found in Plant
Nitidine found in Bark ;found in Plant ;found in Root Bark
Psoralen found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Toxic
Magnoflorine found in Bark ;found in Stem Bark ;found in Root Bark
Trichomonicide
Berberine found in Plant
Trypanocide
Berberine found in Plant
Ubiquiot
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Ulcerogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root Bark
Uterocontractant
Berberine found in Plant
Skimmianine found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Uterotonic
Berberine found in Plant
Vagostimulant
Berberine found in Plant
Vasoconstrictor
Berberine found in Plant
Vasodilator
Berberine found in Plant
Magnoflorine found in Bark ;found in Stem Bark ;found in Root Bark
Skimmianine found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Vermifuge
Berberine found in Plant
Vibriofuge
Berberine found in Plant

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
(+)-laurifoline Root Bark
Stem Bark
8-(3,3-dimethylallyl)alloxanthoxyletin Root Bark
Alloxanthoxyletin Bark
Root Bark
Stem Bark
Berberine Plant
Beta-fagarine Bark
Beta-sitosterol Root Bark
Candicine Bark
Stem Bark
Root Bark
Chelerythrine Bark
Root Bark
Cnidilin Fruit 3 12.5
Gamma-fagarine Leaf
Herclavine Plant
Imperatorin Fruit 5 19
Isoimperatorin Fruit 3 12.5
Laurifoline Bark
Root
Stem Bark
Root Bark
Magnoflorine Bark
Stem Bark
Root Bark
Nitidine Bark
Plant
Root Bark
O-methyltyramine-n-methyl-cinnamide Plant
Psoralen Fruit 4 15
Resins Bark
Skimmianine Bark
Leaf
Tambetarine Bark
Tannins Bark
Tembetarine Bark
Root Bark
Stem Bark
Xamthoxyletin Bark
Xanthotoxin Fruit 7 25
Xanthoxyletin Bark
Root Bark
Plant
Stem Bark
Xanthoxylin Plant
Xanthyletin Bark
Stem Bark
Root Bark
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]