Viola odorata Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
common violet English violet florist's violet garden violet sweet violet
Viola odorata

Medical use

Economic importance of Viola odorata

Food additives flavoring
Environmental ornamental
Materials esential oils
Medicines folklore

Gallery

Viola odorata Viola odorata Viola odorata Viola odorata Viola odorata Viola odorata Viola odorata Viola odorata Viola odorata Viola odorata Viola odorata Viola odorata Viola odorata Viola odorata

Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Native
    • Macaronesia: Portugal - Madeira Islands; Spain - Canary Islands
    • Northern Africa: Algeria; Morocco; Tunisia
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Western Asia: Cyprus; Iran; Iraq ; Lebanon; Turkey
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Native
    • Indian Subcontinent: India - Jammu and Kashmir
  • EUROPE
    Native
    • Northern Europe: Denmark; Ireland; Norway; Sweden; United Kingdom
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czechoslovakia; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Switzerland
    • East Europe: Belarus; Moldova; Russian Federation - European part; Ukraine
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bulgaria; Former Yugoslavia; Greece ; Italy ; Romania
    • Southwestern Europe: France ; Portugal; Spain

Biological activities

11B-HSD-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf
5-HT-Inhibitor
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
ATPase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Acaricide
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Plant
Allelochemic
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
Vanillin found in Flower
Allelopathic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Allergenic
Alpha-ionone found in Flower
Benzyl-alcohol found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Beta-ionone found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Methyl-salicylate found in Root
Quercetin found in Plant
Vanillin found in Flower
Analgesic
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Methyl-salicylate found in Root
Quercetin found in Plant
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Plant
Anaphrodisiac
Methyl-salicylate found in Root
Androgenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Anesthetic
Benzyl-alcohol found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Plant
Angiogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Anorexic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
AntiCVI
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
AntiGTF
Quercetin found in Plant
AntiHIV
Quercetin found in Plant
AntiPMS
Quercetin found in Plant
AntiTNF
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Antiadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Antiadrenergic
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antiaflatoxin
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antiaggregant
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Antiaging
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiallergic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Antialopecic
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf
Antialzheimeran
Quercetin found in Plant
Antianaphylactic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiandrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf
Antianemic
Vanillin found in Flower
Antiangiogenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiapoplectic
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Antiarachidonate
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Antiarrhythmic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antiarthritic
Quercetin found in Plant
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Antiasthmatic
Quercetin found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antiatherogenic
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Antiatherosclerotic
Malic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Antibacterial
Beta-ionone found in Flower
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Malic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Plant
Sinapic-acid found in Plant
Antibronchoconstrictor
Scopoletin found in Plant
Anticancer
Kaempferol found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Vanillin found in Flower
Anticapillary-Fragility
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Anticarcinogenic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Anticariogenic
Beta-ionone found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Anticataract
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Anticholinergic
Scopoletin found in Plant
Anticlastogen
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Anticolitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Anticomplementary
Quercetin found in Plant
Anticonvulsant
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Anticystitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antidandruff
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Antidementia
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Antidepressant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antidermatitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Antidermatotic
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Antidiabetic
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Antidrepanocytic
Vanillin found in Flower
Antidysmenorrheic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Antieczemic
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Antiedemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antielastase
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiencephalitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antierythemic
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Antiescherichic
Quercetin found in Plant
Vanillin found in Flower
Antiestrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antifeedant
Beta-nitropropionic-acid found in Root (20 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antifertility
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antifibrinolytic
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf
Antifibromyalgic
Malic-acid found in Flower
Antifibrosarcomic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiflu
Quercetin found in Plant
Antigastric
Quercetin found in Plant
Antigenotoxic
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Antigingivitic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antiglaucomic
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Antigonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Antigonadotropic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antihematuric
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Antihemorrhoidal
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Antihepatomic
Saponins found in Root (25000 ppm)
Antihepatotoxic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
Sinapic-acid found in Plant
Antiherpetic
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Isoborneol found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Antihistaminic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Antihydrophobic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antihyperlipoproteinaemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Antihypertensive
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Antiichthyosic
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Antiimplantation
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antiinflammatory
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Friedelin found in Leaf (160 ppm)
Gaultherin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Methyl-salicylate found in Root
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antikeratotic
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Antilactobacillic
Vanillin found in Flower
Antileishmanic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antileukemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antileukotriene
Quercetin found in Plant
Antileukotrienogenic
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antilipoperoxidant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antilisteria
Vanillin found in Flower
Antilymphocytic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antilymphomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Antimalarial
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Antimelanomic
Beta-ionone found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Antimetastatic
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Antimitotic
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Antimutagenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Saponins found in Root (25000 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
Vanillin found in Flower
Antimyocarditic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antineoplastic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Antinephritic
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Antineuralgic
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Antinitrosaminic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antinitrosating
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Antinociceptive
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Antiodontalgic
Benzyl-alcohol found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antioncychomycotic
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Antiophidic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Antioxidant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Methyl-salicylate found in Root
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Plant
Sinapic-acid found in Plant
Vanillin found in Flower
Antipancreatitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiperiodic
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Antiperiodontal
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiperiodontic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antiperistaltic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipermeability
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiperoxidant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Antiperoxynitrite
Sinapic-acid found in Plant
Antipharyngitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiplaque
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiplasmodial
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiplatelet
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Antipodagric
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Antipodriac
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipolio
Cyanin found in Flower (53000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Vanillin found in Flower
Antiprogestational
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Antiproliferant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antiprostaglandin
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antiprostanoid
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiprostatadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Antiprostatitic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiprotozoal
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Antipruritic
Benzyl-alcohol found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antipsoriac
Quercetin found in Plant
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Antipurpuric
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Antipyretic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Methyl-salicylate found in Root
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Antiradicular
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Methyl-salicylate found in Root
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Vanillin found in Flower
Antirheumatalgic
Methyl-salicylate found in Root
Antirheumatic
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Antisalmonella
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Antiseborrheic
Malic-acid found in Flower
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Antiseptic
Benzyl-alcohol found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Plant
Malic-acid found in Flower
Methyl-salicylate found in Root
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antiserotonin
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antisickling
Vanillin found in Flower
Antispasmodic
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antistaphylococcic
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antistreptococcic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antisunburn
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Antitartar
Methyl-salicylate found in Root
Antithiamin
Quercetin found in Plant
Antithrombic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antithrombogenic
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Antithromboxane
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Antithyroid
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Antitrypanosomic
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Antitubercular
Malic-acid found in Flower
Antitumor-Promoter
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Vanillin found in Flower
Antitumor
Beta-ionone found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Malic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Plant
Vanillin found in Flower
Antitympanitic
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Antiulcer
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Antivaricose
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Antiviral
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Cyanin found in Flower (53000 ppm)
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Isoborneol found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Vanillin found in Flower
Antiyeast
Vanillin found in Flower
Apifuge
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Apoptotic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
Aromatase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Artemicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Arteriodilator
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Bacteristat
Malic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Vanillin found in Flower
Bradycardiac
Quercetin found in Plant
Bronchorelaxant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Bruchiphobe
Malic-acid found in Flower
CNS-Depressant
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Plant
CNS-Stimulant
Scopoletin found in Plant
COMT-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
COX-1-Inhibitor
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
COX-2-Inhibitor
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Calcium-Antagonist
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Calmodulin-Antagonist
Quercetin found in Plant
Cancer-Preventive
Beta-ionone found in Flower
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Methyl-salicylate found in Root
Piperonal found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Plant
Sinapic-acid found in Plant
Vanillin found in Flower
Candidicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Vanillin found in Flower
Capillariprotective
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Carcinogenic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Cardiac
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Carminative
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Methyl-salicylate found in Root
Caspase-8-Inducer
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Catabolic
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Chemopreventive
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Cholagogue
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Choleretic
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Vanillin found in Flower
Comedolytic
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Copper-Chelator
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Counterirritant
Methyl-salicylate found in Root
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Cytochrome-P450-1A2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Cytochrome-P450-Inducer
Beta-ionone found in Flower
Cytochrome-P450-Inhibitor
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Cytoprotective
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Cytotoxic
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Dentifrice
Methyl-salicylate found in Root
Dermatitigenic
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Differentiator
Quercetin found in Plant
Diuretic
Friedelin found in Leaf (160 ppm)
Gaultherin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Emetic
Cyanin found in Flower (53000 ppm)
Violin found in Flower ;found in Root
Enterorelaxant
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Estrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
FLavor
Benzyl-alcohol found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Methyl-salicylate found in Root
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf
Propionic-acid found in Leaf
Vanillin found in Flower
Febrifuge
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Fungicide
Benzyl-alcohol found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Beta-ionone found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Methyl-salicylate found in Root
Propionic-acid found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Plant
Sinapic-acid found in Plant
Vanillin found in Flower
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Gonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
HIV-RT-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Hemolytic
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf
Hemopoietic
Malic-acid found in Flower
Hemostat
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Hepatomagenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Hepatoprotective
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
Hepatotropic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Herbicide
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Herpetifuge
Methyl-salicylate found in Root
Hydrocholerectic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Hypercholesterolemic
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf
Hypocholesterolemic
Beta-ionone found in Flower
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Hypoglycemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Plant
Hypolipidemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Hypotensive
Kaempferol found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
ICAM-1-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Immunomodulator
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Saponins found in Root (25000 ppm)
Immunostimulant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Immunosuppressant
Vanillin found in Flower
Inotropic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Insecticide
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Insectifuge
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Isoborneol found in Flower
Methyl-salicylate found in Root
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Insectiphile
Methyl-salicylate found in Root
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Insulinogenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Irritant
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Propionic-acid found in Leaf
Vanillin found in Flower
JNK-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Juvabional
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Keratolytic
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Larvicide
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Larvistat
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Lubricant
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf
MAO-A-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
MAO-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
MMP-9-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Mast-Cell-Stabilizer
Quercetin found in Plant
Metal-Chelator
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Motor-Depressant
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Motor-Stimulant
Isoborneol found in Flower
Musculotropic
Scopoletin found in Plant
Mutagenic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Mycobactericide
Malic-acid found in Flower
Myoprotective
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Myorelaxant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
NEP-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
NO-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
NO-Synthase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Natriuretic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Nematicide
Beta-ionone found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Isoborneol found in Flower
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf
Neuroprotective
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Neurotoxic
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Oviposition-Stimulant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
P450-1A-Inducer
Alpha-ionone found in Flower
P450-2B-Inducer
Alpha-ionone found in Flower
P450-Inducer
Beta-ionone found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
P450-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
PAF-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
PGE2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
PTK-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Pediculicide
Piperonal found in Flower
Perfume
Alpha-ionone found in Flower
Perfumery
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Methyl-salicylate found in Root
Propionic-acid found in Leaf
Vanillin found in Flower
Pesticide
Benzyl-alcohol found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Beta-ionone found in Flower
Beta-nitropropionic-acid found in Root (20 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Cyanin found in Flower (53000 ppm)
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Isoborneol found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant
Malic-acid found in Flower
Methyl-salicylate found in Root
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf
Propionic-acid found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Plant
Sinapic-acid found in Plant
Vanillin found in Flower
Phagocytotic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Phospholipase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Phytoalexin
Scopoletin found in Plant
Phytohormonal
Scopoletin found in Plant
Pigment
Cyanin found in Flower (53000 ppm)
Plasmodicide
Quercetin found in Plant
Preservative
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Proliferant
Quercetin found in Plant
Propecic
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf
Prostaglandigenic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Protisticide
Kaempferol found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Quinone-Reductase-Inducer
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Radioprotective
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Rubefacient
Propionic-acid found in Leaf
Sedative
Benzyl-alcohol found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Isoborneol found in Flower
Sialogogue
Malic-acid found in Flower
Soap
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf
Spermicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Sunscreen
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
TNF-alpha-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Teratologic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Termiticide
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Thermogenic
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Tineacide
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Tremorigenic
Alpha-ionone found in Flower
Trichomonicide
Beta-ionone found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Trichomonistat
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Trypsin-Enhancer
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Tumorigenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Ubiquiot
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Ulcerogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant (330 ppm)
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Salicylic-acid found in Leaf
Uterosedative
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Uterotrophic
Kaempferol found in Plant
VEGF-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Varroacide
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Vasodilator
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Vasopressor
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
Vermifuge
Eugenol found in Flower (357 ppm);found in Leaf
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (20000 ppm)
iNOS-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
2,6-nonadien-1-al Flower
Leaf
2,6-nonadien-1-ol Flower
Leaf
3-beta-friedelanol Flower
Aldehyde Flower 30,000 50,000
Alpha-ionone Flower
Alpha-irone Flower
Benzyl-alcohol Flower
Leaf
Beta-ionone Flower
Beta-irone Flower
Beta-nitropropionic-acid Root 10 20
Beta-sitosterol Plant 330
Cyanin Flower 53,000
D-dihydro-alpha-ionone Flower
D-dihydro-beta-ionone Flower
Diethyl-phthalate Flower
Enanthic-acid Leaf
Eo Essential Oil 900 1,200
Flower 300 1,700
Root 380
Eugenol Flower 147 357
Leaf
Ferulic-acid Plant
Friedelin Leaf 160
Gaultherin Plant
Heptenol Flower
Isoborneol Flower
Kaempferol Plant
L-zingiberene Flower
Malic-acid Flower
Methyl-salicylate Root
Myrosin Seed
N-2-octen-1-ol(?) Leaf
N-heptenol Leaf
N-heptyl-acid Plant
N-hexanol Flower
Leaf
N-hexenol(?) Leaf
N-octenol(?) Leaf
Octadienol(?) Flower
Octenoic-acid Leaf
Octylic-acid Leaf
Odoratine Root 14,100
Palmitic-acid Leaf
Parmone Flower
Piperonal Flower
Propionic-acid Leaf
Quercetin Plant
Rutin Flower 20,000
Salicylic-acid Leaf
Salicylic-acid-methyl-ester Root
Saponins Root 1,000 25,000
Scopoletin Plant
Sinapic-acid Plant
Triacetoamine Root
Undecanone-2 Flower
Vanillin Flower
Violaquercitrin Flower
Violarutin Flower 20,000
Violin Flower
Root
Violutoside Plant
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]