Verbena officinalis Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
common verbena common vervain European vervain herb-of-the-cross holywort official vervain peristerion-wort pigeon's-grass simpler's-joy turkey-grass vervain wild verbena

Verbena officinalis, the common vervain or common verbena, is a perennial herb native to Europe. It grows up to a metre/yard high, with an upright habitus. The lobed leaves are toothed, the delicate spikes hold mauve flowers. This plant prefers limey soils; it is occasionally grown as an ornamental plant but perhaps more often for the powerful properties some herbalists ascribe to it. Propagation is by root cuttings or seed. It is widely naturalised outside its native range, for example in North America.

Verbena officinalis

Medical use

Economic importance of Verbena officinalis

Medicines folklore

Gallery

Verbena officinalis Verbena officinalis Verbena officinalis Verbena officinalis Verbena officinalis Verbena officinalis Verbena officinalis Verbena officinalis Verbena officinalis Verbena officinalis Verbena officinalis Verbena officinalis

Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Native
    • Macaronesia: Portugal - Madeira Islands; Spain - Canary Islands
    • Northern Africa: Algeria ; Egypt ; Libya ; Morocco; Tunisia
    • Northeast Tropical Africa: Sudan
    • East Tropical Africa: Kenya; Tanzania; Uganda
    • West-Central Tropical Africa: Zaire
    • South Tropical Africa: Zambia; Zimbabwe
    • Southern Africa: South Africa
    Naturalized
    • Macaronesia: Portugal - Azores
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Arabian Peninsula: Saudi Arabia
    • Western Asia: Afghanistan; Cyprus; Iran; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey
    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation - Ciscaucasia, Dagestan
    • Middle Asia: Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
    • China: China - Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang
    • Eastern Asia: Japan - Honshu, Kyushu, Ryukyu Islands, Shikoku; Korea; Taiwan
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Native
    • Indian Subcontinent: Bhutan; India; Nepal; Pakistan
    • Indo-China: Cambodia; Laos; Myanmar; Thailand; Vietnam
    • Malesia: Malaysia
  • AUSTRALASIA
    Native
    • Australia: Australia
  • EUROPE
    Native
    • Northern Europe: Ireland; United Kingdom
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czechoslovakia; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Switzerland
    • East Europe: Belarus; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Russian Federation - European part ; Ukraine
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bulgaria; Former Yugoslavia; Greece ; Italy ; Romania
    • Southwestern Europe: France ; Portugal; Spain
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Native
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Connecticut, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Oklahoma
    • Northwestern U.S.A.: United States - Oregon, Washington
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia
    • South-Central U.S.A.: United States - Texas
    • Southwestern U.S.A.: United States - Arizona
    • Northern Mexico: Mexico - Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas
    • Southern Mexico: Mexico - Veracruz
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Native
    • Caribbean: Cuba; Dominican Republic; Haiti

Biological activities

Abortifacient
Verbenalin found in Flower (5000 ppm);found in Plant (3000 ppm)
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Allergenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Analgesic
Adenosine found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Hastatoside found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Anthelmintic
Tannin found in Plant
AntiEBV
Lupeol found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
AntiHIV
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
AntiLegionella
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
AntiPMS
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
AntiTGF-beta
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Antiacne
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Antiadenoviral
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Antiaggregant
Adenosine found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Antiaging
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Antiallergenic
Citral found in Plant
Antiallergic
Citral found in Plant
Antialzheimeran
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Antianaphylactic
Citral found in Plant
Antiangiogenic
Lupeol found in Plant
Antiarrhythmic
Adenosine found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Antiarthritic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Antiasthmatic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Antiatherogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Antibacterial
Aucubin found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Anticancer
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Anticarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Anticarcinomic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Anticariogenic
Tannin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Anticervicaldysplasic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Anticholestatic
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Anticomplement
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Anticoronary
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Antidepressant
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Antidiabetic
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Antidiarrheic
Tannin found in Plant
Antidiuretic
Adenosine found in Leaf
Antidysenteric
Tannin found in Plant
Antiedemic
Aucubin found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Lupeol found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Antielastase
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Antiendotoxic
Adenosine found in Leaf
Antiescherichic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Antifibrosarcomic
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Antiflu
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Lupeol found in Plant
Antigonadotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Antihelicobacter
Citral found in Plant
Antihemolytic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Antihepatoadenomic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Antihepatotoxic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Antiherpetic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Antihistaminic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Antihypercholesterolemic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Antihyperglycemic
Lupeol found in Plant
Antihyperkeratotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Antihyperlipidemic
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Antihypertensive
Adenosine found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Antihyperthyroid
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Antiichythyotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Antiinflammatory
Aucubin found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Hastatoside found in Plant
Lupeol found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Antiinsomniac
Adenosine found in Leaf
Antileishmanic
Citral found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Antileukemic
Aucubin found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Antileukoplakic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Antileukotriene
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Antilipolytic
Adenosine found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Antilipoperoxidant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Antilithic
Lupeol found in Plant
Antilupus
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Antilymphomic
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Antimaculitic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Antimalarial
Lupeol found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Antimastitic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Antimelanogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Antimetastatic
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Antimutagenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Antinephritic
Tannin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Antinitrosaminic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Antiophidic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Antioxalate
Lupeol found in Plant
Antioxidant
Aucubin found in Plant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Lupeol found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Antiozenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Antipapillomic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Antiperoxidant
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Lupeol found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Antiphotophobic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Antipityriasic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Antiplasmodial
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Antiporphyric
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Antiprolactin
Aucubin found in Plant
Antiproliferant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Antiproliferative
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Antiprostaglandin
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Lupeol found in Plant
Antipsoriac
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Antiradicular
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Antirenitic
Tannin found in Plant
Antirheumatic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Lupeol found in Plant
Antiseptic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Antishock
Citral found in Plant
Antispasmodic
Adenosine found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Antistaphylococcic
Aucubin found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Antistomatitic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Antistress
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Antisunburn
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Antitachycardic
Adenosine found in Leaf
Antithiamin
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Antithromboxane
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Antithyroid
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Antitrypanosomic
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Antitumor-Promoter
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Antitumor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Lupeol found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Antiulcer
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Citral found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Antiulcerogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Antiurethrotic
Lupeol found in Plant
Antivaccinia
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Antiviral
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Lupeol found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Antixerophthalmic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Anxiolytic
Adenosine found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Apoptotic
Citral found in Plant
Aromatase-Inhibitor
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Arteriodilator
Adenosine found in Leaf
Barbituate-Synergist
Citral found in Plant
Beta-Blocker
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Bronchorelaxant
Citral found in Plant
CNS-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
CNS-Depressant
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
CNS-Stimulant
Verbenalin found in Flower (5000 ppm);found in Plant (3000 ppm)
COX-1-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
COX-2-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Calcium-Antagonist
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Cancer-Preventive
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Mucilage found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Candidicide
Aucubin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Cardioprotective
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Cardiotonic
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Caspase-3-Inducer
Citral found in Plant
Cathartic
Aucubin found in Plant
Verbenalin found in Flower (5000 ppm);found in Plant (3000 ppm)
Chelator
Tannin found in Plant
Chemopreventive
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Cholagogue
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Choleretic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Clastogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Co-carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Coagulant
Verbenalin found in Flower (5000 ppm);found in Plant (3000 ppm)
Collagen-Sparing
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Collagenic
Aucubin found in Plant
Colorant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Cytoprotective
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Cytotoxic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Lupeol found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
DNA-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
DNA-Protective
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Demulcent
Mucilage found in Plant
Diuretic
Aucubin found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Elastase-Inhibitor
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Estrogenic
Citral found in Plant
Expectorant
Citral found in Plant
FLavor
Citral found in Plant
FPTase-Inhibitor
Lupeol found in Plant
Flatugenic
Stachyose found in Root (20000 ppm);found in Stem (13000 ppm)
Fungicide
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Gastroprotective
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Glaucomagenic
Citral found in Plant
Glucogonogenic
Adenosine found in Leaf
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Plant
Glutathionigenic
Citral found in Plant
Hemostat
Verbenin found in Plant
Hepatocarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Hepatoprotective
Aucubin found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Hepatotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Herbicide
Citral found in Plant
Histamine-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Hypocholesterolemic
Adenosine found in Leaf
Mucilage found in Plant
Hypoglycemic
Adenosine found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Hypotensive
Adenosine found in Leaf
Lupeol found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Immunomodulator
Adenosine found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Immunostimulant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Immunosuppressant
Tannin found in Plant
Insectifuge
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Insulinic
Adenosine found in Leaf
Interferon-Synergist
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Lactagogue
Aucubin found in Plant
Verbenin found in Plant
Laxative
Adenosine found in Leaf
Aucubin found in Plant
Leucocytogenic
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Leukotriene-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Lipolytic
Adenosine found in Leaf
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Lyase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
MAO-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Plant
MMP-9-Inhibitor
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Metal-Chelator
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Mucogenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Myorelaxant
Adenosine found in Leaf
Citral found in Plant
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Citral found in Plant
NO-Inhibitor
Citral found in Plant
Nematicide
Citral found in Plant
Neurostimulant
Verbenin found in Plant
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
P450-2B1-Inhibitor
Citral found in Plant
PAF-Inhibitor
Adenosine found in Leaf
Paralytic
Aucubin found in Plant
Parasympathicomimetic
Verbenalin found in Flower (5000 ppm);found in Plant (3000 ppm)
Parasympathomimetic
Hastatoside found in Plant
Perfumery
Citral found in Plant
Pesticide
Aucubin found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Lupeol found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Phagocytotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Piscicide
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Potassium-Sparing
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Prooxidant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Prostaglandigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Prostatitigenic
Citral found in Plant
Protease-Inhibitor
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Protisticide
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Psychotropic
Tannin found in Plant
Purgative
Verbenalin found in Flower (5000 ppm);found in Plant (3000 ppm)
Pyrogenic
Adenosine found in Leaf
Quinone-Reductase-Inducer
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
RNA-Inhibitor
Aucubin found in Plant
Respirastimulant
Adenosine found in Leaf
Secretomotor
Adenosine found in Leaf
Sedative
Adenosine found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Sodium-Sparing
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Sunscreen
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
TOPO-2-Inhibitor
Lupeol found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Teratogenic
Citral found in Plant
Thymoprotective
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Trichomonicide
Citral found in Plant
Trypanocide
Citral found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Tumorigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
Citral found in Plant
Ubiquiot
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Uricosuric
Aucubin found in Plant
Uterotonic
Verbenalin found in Flower (5000 ppm);found in Plant (3000 ppm)
Vasodilator
Adenosine found in Leaf
Vasopressor
Ursolic-acid found in Plant
Vulnerary
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (10000 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
(+)-verbenone Plant
5-hydroxy-3,6,7,3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone Plant
Adenosine Leaf
Alpha-sitosterol Plant
Artemitin Plant
Aucubin Plant
Beta-carotene Leaf
Caffeic-acid Leaf 10,000
Citral Plant
Emulsin Flower
Eo Plant
Hastatoside Plant
Invertin Flower
Lupeol Plant
Mucilage Plant
Stachyose Root 20,000
Stem 13,000
Tannin Plant
Terpenene Plant
Ursolic-acid Plant
Verbenalin Flower 5,000
Plant 3,000
Verbenalol Plant
Verbenin Plant
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]