Verbascum thapsus Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
Aaron's-rod blanketweed common mullein flannelleaf flannelplant great mullein grey mullein hag taper mullein torches velvet-dock velvetplant wild tobacco

Verbascum thapsus is a species of mullein native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Australia. It is a hairy biennial plant that can grow to 2 metres tall or more. Its small yellow flowers are densely grouped on a tall stem, which grows from a large rosette of leaves. It grows in a wide variety of habitats, but prefers well-lit disturbed soils, where it can appear soon after the ground receives light, from long-lived seeds that persist in the soil seed bank. It is a common weedy plant that spreads by prolifically producing seeds, but it rarely becomes aggressively invasive, since its seeds require open ground to germinate. It is a very minor problem for most agricultural crops, since it is not a very competitive species, being intolerant of shade from other plants and unable to survive tilling. It also hosts many insects, some of which can be harmful to other plants. Although individuals are easy to remove by hand, populations are difficult to eliminate permanently. It is widely used for herbal remedies, with well-established emollient and astringent properties.

Verbascum thapsus

Medical use

Economic importance of Verbascum thapsus

Medicines folklore
Weed potential sed contaminant

Gallery

Verbascum thapsus Verbascum thapsus Verbascum thapsus Verbascum thapsus Verbascum thapsus Verbascum thapsus Verbascum thapsus Verbascum thapsus Verbascum thapsus Verbascum thapsus Verbascum thapsus Verbascum thapsus Verbascum thapsus Verbascum thapsus Verbascum thapsus

Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Native
    • Macaronesia: Portugal - Madeira Islands; Spain - Canary Islands
    • Northern Africa: Algeria; Morocco
    Naturalized
    • Macaronesia: Portugal - Azores
    • Western Indian Ocean: Reunion
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Western Asia: Afghanistan; Cyprus; Iran; Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey
    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation - Ciscaucasia, Dagestan
    • Siberia: Russian Federation - Altay, Eastern Siberia
    • Middle Asia: Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan
    • China: China - Jiangsu, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang
    Naturalized
    • Eastern Asia: Japan
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Native
    • Indian Subcontinent: Bhutan; India ; Nepal; Pakistan
    Naturalized
    • Indian Subcontinent: Sri Lanka
  • AUSTRALASIA
    Naturalized
    • Australia: Australia
    • New Zealand: New Zealand
  • EUROPE
    Native
    • Northern Europe: Denmark; Finland; Ireland; Norway; Sweden; United Kingdom
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czech Republic; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Slovakia; Switzerland
    • East Europe: Belarus; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Russian Federation - European part; Ukraine
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Croatia; Italy ; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia
    • Southwestern Europe: France ; Portugal; Spain
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Naturalized
    • Canada
    • United States
  • PACIFIC
    Naturalized
    • North-Central Pacific: United States - Hawaii
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Naturalized
    • Southern South America: Argentina; Chile

Biological activities

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (613000 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (300000 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed Oil (656000 ppm);found in Seed (309600 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed Oil (325000 ppm);found in Seed (164000 ppm)
ACE-Inhibitor
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
AP-1-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Abortifacient
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Acaricide
Rotenone found in Leaf
Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Aggregant
Sucrose found in Seed Oil
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Arenarioside found in Plant (22 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Coumarin found in Leaf
Forsythoside-b found in Plant (4 ppm)
Verbascoside found in Plant
Allelochemic
Coumarin found in Leaf
Allergenic
Benzyl-alcohol found in Seed
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (300000 ppm)
Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Oleic-acid found in Seed (300000 ppm)
Analgesic
Alpha-amyrin found in Leaf ;found in Root ;found in Stem
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Beta-amyrin found in Leaf ;found in Stem ;found in Seed ;found in Root
Coumarin found in Leaf
Harpagide found in Plant (70 ppm)
Harpagoside found in Plant (89 ppm)
Hesperidin found in Plant
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf
Verbascoside found in Plant
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Androgenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Anemiagenic
Oleic-acid found in Seed (300000 ppm)
Anesthetic
Benzyl-alcohol found in Seed
Coumarin found in Leaf
Angiogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (111000 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (13200 ppm);found in Leaf (13200 ppm)
Anorexic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Anti-LDL
Hesperidin found in Plant
AntiAGE
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (1.4 ppm)
AntiBPH
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
AntiCFS
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (1.4 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
AntiCTS
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
AntiDNA
Hesperidin found in Plant
AntiEBV
Lupeol found in Leaf ;found in Stem ;found in Root
AntiHIV
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
AntiLyme
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (1.1 ppm);found in Leaf (1.1 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf
AntiMS
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (613000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
AntiNF-kB
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
AntiPGE2
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
AntiPMS
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (13300 ppm);found in Leaf (13300 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (12 ppm);found in Leaf (12 ppm)
AntiRNA
Hesperidin found in Plant
AntiTGF-beta
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Antiacne
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (1.4 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (613000 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Tin found in Leaf (12 ppm);found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antiacrodermatitic
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antiacrodynic
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Antiadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Antiaggregant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Coumarin found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Antiaging
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (1.4 ppm)
Antiakathisic
Iron found in Leaf (236 ppm);found in Leaf (236 ppm)
Antialcoholic
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (12 ppm);found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antiallergenic
Hesperidin found in Plant
Antiallergic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (13300 ppm);found in Leaf (13300 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Antialopecic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (613000 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (300000 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed Oil (656000 ppm);found in Seed (309600 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antialzheimeran
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antiamblyopic
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Antianaphylactic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (613000 ppm)
Antiandrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Coumarin found in Leaf
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (613000 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (300000 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed Oil (656000 ppm);found in Seed (309600 ppm)
Antianemic
Iron found in Leaf (236 ppm);found in Leaf (236 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (12 ppm);found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Antianginal
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Antiangiogenic
Lupeol found in Leaf ;found in Stem ;found in Root
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antianorectic
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf
Antianorexic
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antianxiety
Calcium found in Leaf (13300 ppm);found in Leaf (13300 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Antiarabiflavinotic
Riboflavin found in Leaf (1.1 ppm);found in Leaf (1.1 ppm)
Antiarrhythmic
Calcium found in Leaf (13300 ppm);found in Leaf (13300 ppm)
Harpagoside found in Plant (89 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Potassium found in Leaf (13200 ppm);found in Leaf (13200 ppm)
Antiarteriosclerotic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (613000 ppm)
Silicon found in Leaf (7.4 ppm);found in Leaf (7.4 ppm)
Antiarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (13300 ppm);found in Leaf (13300 ppm)
Harpagide found in Plant (70 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (613000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (12 ppm);found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Antiatherosclerotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (13300 ppm);found in Leaf (13300 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (1.4 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Antibackache
Thiamin found in Leaf
Antibacterial
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Aucubin found in Leaf (100 ppm);found in Stem (600 ppm);found in Plant (150 ppm);found in Root ;found in Shoot (13900 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Isorhamnetin found in Flower
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Tin found in Leaf (12 ppm);found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Verbascoside found in Plant
Antiberiberi
Thiamin found in Leaf
Antibradykinic
Hesperidin found in Plant
Antibrucellosic
Coumarin found in Leaf
Anticancer
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Anticanker
Iron found in Leaf (236 ppm);found in Leaf (236 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Anticapillary-Fragility
Hesperidin found in Plant
Anticarcinomic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Anticardiospasmic
Thiamin found in Leaf
Anticariogenic
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Anticarpal-Tunnel
Riboflavin found in Leaf (1.1 ppm);found in Leaf (1.1 ppm)
Anticataract
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (1.1 ppm);found in Leaf (1.1 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Anticephalagic
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (1.1 ppm);found in Leaf (1.1 ppm)
Anticervicaldysplasic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (1.1 ppm);found in Leaf (1.1 ppm)
Anticheilitic
Iron found in Leaf (236 ppm);found in Leaf (236 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (1.1 ppm);found in Leaf (1.1 ppm)
Antichilblain
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Anticirrhotic
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Anticlimacteric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (13300 ppm);found in Leaf (13300 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Anticoeliac
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Anticold
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Anticolitic
Thiamin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Anticomplement
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Anticomplementary
Arabinogalactan found in Flower
Anticonvulsant
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Anticorneotic
Chromium found in Leaf (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (1.4 ppm)
Anticoronary
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (613000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antidandruff
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antidecubitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (1.1 ppm);found in Leaf (1.1 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf
Antideliriant
Thiamin found in Leaf
Antidementia
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antidepressant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (13300 ppm);found in Leaf (13300 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (13200 ppm);found in Leaf (13200 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Antidermatitic
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Antidiabetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (1.4 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (111000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (12 ppm);found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antidiscotic
Manganese found in Leaf (12 ppm);found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Antidiuretic
Coumarin found in Leaf
Antidysgeuzic
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antidyskinetic
Manganese found in Leaf (12 ppm);found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Antidysmenorrheic
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Antidyspeptic
Thiamin found in Leaf
Antidysphagic
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Antieczemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (613000 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antiedemic
Alpha-amyrin found in Leaf ;found in Root ;found in Stem
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Aucubin found in Leaf (100 ppm);found in Stem (600 ppm);found in Plant (150 ppm);found in Root ;found in Shoot (13900 ppm)
Beta-amyrin found in Leaf ;found in Stem ;found in Seed ;found in Root
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Coumarin found in Leaf
Lupeol found in Leaf ;found in Stem ;found in Root
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Taraxasterol found in Seed
Antiencephalitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Antiencephalopathic
Thiamin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antiendometriotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Antienteritic
Xyloglucan found in Flower
Antienterotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Antiepileptic
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (12 ppm);found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antiesherichic
Coumarin found in Leaf
Antiestrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Antifatigue
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (1.4 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (13200 ppm);found in Leaf (13200 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf
Antifeedant
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Rotenone found in Leaf
Verbascoside found in Plant
Antifertility
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Antifibrinolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (613000 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed Oil (656000 ppm);found in Seed (309600 ppm)
Antifibromyalgic
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Antifibrotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antiflu
Hesperidin found in Plant
Lupeol found in Leaf ;found in Stem ;found in Root
Antifuruncular
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antigallstone
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Antigastritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf
Antigastrotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Antigingivitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Antiglaucomic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Antiglossitic
Riboflavin found in Leaf (1.1 ppm);found in Leaf (1.1 ppm)
Antiglycosuric
Chromium found in Leaf (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (1.4 ppm)
Antigonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Antigout
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Antigranular
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (613000 ppm)
Antihangover
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antiheartburn
Thiamin found in Leaf
Antihemorrhagic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Antihepatitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Antihepatomic
Saponins found in Plant
Antihepatotoxic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Stigmasterol found in Leaf ;found in Root ;found in Stem ;found in Seed
Verbascoside found in Plant
Antiherpetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf
Antihiccup
Sucrose found in Seed Oil
Antihistaminic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Hesperidin found in Plant
Isorhamnetin found in Flower
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (613000 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Antihyperactivity
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Antihyperglycemic
Lupeol found in Leaf ;found in Stem ;found in Root
Antihyperkeratotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antihyperkinetic
Calcium found in Leaf (13300 ppm);found in Leaf (13300 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Antihyperlipidemic
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Antihyperlipoproteinaemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Antihypertensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (13300 ppm);found in Leaf (13300 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (111000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (13200 ppm);found in Leaf (13200 ppm)
Verbascoside found in Plant
Antihypoglycemic
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Antihypoxic
Crocetin found in Flower
Antiichythyotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antiimpotence
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antiinfective
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antiinfertility
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antiinflammatory
Alpha-amyrin found in Leaf ;found in Root ;found in Stem
Alpha-spinasterol found in Fruit
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Aucubin found in Leaf (100 ppm);found in Stem (600 ppm);found in Plant (150 ppm);found in Root ;found in Shoot (13900 ppm)
Beta-amyrin found in Leaf ;found in Stem ;found in Seed ;found in Root
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Coumarin found in Leaf
Harpagide found in Plant (70 ppm)
Harpagoside found in Plant (89 ppm)
Hesperidin found in Plant
Isorhamnetin found in Flower
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (613000 ppm)
Lupeol found in Leaf ;found in Stem ;found in Root
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Oleic-acid found in Seed (300000 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Leaf ;found in Root ;found in Stem ;found in Seed
Taraxasterol found in Seed
Verbascoside found in Plant
Antiinsomniac
Calcium found in Leaf (13300 ppm);found in Leaf (13300 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antiinsomnic
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Antiischemic
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Antikeratitic
Riboflavin found in Leaf (1.1 ppm);found in Leaf (1.1 ppm)
Antikeshan
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Antileishmanic
Arabinogalactan found in Flower
Antilepric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antileukemic
Aucubin found in Leaf (100 ppm);found in Stem (600 ppm);found in Plant (150 ppm);found in Root ;found in Shoot (13900 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Verbascoside found in Plant
Antileukonychic
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antileukoplakic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antileukotriene-D4
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (613000 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (300000 ppm)
Antileukotriene
Hesperidin found in Plant
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Antilipoperoxidant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antilithic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Lupeol found in Leaf ;found in Stem ;found in Root
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Antilupus
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antilymphedemic
Coumarin found in Leaf
Antilymphomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antimaculitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antimalarial
Lupeol found in Leaf ;found in Stem ;found in Root
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Antimastalgic
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Antimastitic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antimeasles
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Antimelanomic
Coumarin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Antimenopausal
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (13300 ppm);found in Leaf (13300 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Antimenorrhagic
Iron found in Leaf (236 ppm);found in Leaf (236 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (613000 ppm)
Antimetastatic
Coumarin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antimigraine
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (1.1 ppm);found in Leaf (1.1 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf
Antimitotic
Coumarin found in Leaf
Antimitral-valve-prolapse
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Antimononuccleotic
Coumarin found in Leaf
Antimutagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Coumarin found in Leaf
Crocetin found in Flower
Saponins found in Plant
Antimyalgic
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Antimycoplasmotic
Coumarin found in Leaf
Antimyocarditic
Thiamin found in Leaf
Antinephritic
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Antinephrolytic
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Antineuralgic
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf
Antineuramidase
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Antineurasthenic
Thiamin found in Leaf
Antineuritic
Thiamin found in Leaf
Antineuropathic
Thiamin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antineurotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Antinitrosic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Antinociceptive
Alpha-amyrin found in Leaf ;found in Root ;found in Stem
Beta-amyrin found in Leaf ;found in Stem ;found in Seed ;found in Root
Stigmasterol found in Leaf ;found in Root ;found in Stem ;found in Seed
Antinyctalopic
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antiobesity
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (13300 ppm);found in Leaf (13300 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (1.4 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (111000 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antiodontalgic
Benzyl-alcohol found in Seed
Antionychyotic
Silicon found in Leaf (7.4 ppm);found in Leaf (7.4 ppm)
Antiophidic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Stigmasterol found in Leaf ;found in Root ;found in Stem ;found in Seed
Antiophthalmic
Sucrose found in Seed Oil
Antiorchitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Antiosteoarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Antiosteoporotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (13300 ppm);found in Leaf (13300 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (12 ppm);found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (5700 ppm);found in Leaf (5700 ppm)
Silicon found in Leaf (7.4 ppm);found in Leaf (7.4 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antiototic
Manganese found in Leaf (12 ppm);found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Antioxalate
Lupeol found in Leaf ;found in Stem ;found in Root
Antioxidant
Arenarioside found in Plant (22 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Aucubin found in Leaf (100 ppm);found in Stem (600 ppm);found in Plant (150 ppm);found in Root ;found in Shoot (13900 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Campesterol found in Stem
Crocetin found in Flower
Forsythoside-b found in Plant (4 ppm)
Hesperidin found in Plant
Isorhamnetin found in Flower
Lupeol found in Leaf ;found in Stem ;found in Root
Manganese found in Leaf (12 ppm);found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Palmitic-acid found in Seed Oil (656000 ppm);found in Seed (309600 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (1.1 ppm);found in Leaf (1.1 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Leaf ;found in Root ;found in Stem ;found in Seed
Sucrose found in Seed Oil
Verbascoside found in Plant
Antiozenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antipapillomic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antiparkinsonian
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Antiparotitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Antipellagric
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (1.1 ppm);found in Leaf (1.1 ppm)
Antiperiodontic
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Antiperiodontitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (13300 ppm);found in Leaf (13300 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antiperoxidant
Lupeol found in Leaf ;found in Stem ;found in Root
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Antiphotophobic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (1.1 ppm);found in Leaf (1.1 ppm)
Antipityriasic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antiplaque
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antiplasmodial
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Antipneumonic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Antipodriac
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Antipoliomyelitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf
Antiporphyric
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antiprogestational
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Antiprolactin
Aucubin found in Leaf (100 ppm);found in Stem (600 ppm);found in Plant (150 ppm);found in Root ;found in Shoot (13900 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antiproliferant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Antiprostaglandin
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Hesperidin found in Plant
Lupeol found in Leaf ;found in Stem ;found in Root
Antiprostatadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Antiprostatitic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (613000 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antipruritic
Benzyl-alcohol found in Seed
Antipsittacotic
Coumarin found in Leaf
Antipsoriac
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Coumarin found in Leaf
Antipyretic
Alpha-spinasterol found in Fruit
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Antiradicular
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Antiretinopathic
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Antiretinotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Antirheumatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (13300 ppm);found in Leaf (13300 ppm)
Lupeol found in Leaf ;found in Stem ;found in Root
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antirhinitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Antisarcomic
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Antiscorbutic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Antiscotomic
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Antiseptic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Benzyl-alcohol found in Seed
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Verbascoside found in Plant
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antishingles
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Antisilicotic
Aluminum found in Leaf (1090 ppm);found in Leaf (1090 ppm)
Antispare-Tire
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antispasmodic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Isorhamnetin found in Flower
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (13200 ppm);found in Leaf (13200 ppm)
Antispasmophilic
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Antistaph
Verbascoside found in Plant
Antistaphylococcic
Aucubin found in Leaf (100 ppm);found in Stem (600 ppm);found in Plant (150 ppm);found in Root ;found in Shoot (13900 ppm)
Antistomatitic
Hesperidin found in Plant
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antistress
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (13300 ppm);found in Leaf (13300 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Antistroke
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (13200 ppm);found in Leaf (13200 ppm)
Antisyndrome-X
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (1.4 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (12 ppm);found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antitic
Calcium found in Leaf (13300 ppm);found in Leaf (13300 ppm)
Antitinnitic
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antitoxoplasmotic
Coumarin found in Leaf
Antitriglyceride
Chromium found in Leaf (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (1.4 ppm)
Hesperidin found in Plant
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antitumor-Promoter
Crocetin found in Flower
Antitumor
Alpha-amyrin found in Leaf ;found in Root ;found in Stem
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Coumarin found in Leaf
Fiber found in Leaf (111000 ppm)
Lupeol found in Leaf ;found in Stem ;found in Root
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Rotenone found in Leaf
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Verbascoside found in Plant
Antiulcer
Alpha-amyrin found in Leaf ;found in Root ;found in Stem
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Beta-amyrin found in Leaf ;found in Stem ;found in Seed ;found in Root
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (111000 ppm)
Hesperidin found in Plant
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antiulcerogenic
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Antiurethrotic
Lupeol found in Leaf ;found in Stem ;found in Root
Antivaccinia
Hesperidin found in Plant
Antivaginitic
Aluminum found in Leaf (1090 ppm);found in Leaf (1090 ppm)
Antivertigo
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Antiviral
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Hesperidin found in Plant
Lupeol found in Leaf ;found in Stem ;found in Root
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Stigmasterol found in Leaf ;found in Root ;found in Stem ;found in Seed
Antixerophthalmic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Anxiolytic
Calcium found in Leaf (13300 ppm);found in Leaf (13300 ppm)
Hesperidin found in Plant
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (5700 ppm);found in Leaf (5700 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (13200 ppm);found in Leaf (13200 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Apoptotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Aromatase-Inhibitor
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Artemicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Stigmasterol found in Leaf ;found in Root ;found in Stem ;found in Seed
Asthma-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Astringent
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Atherogenic
Sucrose found in Seed Oil
Bacteristat
Coumarin found in Leaf
Beta-Blocker
Fiber found in Leaf (111000 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Potassium found in Leaf (13200 ppm);found in Leaf (13200 ppm)
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Bruchicide
Rotenone found in Leaf
Bruchiphobe
Coumarin found in Leaf
CNS-Depressant
Hesperidin found in Plant
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
COX-1-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
COX-2-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Calcium-Antagonist
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Harpagide found in Plant (70 ppm)
Harpagoside found in Plant (89 ppm)
Hesperidin found in Plant
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Calcium-Channel-Blocker
Calcium found in Leaf (13300 ppm);found in Leaf (13300 ppm)
Cancer-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Coumarin found in Leaf
Fiber found in Leaf (111000 ppm)
Isorhamnetin found in Flower
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (613000 ppm)
Mucilage found in Flower ;found in Seed (3700 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Oleic-acid found in Seed (300000 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (1.1 ppm);found in Leaf (1.1 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Leaf ;found in Root ;found in Stem ;found in Seed
Candidicide
Aluminum found in Leaf (1090 ppm);found in Leaf (1090 ppm)
Aucubin found in Leaf (100 ppm);found in Stem (600 ppm);found in Plant (150 ppm);found in Root ;found in Shoot (13900 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Capillariprotective
Hesperidin found in Plant
Carcinogenic
Coumarin found in Leaf
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (613000 ppm)
Cardiodepressant
Coumarin found in Leaf
Cardiomyopathogenic
Cobalt found in Leaf (12.8 ppm);found in Leaf (12.8 ppm)
Cardioprotective
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (1.4 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (111000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Potassium found in Leaf (13200 ppm);found in Leaf (13200 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Silicon found in Leaf (7.4 ppm);found in Leaf (7.4 ppm)
Cardiotonic
Coumarin found in Leaf
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Cardiotoxic
Potassium found in Leaf (13200 ppm);found in Leaf (13200 ppm)
Caspase-8-Inducer
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Catabolic
Hesperidin found in Plant
Cathartic
Aucubin found in Leaf (100 ppm);found in Stem (600 ppm);found in Plant (150 ppm);found in Root ;found in Shoot (13900 ppm)
Catalpol found in Plant (50 ppm);found in Shoot
Chemopreventive
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Coumarin found in Leaf
Choleretic
Crocetin found in Flower
Hesperidin found in Plant
Oleic-acid found in Seed (300000 ppm)
Circulotonic
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Cold-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Collagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Aucubin found in Leaf (100 ppm);found in Stem (600 ppm);found in Plant (150 ppm);found in Root ;found in Shoot (13900 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Collyrium
Sucrose found in Seed Oil
Colorant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Crocetin found in Flower
Comedolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (613000 ppm)
Convulsant
Rotenone found in Leaf
Copper-Antagonist
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Cosmetic
Behenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil (3000 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed Oil (325000 ppm);found in Seed (164000 ppm)
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Hesperidin found in Plant
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Cytotoxic
Alpha-amyrin found in Leaf ;found in Root ;found in Stem
Lupeol found in Leaf ;found in Stem ;found in Root
Verbascoside found in Plant
DME-Inhibitor
Coumarin found in Leaf
Demulcent
Mucilage found in Flower ;found in Seed (3700 ppm)
Sucrose found in Seed Oil
Deodorant
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Depressant
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Dermatitigenic
Oleic-acid found in Seed (300000 ppm)
Detoxicant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Diuretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Aucubin found in Leaf (100 ppm);found in Stem (600 ppm);found in Plant (150 ppm);found in Root ;found in Shoot (13900 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (13300 ppm);found in Leaf (13300 ppm)
Catalpol found in Plant (50 ppm);found in Shoot
Fiber found in Leaf (111000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Potassium found in Leaf (13200 ppm);found in Leaf (13200 ppm)
Ectoparasiticide
Rotenone found in Leaf
Elastase-Inhibitor
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Emetic
Coumarin found in Leaf
Encephalopathic
Aluminum found in Leaf (1090 ppm);found in Leaf (1090 ppm)
Energizer
Chromium found in Leaf (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (1.4 ppm)
Ergogenic
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Erythrocytogenic
Cobalt found in Leaf (12.8 ppm);found in Leaf (12.8 ppm)
Estrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Coumarin found in Leaf
Stigmasterol found in Leaf ;found in Root ;found in Stem ;found in Seed
FLavor
Benzyl-alcohol found in Seed
Oleic-acid found in Seed (300000 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed Oil (656000 ppm);found in Seed (309600 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed Oil (325000 ppm);found in Seed (164000 ppm)
FPTase-Inhibitor
Lupeol found in Leaf ;found in Stem ;found in Root
Febrifuge
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Fibrinolytic
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Fistula-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Flatugenic
Sucrose found in Seed Oil
Flatulent
Verbascose found in Root
Fungicide
Benzyl-alcohol found in Seed
Coumarin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Verbascoside found in Plant
Gastroprotective
Alpha-amyrin found in Leaf ;found in Root ;found in Stem
Beta-amyrin found in Leaf ;found in Stem ;found in Seed ;found in Root
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Gonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Hemolytic
Palmitic-acid found in Seed Oil (656000 ppm);found in Seed (309600 ppm)
Hemorrhagic
Coumarin found in Leaf
Hepatoprotective
Alpha-amyrin found in Leaf ;found in Root ;found in Stem
Aucubin found in Leaf (100 ppm);found in Stem (600 ppm);found in Plant (150 ppm);found in Root ;found in Shoot (13900 ppm)
Beta-amyrin found in Leaf ;found in Stem ;found in Seed ;found in Root
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Isorhamnetin found in Flower
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (613000 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Hepatotoxic
Coumarin found in Leaf
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Hypercholesterolemic
Palmitic-acid found in Seed Oil (656000 ppm);found in Seed (309600 ppm)
Sucrose found in Seed Oil
Hypertensive
Sodium found in Leaf (760 ppm);found in Leaf (760 ppm)
Verbascoside found in Plant
Hypnotic
Coumarin found in Leaf
Hypocholesterolemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Calcium found in Leaf (13300 ppm);found in Leaf (13300 ppm)
Campesterol found in Stem
Chromium found in Leaf (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (1.4 ppm)
Crocetin found in Flower
Fiber found in Leaf (111000 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (613000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Mucilage found in Flower ;found in Seed (3700 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (300000 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed Oil (325000 ppm);found in Seed (164000 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Leaf ;found in Root ;found in Stem ;found in Seed
Hypoglycemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Chromium found in Leaf (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (1.4 ppm)
Coumarin found in Leaf
Manganese found in Leaf (12 ppm);found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Hypolipemic
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Hypolipidemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Hesperidin found in Plant
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Hypotensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (13300 ppm);found in Leaf (13300 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (1.4 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (111000 ppm)
Lupeol found in Leaf ;found in Stem ;found in Root
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Potassium found in Leaf (13200 ppm);found in Leaf (13200 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Hypouricemic
Fiber found in Leaf (111000 ppm)
Immunomodulator
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (1.4 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (613000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Saponins found in Plant
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Immunostimulant
Arabinogalactan found in Flower
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Coumarin found in Leaf
Phosphorus found in Leaf (5700 ppm);found in Leaf (5700 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Immunosuppressant
Verbascoside found in Plant
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Insecticide
Rotenone found in Leaf
Insectifuge
Alpha-amyrin found in Leaf ;found in Root ;found in Stem
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (613000 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (300000 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf
Insulinogenic
Chromium found in Leaf (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (1.4 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Interferon-Synergist
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Interferonogenic
Arabinogalactan found in Flower
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Irritant
Oleic-acid found in Seed (300000 ppm)
Juvabional
Coumarin found in Leaf
Lactagogue
Aucubin found in Leaf (100 ppm);found in Stem (600 ppm);found in Plant (150 ppm);found in Root ;found in Shoot (13900 ppm)
Larvicide
Beta-amyrin found in Leaf ;found in Stem ;found in Seed ;found in Root
Rotenone found in Leaf
Larvistat
Coumarin found in Leaf
Laxative
Aucubin found in Leaf (100 ppm);found in Stem (600 ppm);found in Plant (150 ppm);found in Root ;found in Shoot (13900 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (13300 ppm);found in Leaf (13300 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (111000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Leptingenic
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Leucocytogenic
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Lipolytic
Crocetin found in Flower
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Hesperidin found in Plant
Verbascoside found in Plant
Lithogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Litholytic
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Lubricant
Palmitic-acid found in Seed Oil (656000 ppm);found in Seed (309600 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed Oil (325000 ppm);found in Seed (164000 ppm)
Lymphocytogenic
Coumarin found in Leaf
Lymphokinetic
Coumarin found in Leaf
MAO-Inhibitor
Isorhamnetin found in Flower
Memorigenic
Chromium found in Leaf (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (1.4 ppm)
Metastatic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (613000 ppm)
Mitogenic
Arabinogalactan found in Flower
Mosquitocide
Beta-amyrin found in Leaf ;found in Stem ;found in Seed ;found in Root
Mucogenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Mucolytic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Myorelaxant
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Narcotic
Coumarin found in Leaf
Nematicide
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (613000 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed Oil (656000 ppm);found in Seed (309600 ppm)
Neuroprotective
Crocetin found in Flower
Thiamin found in Leaf
Neurotransmitter
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Osteogenic
Phosphorus found in Leaf (5700 ppm);found in Leaf (5700 ppm)
Ovicide
Coumarin found in Leaf
Ovulant
Stigmasterol found in Leaf ;found in Root ;found in Stem ;found in Seed
PKC-Inhibitor
Verbascoside found in Plant
Paralytic
Aucubin found in Leaf (100 ppm);found in Stem (600 ppm);found in Plant (150 ppm);found in Root ;found in Shoot (13900 ppm)
Pediculicide
Rotenone found in Leaf
Percutaneostimulant
Oleic-acid found in Seed (300000 ppm)
Perfumery
Oleic-acid found in Seed (300000 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed Oil (325000 ppm);found in Seed (164000 ppm)
Pesticide
Aluminum found in Leaf (1090 ppm);found in Leaf (1090 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Aucubin found in Leaf (100 ppm);found in Stem (600 ppm);found in Plant (150 ppm);found in Root ;found in Shoot (13900 ppm)
Benzyl-alcohol found in Seed
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Coumarin found in Leaf
Hesperidin found in Plant
Isorhamnetin found in Flower
Lupeol found in Leaf ;found in Stem ;found in Root
Palmitic-acid found in Seed Oil (656000 ppm);found in Seed (309600 ppm)
Rotenone found in Leaf
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf
Tin found in Leaf (12 ppm);found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Verbascoside found in Plant
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Phagocytotic
Arabinogalactan found in Flower
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Coumarin found in Leaf
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Phytoalexin
Verbascoside found in Plant
Piscicide
Coumarin found in Leaf
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Rotenone found in Leaf
Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Preservative
Sucrose found in Seed Oil
ProHLDL
Hesperidin found in Plant
Prooxidant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Iron found in Leaf (236 ppm);found in Leaf (236 ppm)
Propecic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (613000 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (300000 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed Oil (656000 ppm);found in Seed (309600 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed Oil (325000 ppm);found in Seed (164000 ppm)
Prostaglandin-Sparer
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Pulicide
Rotenone found in Leaf
Purgative
Catalpol found in Plant (50 ppm);found in Shoot
Quinone-Reductase-Inducer
Isorhamnetin found in Flower
RNA-Inhibitor
Aucubin found in Leaf (100 ppm);found in Stem (600 ppm);found in Plant (150 ppm);found in Root ;found in Shoot (13900 ppm)
Respirodepressant
Coumarin found in Leaf
Rodenticide
Coumarin found in Leaf
Scabicide
Rotenone found in Leaf
Sedative
Benzyl-alcohol found in Seed
Coumarin found in Leaf
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Stigmasterol found in Leaf ;found in Root ;found in Stem ;found in Seed
Serotoninergic
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Soap
Palmitic-acid found in Seed Oil (656000 ppm);found in Seed (309600 ppm)
Spermicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Spermigenic
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Suppository
Stearic-acid found in Seed Oil (325000 ppm);found in Seed (164000 ppm)
Sweetener
Sucrose found in Seed Oil
TOPO-2-Inhibitor
Lupeol found in Leaf ;found in Stem ;found in Root
Taenicide
Tin found in Leaf (12 ppm);found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Testosteronigenic
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Thymoprotective
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Tranquilizer
Calcium found in Leaf (13300 ppm);found in Leaf (13300 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Trichomonicide
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Triglycerigenic
Sucrose found in Seed Oil
Ubiquiot
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Ulcerogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower ;found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed ;found in Stem ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Uricogenic
Sucrose found in Seed Oil
Uricosuric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Aucubin found in Leaf (100 ppm);found in Stem (600 ppm);found in Plant (150 ppm);found in Root ;found in Shoot (13900 ppm)
Urinary-Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Uterorelaxant
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Uterotonic
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
VEGF-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Leaf (0.5 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Vasodilator
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (13300 ppm);found in Leaf (13300 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (111000 ppm)
Isorhamnetin found in Flower
Magnesium found in Leaf (3230 ppm);found in Leaf (3230 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (95 ppm);found in Leaf (95 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (13200 ppm);found in Leaf (13200 ppm)
Vasopressor
Hesperidin found in Plant
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Vulnerary
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (776 ppm);found in Leaf (776 ppm)
Sucrose found in Seed Oil
Zinc found in Leaf (0.4 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
28-nor-oleana-12,17-dien-3-beta-23-diol Fruit
3,5-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy-flavone Plant 80
3-alpha-hydroxydrimmanyl-8-methanoate Plant
5-ethoxy-methyl-furfural Fruit
6-o-(alpha-l-(2''-feruloyl)-rhamnopyranosyl)-catalpol Plant 10
6-o-(alpha-l-(2''-isoferuloyl)-rhamnopyranosyl)-catalpol Plant 69
6-o-(alpha-l-(2''-o-caffeoyl)-rhamnopyranosyl)-catalpol Plant 6
6-o-(alpha-l-(2''-o-p-coumaroyl)-rhamnopyranosyl)-catalpol Plant 22
6-o-(alpha-l-(2''-o-p-methoxy-cinnamoyl)-rhamnopyranosyl-catalpol Plant 31
6-o-(alpha-l-(2''-o-p-methoxy-cinnamoyl-4''-o-acetyl)-rhamnopyranosyl)-catalpol Plant 9
6-o-(alpha-l-(2''-p-methoxy-cinnamoyl-3''-o-acetyl)-rhamnopyranosyl)-catalpol Plant 20
6-o-(alpha-l-(2,3,4-dimethoxy-cinnamoyl)-rhamnopyranosyl)-catalpol Plant 5
6-o-(alpha-l-(3''-isoferuloyl)-rhamnopyranosyl)-catalpol Plant 39
6-o-(alpha-l-(3''-o-p-coumaroyl)-rhamnopyranosyl)-catalpol Plant 37
6-o-(alpha-l-(3''-o-p-methoxy-cinnamoyl)-rhamnopyranosyl)-catalpol Plant 56
6-o-(alpha-l-(3,3,4-diemthoxy-cinnamoyl)-rhamnopyranosyl)-catalpol Plant 9
6-o-(alpha-l-(4''-feruloyl)-rhamnopyranosyl)-catalpol Plant 8
6-o-(alpha-l-(4''-o-p-coumaroyl)-rhamnopyranosyl)-catalpol Plant 17
6-o-(alpha-l-(4''-o-p-methoxy-cinnamoyl)-rhamnopyranosyl)-catalpol Plant 45
6-o-(alpha-l-(4-caffeoyl)-rhamnopyranosyl)-catalpol Plant 9
6-o-(alpha-l-isoferuloyl)-rhamnopyranosyl)-catalpol Plant 19
6-o-(p-hydroxy-benzoyl)-ajugol Plant 4.8
6-o-beta-xyloxyl-aucubin Plant
6-o-syringoyl-ajugol Plant 0.8
6-o-vanilloyl-ajugol Plant 19
Ajugol Plant 75
Ajugol-acetate Plant
Alpha-amyrin Leaf
Root
Stem
Alpha-spinasterol Fruit
Aluminum Leaf 480 1,090
Leaf 1,090
Arabinogalactan Flower
Arachidic-acid Seed Oil 16,000
Arenarioside Plant 22
Ascorbic-acid Leaf 776
Leaf 341 776
Ash Leaf 86,000
Leaf 37,840 86,000
Aucubin Leaf 100
Stem 600
Plant 150
Root
Shoot 25 13,900
Aucubin-6-glucoside Plant
Aucubin-6-xyloside Plant
Behenic-acid Flower
Seed Oil 3,000
Benzyl-alcohol Seed
Beta-amyrin Leaf
Stem
Seed
Root
Beta-carotene Leaf 43
Leaf 19 43
Beta-sitosterol Flower
Seed Oil
Seed
Stem
Root
Leaf
Calcium Leaf 5,852 13,300
Leaf 13,300
Campesterol Stem
Carbohydrates Leaf 803,000
Leaf 353,320 803,000
Catalpol Plant 50
Shoot
Catalpol-6-o-(alpha-l-(3''-o-caffeoyl)-rhamnopyranosyl Plant 21
Chromium Leaf 0.6 1.4
Leaf 1.4
Cobalt Leaf 12.8
Leaf 6 12.8
Coumarin Leaf
Crocetin Flower
Dehydro-diconiferyl-glucoside-d Plant 0.6
Dehydro-diconiferyl-glucoside-e Plant 1.5
Dehydro-diconiferyl-glucoside-f Plant 2
Dehydro-diconiferyl-glucoside-g Plant 2.4
Ergosterol-peroxide Flower
Fat Leaf 13,000
Leaf 5,720 13,000
Seed 35,000 271,000
Fiber Leaf 111,000
Fiber(crude) Leaf 111,000
Fiber(dietary) Leaf 350,000
Forsythoside-b Plant 4
Fungisterol Seed Oil
Harpagide Plant 70
Harpagide-acetate Plant
Harpagoside Plant 89
Heptaose Root
Hesperidin Plant
Hydroxythapsuine-a Fruit
Hydroxythapsuine-b Fruit
Iron Leaf 236
Leaf 104 236
Isorhamnetin Flower
Kilocalories Leaf 2,680
Laterioside Plant 5,390
Leucosceptoside-b Plant 4
Linoleic-acid Seed 48,000 613,000
Lupeol Leaf
Stem
Root
Magnesium Leaf 3,230
Leaf 1,421 3,230
Manganese Leaf 12
Leaf 5.3 12
Mucilage Flower
Seed 3,700
Niacin Leaf 95
Leaf 42 95
Nonaose Root
Octaose Root
Oleana-11,13(18)-dien-3-beta-23,28-triol Fruit
Oleanolic-acid Flower
Oleic-acid Seed 292,000 300,000
Palmitic-acid Seed Oil 656,000
Seed 309,600
Phosphorus Leaf 5,700
Leaf 2,508 5,700
Potassium Leaf 13,200
Leaf 5,808 13,200
Protein Leaf 108,000
Seed 178,000 183,000
Leaf 47,520 108,000
Riboflavin Leaf 1.1
Leaf 0.5 1.1
Rotenone Leaf
Saikogenin-a Fruit
Saponins Plant
Selenium Leaf 0.5
Leaf 0.2 0.5
Silicon Leaf 7.4
Leaf 3.3 7.4
Sodium Leaf 760
Leaf 334 760
Stearic-acid Seed Oil 325,000
Seed 164,000
Stigmasterol Leaf
Root
Stem
Seed
Sucrose Seed Oil
Taraxasterol Seed
Thapsic-acid Flower 2,300
Thapsuine-a Fruit
Thapsuine-b Fruit
Thiamin Leaf
Thiamine Leaf
Tin Leaf 12
Leaf 5.3 12
Veratric-acid Fruit
Verbacoside Plant 333
Verbascosaponin Flower
Verbascose Root
Verbascoside Plant
Verbascum-lignan-glycoside-13 Plant 1
Verbascum-phenylethanoid-glycoside Plant 1
Verbasterol Plant
Water Leaf 786,000
Leaf 560,000
Xyloglucan Flower
Zinc Leaf 0.4
Leaf 0.2 0.4
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]