Trachyspermum ammi Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
ajowan bishop's-weed Ethiopian-caraway kummel
Trachyspermum ammi

Medical use

Economic importance of Trachyspermum ammi

Food additives flavoring
Medicines folklore

Gallery

Trachyspermum ammi Trachyspermum ammi Trachyspermum ammi Trachyspermum ammi Trachyspermum ammi Trachyspermum ammi Trachyspermum ammi

Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Naturalized
    • Northern Africa: Egypt
    • Northeast Tropical Africa: Ethiopia
    Cultivated
    • Northern Africa: Egypt
    • Northeast Tropical Africa: Ethiopia
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Naturalized
    • Western Asia: Afghanistan
    • Middle Asia: Tajikistan; Uzbekistan
    Cultivated
    • Western Asia: Afghanistan; Iran
    • Middle Asia: Tajikistan; Uzbekistan
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Native
    • Indian Subcontinent: India
    Cultivated
    • Indian Subcontinent: India

Biological activities

ACE-Inhibitor
Gamma-terpinene found in Fruit (13960 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (120 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
AChE-Inhibitor
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Acaricide
Gamma-terpinene found in Fruit (13960 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Acnegenic
Iodine found in Fruit (0.45 ppm)
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Gamma-terpinene found in Fruit (13960 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (120 ppm)
Allelochemic
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (720 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Allelopathic
Camphene found in Fruit (252 ppm)
Allergenic
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (720 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Fruit (2720 ppm)
Dipentene found in Fruit
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (120 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Analgesic
Myrcene found in Fruit (120 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (9512 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (2.3 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Ancylostomicide
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Anesthetic
Carvacrol found in Fruit (2720 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Fiber found in Fruit (228942 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (15011 ppm)
Ankylostomacide
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Anthelmintic
Carvacrol found in Fruit (2720 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
AntiAGE
Chromium found in Fruit (31 ppm)
AntiBPH
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
AntiCFS
Chromium found in Fruit (31 ppm)
AntiHIV
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
AntiLyme
Riboflavin found in Fruit (3 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (2.3 ppm)
AntiPMS
Calcium found in Fruit (16469 ppm)
Manganese found in Fruit (33.1 ppm)
Antiacetylcholinesterase
Gamma-terpinene found in Fruit (13960 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (9512 ppm)
Antiacne
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (720 ppm)
Chromium found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antiacrodermatitic
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antiadenomic
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Antiadrenalinic
Nickel found in Fruit (1.2 ppm)
Antiaggregant
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Antiaging
Chromium found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Antiakathisic
Iron found in Fruit (299 ppm)
Antialcoholic
Manganese found in Fruit (33.1 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (2.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antiallergic
Calcium found in Fruit (16469 ppm)
Antialopecic
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antialzheimeran
Thiamin found in Fruit (2.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antianemic
Copper found in Fruit (9.1 ppm)
Iron found in Fruit (299 ppm)
Manganese found in Fruit (33.1 ppm)
Antiangiogenic
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antianorectic
Thiamin found in Fruit (2.3 ppm)
Antianorexic
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antianxiety
Calcium found in Fruit (16469 ppm)
Antiarabiflavinotic
Riboflavin found in Fruit (3 ppm)
Antiarrhythmic
Calcium found in Fruit (16469 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (15011 ppm)
Antiarthritic
Calcium found in Fruit (16469 ppm)
Copper found in Fruit (9.1 ppm)
Manganese found in Fruit (33.1 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Antiatherosclerotic
Calcium found in Fruit (16469 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Fruit (2720 ppm)
Chromium found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Antibacillary
P-cymene found in Fruit (9512 ppm)
Antibackache
Thiamin found in Fruit (2.3 ppm)
Antibacterial
Alpha-phellandrene found in Plant
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (720 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Fruit (2720 ppm)
Delta-3-carene found in Fruit (320 ppm)
Dipentene found in Fruit
Iodine found in Fruit (0.45 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (120 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (9512 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Antiberiberi
Thiamin found in Fruit (2.3 ppm)
Antibronchitic
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Anticancer
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Anticanker
Iron found in Fruit (299 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (2.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Anticardiospasmic
Thiamin found in Fruit (2.3 ppm)
Anticariogenic
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Anticarpal-Tunnel
Riboflavin found in Fruit (3 ppm)
Anticataract
Riboflavin found in Fruit (3 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (2.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Anticephalagic
Riboflavin found in Fruit (3 ppm)
Anticervicaldysplasic
Riboflavin found in Fruit (3 ppm)
Anticheilitic
Iron found in Fruit (299 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Fruit (3 ppm)
Antichilblain
Nicotinic-acid found in Fruit (23 ppm)
Anticholinesterase
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Anticlimacteric
Calcium found in Fruit (16469 ppm)
Anticoeliac
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Anticold
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Anticolitic
Thiamin found in Fruit (2.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Anticonvulsant
Myrcene found in Fruit (120 ppm)
Anticorneotic
Chromium found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Anticoronary
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antidandruff
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antidecubitic
Riboflavin found in Fruit (3 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (2.3 ppm)
Antideliriant
Thiamin found in Fruit (2.3 ppm)
Antidementia
Thiamin found in Fruit (2.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antidepressant
Calcium found in Fruit (16469 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (15011 ppm)
Antidiabetic
Chromium found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Copper found in Fruit (9.1 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (228942 ppm)
Manganese found in Fruit (33.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antidiscotic
Manganese found in Fruit (33.1 ppm)
Antidiuretic
Carvacrol found in Fruit (2720 ppm)
Antidysgeuzic
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antidyskinetic
Manganese found in Fruit (33.1 ppm)
Antidyspeptic
Thiamin found in Fruit (2.3 ppm)
Antieczemic
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antiencephalopathic
Thiamin found in Fruit (2.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antiepileptic
Manganese found in Fruit (33.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antiesophagitic
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Antifatigue
Chromium found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Copper found in Fruit (9.1 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (15011 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (2.3 ppm)
Antifeedant
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (720 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Fruit (13960 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Antifibrotic
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antiflu
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (720 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (9512 ppm)
Antifuruncular
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antigastritic
Thiamin found in Fruit (2.3 ppm)
Antiglossitic
Riboflavin found in Fruit (3 ppm)
Antiglycosuric
Chromium found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Antigoiter
Iodine found in Fruit (0.45 ppm)
Antihalitosic
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Antihangover
Thiamin found in Fruit (2.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antiheartburn
Thiamin found in Fruit (2.3 ppm)
Antiherpetic
Thiamin found in Fruit (2.3 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Antihyperkinetic
Calcium found in Fruit (16469 ppm)
Antihypertensive
Calcium found in Fruit (16469 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (228942 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (15011 ppm)
Antiimpotence
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antiinfective
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antiinfertility
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antiinflammatory
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (720 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Fruit (2720 ppm)
Copper found in Fruit (9.1 ppm)
Delta-3-carene found in Fruit (320 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Antiinsomniac
Calcium found in Fruit (16469 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antikeratitic
Riboflavin found in Fruit (3 ppm)
Antilepric
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antileukonychic
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antilithic
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Antilymphomic
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antimaculitic
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antimelanomic
Carvacrol found in Fruit (2720 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Antimenopausal
Calcium found in Fruit (16469 ppm)
Antimenorrhagic
Iron found in Fruit (299 ppm)
Antimetastatic
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antimigraine
Riboflavin found in Fruit (3 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (2.3 ppm)
Antimutagenic
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (120 ppm)
Antimyocarditic
Thiamin found in Fruit (2.3 ppm)
Antineuralgic
Thiamin found in Fruit (2.3 ppm)
Antineurasthenic
Thiamin found in Fruit (2.3 ppm)
Antineuritic
Thiamin found in Fruit (2.3 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Antineuropathic
Thiamin found in Fruit (2.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antinitrosaminic
Myrcene found in Fruit (120 ppm)
Antinociceptive
Copper found in Fruit (9.1 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (120 ppm)
Antinyctalopic
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antiobesity
Calcium found in Fruit (16469 ppm)
Chromium found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (228942 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antiosteoporotic
Calcium found in Fruit (16469 ppm)
Copper found in Fruit (9.1 ppm)
Manganese found in Fruit (33.1 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Fruit (4784 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antiototic
Manganese found in Fruit (33.1 ppm)
Antioxidant
Camphene found in Fruit (252 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Fruit (2720 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Fruit (13960 ppm)
Manganese found in Fruit (33.1 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (120 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Fruit (3 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Antipellagric
Riboflavin found in Fruit (3 ppm)
Antiperiodontic
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Antiperiodontitic
Calcium found in Fruit (16469 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antiphotophobic
Riboflavin found in Fruit (3 ppm)
Antiplaque
Carvacrol found in Fruit (2720 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antipneumonic
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (720 ppm)
Antipoliomyelitic
Thiamin found in Fruit (2.3 ppm)
Antiprolactin
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antiprostaglandin
Carvacrol found in Fruit (2720 ppm)
Antiprostatitic
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antiradicular
Carvacrol found in Fruit (2720 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Antirheumatalgic
P-cymene found in Fruit (9512 ppm)
Antirheumatic
Calcium found in Fruit (16469 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antisalmonella
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Antischizophrenic
Nicotinic-acid found in Fruit (23 ppm)
Antiseptic
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (720 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Fruit (2720 ppm)
Iodine found in Fruit (0.45 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antispare-Tire
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antispasmodic
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (720 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Fruit (2720 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (120 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (15011 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Antistaphylococcic
Alpha-phellandrene found in Plant
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (720 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Fruit (2720 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Antistomatitic
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antistreptococcic
Carvacrol found in Fruit (2720 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Antistress
Calcium found in Fruit (16469 ppm)
Antistroke
Potassium found in Fruit (15011 ppm)
Antisyndrome-X
Chromium found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Manganese found in Fruit (33.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antithyrotoxic
Iodine found in Fruit (0.45 ppm)
Nicotinic-acid found in Fruit (23 ppm)
Antitic
Calcium found in Fruit (16469 ppm)
Antitinnitic
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antitrichinosic
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Antitriglyceride
Chromium found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antitumor
Fiber found in Fruit (228942 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Antitussive
Carvacrol found in Fruit (2720 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Antiulcer
Fiber found in Fruit (228942 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Antiviral
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (720 ppm)
Dipentene found in Fruit
Iodine found in Fruit (0.45 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (9512 ppm)
Anxiolytic
Calcium found in Fruit (16469 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Fruit (4784 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (15011 ppm)
Apoptotic
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Astringent
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Ataxigenic
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Beta-Blocker
Fiber found in Fruit (228942 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (15011 ppm)
Bronchoprotectant
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Calcium-Channel-Blocker
Calcium found in Fruit (16469 ppm)
Cancer-Preventive
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (720 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (228942 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Fruit (3 ppm)
Candidicide
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Fruit (2720 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Candidistat
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Cardiomyopathogenic
Cobalt found in Fruit (0.7 ppm)
Cardioprotective
Chromium found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Copper found in Fruit (9.1 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (228942 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (15011 ppm)
Cardiotoxic
Potassium found in Fruit (15011 ppm)
Carminative
Carvacrol found in Fruit (2720 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Chemopreventive
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (120 ppm)
Choleretic
Nicotinic-acid found in Fruit (23 ppm)
Cholesterolytic
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Coleoptophile
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (720 ppm)
Collagenic
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Contraceptive
Copper found in Fruit (9.1 ppm)
Copper-Antagonist
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Counterirritant
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Culicide
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Carvacrol found in Fruit (2720 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Dentifrice
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Deodorant
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Dermal
Alpha-phellandrene found in Plant
Dermatitigenic
Delta-3-carene found in Fruit (320 ppm)
Iodine found in Fruit (0.45 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Detoxicant
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Diuretic
Calcium found in Fruit (16469 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (228942 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (15011 ppm)
Emetic
Alpha-phellandrene found in Plant
Energizer
Chromium found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Enterocontractant
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Enterorelaxant
Carvacrol found in Fruit (2720 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Enterotoxic
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Ergogenic
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Erythrocytogenic
Cobalt found in Fruit (0.7 ppm)
Expectorant
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (720 ppm)
Beta-phellandrene found in Plant
Camphene found in Fruit (252 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Fruit (2720 ppm)
Dipentene found in Fruit
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
FLavor
Alpha-phellandrene found in Plant
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (720 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Camphene found in Fruit (252 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Fruit (2720 ppm)
Delta-3-carene found in Fruit (320 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Fruit (13960 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (120 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (9512 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Fungicide
Alpha-phellandrene found in Plant
Beta-phellandrene found in Plant
Carvacrol found in Fruit (2720 ppm)
Iodine found in Fruit (0.45 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (120 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (9512 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Fungiphilic
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Fungistat
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
GST-Inducer
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Gastroirritant
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Goitrogenic
Iodine found in Fruit (0.45 ppm)
Herbicide
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (720 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (9512 ppm)
Histaminic
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Hypertensive
Sodium found in Fruit (605 ppm)
Hyperthyroid
Iodine found in Fruit (0.45 ppm)
Hypocholesterolemic
Calcium found in Fruit (16469 ppm)
Chromium found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Copper found in Fruit (9.1 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (228942 ppm)
Nicotinic-acid found in Fruit (23 ppm)
Hypoglycemic
Chromium found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Manganese found in Fruit (33.1 ppm)
Nicotinic-acid found in Fruit (23 ppm)
Hypotensive
Calcium found in Fruit (16469 ppm)
Chromium found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (228942 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (15011 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Hypothermic
Myrcene found in Fruit (120 ppm)
Hypouricemic
Fiber found in Fruit (228942 ppm)
Immunomodulator
Chromium found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Copper found in Fruit (9.1 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Immunostimulant
Phosphorus found in Fruit (4784 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Immunosuppressant
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Insecticide
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (720 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Insectifuge
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (720 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Camphene found in Fruit (252 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Fruit (2720 ppm)
Delta-3-carene found in Fruit (320 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Fruit (13960 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (120 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (9512 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (2.3 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Insectiphile
Alpha-phellandrene found in Plant
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (720 ppm)
Insulin-Sparing
Nickel found in Fruit (1.2 ppm)
Insulinase-Inhibitor
Nicotinic-acid found in Fruit (23 ppm)
Insulinogenic
Chromium found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Insulinotonic
Nicotinic-acid found in Fruit (23 ppm)
Interleukin-6-Inhibitor
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Irritant
Alpha-phellandrene found in Plant
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (720 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Fruit (2720 ppm)
Delta-3-carene found in Fruit (320 ppm)
Dipentene found in Fruit
Gamma-terpinene found in Fruit (13960 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (120 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (9512 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Larvicide
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Laxative
Alpha-phellandrene found in Plant
Calcium found in Fruit (16469 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (228942 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (9512 ppm)
Leptingenic
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Lipolytic
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Nicotinic-acid found in Fruit (23 ppm)
Memorigenic
Chromium found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Molluscicide
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Mucogenic
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Myorelaxant
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (120 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
NO-Genic
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Nematicide
Carvacrol found in Fruit (2720 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Neuroprotective
Thiamin found in Fruit (2.3 ppm)
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Osteogenic
Phosphorus found in Fruit (4784 ppm)
Ozone-Scavenger
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
P450-2B1-Inhibitor
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (720 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (120 ppm)
P450-Inducer
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Perfumery
Alpha-phellandrene found in Plant
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (720 ppm)
Beta-phellandrene found in Plant
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Fruit (13960 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (120 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Peristaltic
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Pesticide
Alpha-phellandrene found in Plant
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (720 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Camphene found in Fruit (252 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Fruit (2720 ppm)
Delta-3-carene found in Fruit (320 ppm)
Dipentene found in Fruit
Gamma-terpinene found in Fruit (13960 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (120 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (9512 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (2.3 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Photosensitizer
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Prooxidant
Iron found in Fruit (299 ppm)
Prostaglandin-Inhibitor
Carvacrol found in Fruit (2720 ppm)
Protisticide
Iodine found in Fruit (0.45 ppm)
Schizophrenigenic
Copper found in Fruit (9.1 ppm)
Sedative
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (720 ppm)
Dipentene found in Fruit
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (9512 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Spasmogenic
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (720 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Camphene found in Fruit (252 ppm)
Spermigenic
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Sprout-Inhibitor
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Testosteronigenic
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Thyrotropic
Iodine found in Fruit (0.45 ppm)
Tracheorelaxant
Carvacrol found in Fruit (2720 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Tranquilizer
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (720 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (16469 ppm)
Transdermal
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (720 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (2040 ppm)
Trichomonicide
Carvacrol found in Fruit (2720 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (9512 ppm)
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)
Urinary-Antiseptic
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Varroacide
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Vasodilator
Calcium found in Fruit (16469 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (228942 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (15011 ppm)
Vermicide
Thymol found in Fruit (33000 ppm);found in Fruit (19400 ppm)
Vermifuge
Carvacrol found in Fruit (2720 ppm)
Vulnerary
Zinc found in Fruit (43 ppm)

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
Alpha-phellandrene Plant
Alpha-pinene Fruit 99 720
Ash Fruit 79,000 85,313
Beta-phellandrene Plant
Beta-pinene Fruit 372 1,400
Calcium Fruit 15,250 16,469
Camphene Fruit 150 252
Carbohydrates Fruit 246,000 265,658
Carotene Fruit 0.71 0.768
Carvacrol Fruit 1,350 2,720
Chromium Fruit 30 31
Cobalt Fruit 0.7
Copper Fruit 9.1
Delta-3-carene Fruit 126 320
Dipentene Fruit
Eo Fruit 20,000 60,000
Plant 15,200
Fat Fruit 218,000 334,773
Fiber Fruit 212,000 228,942
Gamma-terpinene Fruit 5,610 13,960
Iodine Fruit 0.45
Iron Fruit 178 299
Limonene Fruit 75 2,040
Manganese Fruit 33.1
Myrcene Fruit 90 120
Nickel Fruit 1.2
Nicotinic-acid Fruit 21 23
P-cymene Fruit 6,240 9,512
Phenols Plant 3,800
Phosphorus Fruit 4,430 4,784
Phytin-phosphorus Fruit 2,960 3,197
Potassium Fruit 13,900 15,011
Protein Fruit 150,000 184,665
Riboflavin Fruit 2.8 3
Sodium Fruit 560 605
Thiamin Fruit 2.1 2.3
Thymol Fruit 3,633 33,000
Fruit 13,560 19,400
Water Fruit 74,000
Zinc Fruit 43
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]