Symphytum officinale Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
boneset comfrey common comfrey consound healingherb knitbone slippery-root

Symphytum officinale is a perennial flowering plant of the genus Symphytum in the family Boraginaceae. Along with thirty four other species of Symphytum, it is known as comfrey. To differentiate it from other members of the genus Symphytum, this species is known as common comfrey or true comfrey. Other English names include Quaker comfrey, cultivated comfrey, boneset, knitbone, consound, and slippery-root. It is native to Europe and it is known elsewhere, including North America, as an introduced species and sometimes a weed.

Symphytum officinale

Medical use

Economic importance of Symphytum officinale

Environmental ornamental soil improver
Animal food forage
Materials gum/resin lipids
Medicines folklore
Vertebrate poisons mamals

Gallery

Symphytum officinale Symphytum officinale Symphytum officinale Symphytum officinale Symphytum officinale Symphytum officinale Symphytum officinale Symphytum officinale Symphytum officinale Symphytum officinale Symphytum officinale Symphytum officinale

Geografical distribution

  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Western Asia: Turkey
    • Caucasus: Russian Federation - Ciscaucasia
    • Siberia: Russian Federation - Western Siberia
    • Middle Asia: Kazakhstan
  • EUROPE
    Native
    • Northern Europe: United Kingdom
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czech Republic; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Slovakia; Switzerland
    • East Europe: Belarus; Moldova; Russian Federation - European part; Ukraine
    • Southeastern Europe: Bulgaria; Croatia; Italy ; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia
    • Southwestern Europe: France; Spain

Biological activities

ABeta-Inhibitor
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
ACE-Inhibitor
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
AP-1-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Acetylcholinergic
Glucose found in Root
Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Adenylate-Cyclase-Inhibitor
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Aggregant
Sucrose found in Root
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Allelochemic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Allergenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Analeptic
Gaba found in Root
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Fiber found in Root (72000 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (17000 ppm);found in Root (15900 ppm)
Anorexic
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Anthelmintic
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)
AntiAGE
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (1.8 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
AntiBPH
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
AntiCFS
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (1.8 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
AntiCTS
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
AntiEBV
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
AntiHIV
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
AntiLegionella
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
AntiLyme
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (7.2 ppm);found in Root (7.2 ppm)
Thiamin found in Root (1.2 ppm)
AntiMS
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
AntiNF-kB
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
AntiPMS
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (18000 ppm);found in Root (11300 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (5.8 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Antiacne
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (1.8 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Tin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm);found in Root (6.7 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antiacrodermatitic
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antiacrodynic
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Antiadenoviral
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Antiaggregant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Antiaging
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chromium found in Leaf (1.8 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Antiakathisic
Iron found in Leaf (12 ppm);found in Root (810 ppm)
Antialcoholic
Fructose found in Root
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (5.8 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Thiamin found in Root (1.2 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antiallergic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (18000 ppm);found in Root (11300 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Antialopecic
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antialzheimeran
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Choline found in Root
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Thiamin found in Root (1.2 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antiamblyopic
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Antianaphylactic
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Antianemic
Iron found in Leaf (12 ppm);found in Root (810 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (5.8 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Antianginal
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Antiangiogenic
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antianorectic
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Thiamin found in Root (1.2 ppm)
Antianorexic
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antianxiety
Calcium found in Leaf (18000 ppm);found in Root (11300 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Antiarabiflavinotic
Riboflavin found in Leaf (7.2 ppm);found in Root (7.2 ppm)
Antiarrhythmic
Calcium found in Leaf (18000 ppm);found in Root (11300 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (17000 ppm);found in Root (15900 ppm)
Antiarteriosclerotic
Silicon found in Leaf (9 ppm);found in Root (35 ppm)
Antiarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (18000 ppm);found in Root (11300 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (5.8 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Antiatherogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Antiatherosclerotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (18000 ppm);found in Root (11300 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Chromium found in Leaf (1.8 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Antibackache
Thiamin found in Root (1.2 ppm)
Antibacterial
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)
Tin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm);found in Root (6.7 ppm)
Antiberiberi
Thiamin found in Root (1.2 ppm)
Anticancer
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)
Anticanker
Iron found in Leaf (12 ppm);found in Root (810 ppm)
Thiamin found in Root (1.2 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Anticarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Anticarcinomic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Anticardiospasmic
Thiamin found in Root (1.2 ppm)
Anticariogenic
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)
Anticarpal-Tunnel
Riboflavin found in Leaf (7.2 ppm);found in Root (7.2 ppm)
Anticataract
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (7.2 ppm);found in Root (7.2 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Thiamin found in Root (1.2 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Anticephalagic
Gaba found in Root
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (7.2 ppm);found in Root (7.2 ppm)
Anticerebrotic
Gaba found in Root
Anticervicaldysplasic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (7.2 ppm);found in Root (7.2 ppm)
Anticheilitic
Iron found in Leaf (12 ppm);found in Root (810 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (7.2 ppm);found in Root (7.2 ppm)
Antichilblain
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Antichoreic
Choline found in Root
Gaba found in Root
Anticirrhotic
Choline found in Root
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Anticlimacteric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (18000 ppm);found in Root (11300 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Anticoagulant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Anticoeliac
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Anticold
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Anticolitic
Thiamin found in Root (1.2 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Anticomplementary
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Anticonvulsant
Gaba found in Root
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Anticorneotic
Chromium found in Leaf (1.8 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Anticoronary
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Anticystinuric
Choline found in Root
Antidandruff
Allantoin found in Leaf (13000 ppm);found in Leaf (20000 ppm);found in Root (25500 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antidecubitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (7.2 ppm);found in Root (7.2 ppm)
Thiamin found in Root (1.2 ppm)
Antideliriant
Thiamin found in Root (1.2 ppm)
Antidementia
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Choline found in Root
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Thiamin found in Root (1.2 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antidepressant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Calcium found in Leaf (18000 ppm);found in Root (11300 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (17000 ppm);found in Root (15900 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Antidermatitic
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Antidiabetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Choline found in Root
Chromium found in Leaf (1.8 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Fiber found in Root (72000 ppm)
Fructose found in Root
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (5.8 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Xylose found in Root
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antidiarrheic
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)
Antidiscotic
Manganese found in Leaf (5.8 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Antidysenteric
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)
Antidysgeuzic
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antidyskinetic
Choline found in Root
Manganese found in Leaf (5.8 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Antidysmenorrheic
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Antidyspeptic
Thiamin found in Root (1.2 ppm)
Antidysphagic
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Antieczemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antiedemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Glucose found in Root
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Antielastase
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Antiencephalitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Antiencephalopathic
Thiamin found in Root (1.2 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antiendometriotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Antienterotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Antiepileptic
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (5.8 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antiescherichic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Antifatigue
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (1.8 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (17000 ppm);found in Root (15900 ppm)
Thiamin found in Root (1.2 ppm)
Antifibromyalgic
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Antifibrotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antiflu
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Antifuruncular
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antigallstone
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Antigastritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Thiamin found in Root (1.2 ppm)
Antigastrotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Antigenotoxic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Antigingivitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Antiglaucomic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Antiglossitic
Riboflavin found in Leaf (7.2 ppm);found in Root (7.2 ppm)
Antiglycosuric
Chromium found in Leaf (1.8 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Antigonadotrophic
Lithospermic-acid found in Root
Antigonadotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Antigout
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Antihangover
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Fructose found in Root
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Thiamin found in Root (1.2 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antiheartburn
Thiamin found in Root (1.2 ppm)
Antihemolytic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Antihemorrhagic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Antihepatitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Antihepatoadenomic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Antihepatotoxic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Glucose found in Root
Glucuronic-acid found in Root
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Root
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)
Antiherpetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Thiamin found in Root (1.2 ppm)
Antihiccup
Sucrose found in Root
Antihistaminic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Antihomocysteine
Choline found in Root
Antihyperactivity
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Antihypercholesterolemic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Antihyperkeratotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Antihyperkinetic
Calcium found in Leaf (18000 ppm);found in Root (11300 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Antihypertensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (18000 ppm);found in Root (11300 ppm)
Fiber found in Root (72000 ppm)
Gaba found in Root
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (17000 ppm);found in Root (15900 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)
Antihyperthyroid
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Antihypoglycemic
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Antiichythyotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Antiimpotence
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antiinfective
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antiinfertility
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antiinflammatory
Allantoin found in Leaf (13000 ppm);found in Leaf (20000 ppm);found in Root (25500 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Root
Antiinsomniac
Calcium found in Leaf (18000 ppm);found in Root (11300 ppm)
Gaba found in Root
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antiinsomnic
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Antiintegrase
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Antikeratitic
Riboflavin found in Leaf (7.2 ppm);found in Root (7.2 ppm)
Antikeshan
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Antiketotic
Fructose found in Root
Glucose found in Root
Antilepric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antilethargic
Gaba found in Root
Antileukemic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Antileukonychic
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antileukoplakic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Antileukotriene
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Antilipolytic
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)
Antilipoperoxidant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Antilithic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Antilupus
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Antilymphomic
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antimaculitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antimanic
Choline found in Root
Antimastalgic
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Antimastitic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Antimeasles
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Antimelanogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Antimelanomic
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Antimenopausal
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (18000 ppm);found in Root (11300 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Antimenorrhagic
Iron found in Leaf (12 ppm);found in Root (810 ppm)
Antimetastatic
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antimigraine
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (7.2 ppm);found in Root (7.2 ppm)
Thiamin found in Root (1.2 ppm)
Antimitral-valve-prolapse
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Antimutagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)
Antimyalgic
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Antimyocarditic
Thiamin found in Root (1.2 ppm)
Antinauseant
Fructose found in Root
Antinephritic
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)
Antinephrolytic
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Antineuralgic
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Thiamin found in Root (1.2 ppm)
Antineuramidase
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Antineurasthenic
Thiamin found in Root (1.2 ppm)
Antineuritic
Thiamin found in Root (1.2 ppm)
Antineuropathic
Thiamin found in Root (1.2 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antineurotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Antinitrosaminic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Antinitrosic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Antinociceptive
Choline found in Root
Stigmasterol found in Root
Antinyctalopic
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antiobesity
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (18000 ppm);found in Root (11300 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (1.8 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Fiber found in Root (72000 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antionychyotic
Silicon found in Leaf (9 ppm);found in Root (35 ppm)
Antiophidic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Stigmasterol found in Root
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)
Antiophthalmic
Sucrose found in Root
Antiorchitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Antiosteoarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Antiosteoporotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (18000 ppm);found in Root (11300 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (5.8 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (2200 ppm);found in Root (2111 ppm)
Silicon found in Leaf (9 ppm);found in Root (35 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antiototic
Manganese found in Leaf (5.8 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Antioxidant
Allantoin found in Leaf (13000 ppm);found in Leaf (20000 ppm);found in Root (25500 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Manganese found in Leaf (5.8 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (7.2 ppm);found in Root (7.2 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Root
Sucrose found in Root
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)
Antiozenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Antipapillomic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Antiparkinsonian
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Antiparotitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Antipellagric
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (7.2 ppm);found in Root (7.2 ppm)
Antipeptic
Allantoin found in Leaf (13000 ppm);found in Leaf (20000 ppm);found in Root (25500 ppm)
Antiperiodontitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (18000 ppm);found in Root (11300 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antiperoxidant
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Antiphotophobic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (7.2 ppm);found in Root (7.2 ppm)
Antipityriasic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Antiplaque
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antipneumonic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Antipodriac
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Antipolio
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Antipoliomyelitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Thiamin found in Root (1.2 ppm)
Antiporphyric
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Antiprolactin
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antiproliferant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Antiprostaglandin
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Antiprostatitic
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antiproteolytic
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Antipsoriac
Allantoin found in Leaf (13000 ppm);found in Leaf (20000 ppm);found in Root (25500 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Antipulmonotic
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Antipyretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Antiradicular
Allantoin found in Leaf (13000 ppm);found in Leaf (20000 ppm);found in Root (25500 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)
Antirenitic
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)
Antiretinopathic
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Antiretinotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Antirheumatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (18000 ppm);found in Root (11300 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antirhinitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Antiscorbutic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Antiscotomic
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Antiseptic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antishingles
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Antishock
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Antisickling
Asparagine found in Root (30000 ppm)
Antisilicotic
Aluminum found in Leaf (237 ppm);found in Root (237 ppm)
Antispare-Tire
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antispasmodic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (17000 ppm);found in Root (15900 ppm)
Antispasmophilic
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Antistaphylococcic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Antisteatotic
Choline found in Root
Antistomatitic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antistress
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (18000 ppm);found in Root (11300 ppm)
Gaba found in Root
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Antistroke
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (17000 ppm);found in Root (15900 ppm)
Antisunburn
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Antisyndrome-X
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (1.8 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (5.8 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antithiamin
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Antithyreotropic
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Antithyroid
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Lithospermic-acid found in Root
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Antitic
Calcium found in Leaf (18000 ppm);found in Root (11300 ppm)
Antitinnitic
Gaba found in Root
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antitriglyceride
Chromium found in Leaf (1.8 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antitumor-Promoter
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)
Antitumor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Fiber found in Root (72000 ppm)
Lasiocarpine found in Root
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)
Antiulcer
Allantoin found in Leaf (13000 ppm);found in Leaf (20000 ppm);found in Root (25500 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Fiber found in Root (72000 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Antiulcerogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Antiuremic
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Antivaccinia
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Antivaginitic
Aluminum found in Leaf (237 ppm);found in Root (237 ppm)
Antivaricose
Glucose found in Root
Antivertigo
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Antiviral
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Root
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)
Antixerophthalmic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Anxiolytic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Calcium found in Leaf (18000 ppm);found in Root (11300 ppm)
Gaba found in Root
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (2200 ppm);found in Root (2111 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (17000 ppm);found in Root (15900 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Apoptotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Artemicide
Stigmasterol found in Root
Asthma-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Astringent
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Atherogenic
Sucrose found in Root
Autotoxic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Beta-Blocker
Fiber found in Root (72000 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (17000 ppm);found in Root (15900 ppm)
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
CNS-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
CNS-Depressant
Consolidine found in Root (17 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
CNS-Inhibitor
Gaba found in Root
CNS-Paralytic
Consolicine found in Root
Consolidine found in Root (17 ppm)
CNS-Stimulant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
COX-1-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
COX-2-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Calcium-Antagonist
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Calcium-Channel-Blocker
Calcium found in Leaf (18000 ppm);found in Root (11300 ppm)
Cancer-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Fiber found in Root (72000 ppm)
Mucilage found in Root (290000 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (7.2 ppm);found in Root (7.2 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Root
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)
Candidicide
Aluminum found in Leaf (237 ppm);found in Root (237 ppm)
Carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Lasiocarpine found in Root
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)
Cardiodepressant
Choline found in Root
Cardiomyopathogenic
Cobalt found in Leaf ;found in Root (129 ppm)
Cardioprotective
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Chromium found in Leaf (1.8 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Fiber found in Root (72000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (17000 ppm);found in Root (15900 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Silicon found in Leaf (9 ppm);found in Root (35 ppm)
Cardiotonic
Lithospermic-acid found in Root
Cardiotoxic
Potassium found in Leaf (17000 ppm);found in Root (15900 ppm)
Cardiovascular
Gaba found in Root
Cerebrotonic
Choline found in Root
Chelator
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)
Chemopreventive
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Cholagogue
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Choleretic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Cholinergic
Choline found in Root
Circulotonic
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Clastogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Co-carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Cold-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Collagen-Sparing
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Collagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Collyrium
Sucrose found in Root
Colorant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Controlled
Echimidine found in Root
Copper-Antagonist
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Curaroid
Consolicine found in Root
Consolidine found in Root (17 ppm)
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)
Cytoprotective
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Cytotoxic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
DNA-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Root
DNA-Protective
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Demulcent
Mucilage found in Root (290000 ppm)
Sucrose found in Root
Deodorant
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Detoxicant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Glucuronic-acid found in Root
Diagnostic
Xylose found in Root
Diuretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Asparagine found in Root (30000 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Calcium found in Leaf (18000 ppm);found in Root (11300 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Fiber found in Root (72000 ppm)
Gaba found in Root
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (17000 ppm);found in Root (15900 ppm)
Dye
Xylose found in Root
Encephalopathic
Aluminum found in Leaf (237 ppm);found in Root (237 ppm)
Energizer
Chromium found in Leaf (1.8 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Ergogenic
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Erythrocytogenic
Cobalt found in Leaf ;found in Root (129 ppm)
Estrogenic
Stigmasterol found in Root
Fibrinolytic
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Flatugenic
Sucrose found in Root
Gastroprotective
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)
Hepatocarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Hepatoprotective
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Choline found in Root
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)
Hepatotoxic
Echimidine found in Root
Lasiocarpine found in Root
Lycopsamine found in Root
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Symphytine found in Root
Hepatotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Histamine-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Hypercholesterolemic
Sucrose found in Root
Hyperglycemic
Glucose found in Root
Hypertensive
Sodium found in Leaf (110 ppm);found in Root (3510 ppm)
Hypocholesterolemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (18000 ppm);found in Root (11300 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (1.8 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Fiber found in Root (72000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Mucilage found in Root (290000 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Root
Hypoglycemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Chromium found in Leaf (1.8 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (5.8 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Hypolipidemic
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Hypotensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (18000 ppm);found in Root (11300 ppm)
Choline found in Root
Chromium found in Leaf (1.8 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Fiber found in Root (72000 ppm)
Gaba found in Root
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (17000 ppm);found in Root (15900 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Hypouricemic
Fiber found in Root (72000 ppm)
Ileorelaxant
Choline found in Root
Immunomodulator
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (1.8 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Immunostimulant
Allantoin found in Leaf (13000 ppm);found in Leaf (20000 ppm);found in Root (25500 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Mucopolysaccharides found in Root (300000 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (2200 ppm);found in Root (2111 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Immunosuppressant
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Insectifuge
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Thiamin found in Root (1.2 ppm)
Insulinogenic
Chromium found in Leaf (1.8 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Interferon-Synergist
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Interferonogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Juvabional
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Keratolytic
Allantoin found in Leaf (13000 ppm);found in Leaf (20000 ppm);found in Root (25500 ppm)
Larvistat
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Laxative
Calcium found in Leaf (18000 ppm);found in Root (11300 ppm)
Fiber found in Root (72000 ppm)
Fructose found in Root
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Leptingenic
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Leukotriene-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Lipotropic
Choline found in Root
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)
Lithogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Litholytic
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Lyase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Root
MAO-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)
Memorigenic
Choline found in Root
Chromium found in Leaf (1.8 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Memory-Enhancer
Glucose found in Root
Metal-Chelator
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Mucogenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Mucolytic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Mutagenic
Echimidine found in Root
Myoparalytic
Consolicine found in Root
Consolidine found in Root (17 ppm)
Myorelaxant
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
NO-Genic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Neoplastic
Fructose found in Root
Neuroinhibitor
Gaba found in Root
Neuroprotective
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Thiamin found in Root (1.2 ppm)
Neurotoxic
Gaba found in Root
Neurotransmitter
Gaba found in Root
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)
Osteogenic
Phosphorus found in Leaf (2200 ppm);found in Root (2111 ppm)
Oviposition-Stimulant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Ovulant
Stigmasterol found in Root
Parasympathomimetic
Choline found in Root
Pesticide
Aluminum found in Leaf (237 ppm);found in Root (237 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)
Thiamin found in Root (1.2 ppm)
Tin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm);found in Root (6.7 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Phagocytotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Preservative
Sucrose found in Root
Prooxidant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Iron found in Leaf (12 ppm);found in Root (810 ppm)
Prostaglandigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Prostaglandin-Sparer
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Psychotropic
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)
Radioprotective
Rosmarinic-acid found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Sedative
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Gaba found in Root
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Root
Serotoninergic
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Spermigenic
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Sunscreen
Allantoin found in Leaf (13000 ppm);found in Leaf (20000 ppm);found in Root (25500 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Suppurative
Allantoin found in Leaf (13000 ppm);found in Leaf (20000 ppm);found in Root (25500 ppm)
Sweetener
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Fructose found in Root
Sucrose found in Root
Taenicide
Tin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm);found in Root (6.7 ppm)
Testosteronigenic
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Thymoprotective
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Tranquilizer
Calcium found in Leaf (18000 ppm);found in Root (11300 ppm)
Gaba found in Root
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Trichomonicide
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Triglycerigenic
Sucrose found in Root
Tumorigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Ubiquiot
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (108 ppm);found in Root (660 ppm)
Uricogenic
Sucrose found in Root
Uricosuric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Urinary-Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Uterorelaxant
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
VEGF-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Leaf (1.2 ppm);found in Root (5.7 ppm)
Vasodilator
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (18000 ppm);found in Root (11300 ppm)
Fiber found in Root (72000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (1700 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (89 ppm);found in Root (67 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (17000 ppm);found in Root (15900 ppm)
Vulnerary
Allantoin found in Leaf (13000 ppm);found in Leaf (20000 ppm);found in Root (25500 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm);found in Root (132 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Root
Sucrose found in Root
Zinc found in Leaf ;found in Root (2.8 ppm)
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Tannin found in Plant (90000 ppm)

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
Allantoin Leaf 13,000
Leaf 1,100 20,000
Root 6,000 25,500
Aluminum Leaf 26 237
Root 237
Ascorbic-acid Leaf 88 800
Root 132
Ash Leaf 3,960 36,000
Root 140,000
Asparagine Root 10,000 30,000
Beta-carotene Leaf 12 108
Root 660
Bornesitol Root
Caffeic-acid Root
Calcium Leaf 1,980 18,000
Root 11,300
Carbohydrates Leaf 83,490 759,000
Root 759,000
Carotenes Plant 6,300
Chlorogenic-acid Root
Choline Root
Chromium Leaf 0.2 1.8
Root 8
Cobalt Leaf
Root 129
Consolicine Root
Consolidine Root 17
D-mannose Root
Echimidine Root
Echinatine Root
Fat Leaf 1,320 12,000
Root 17,000
Fiber Root 72,000
Fiber(crude) Leaf 90,000
Fiber(dietary) Leaf 480,000
Fructose Root
Gaba Root
Glucose Root
Glucuronic-acid Root
Gum Root 50,000 100,000
Heliosupine-n-oxide Root
Hypoxanthine Root
Iron Leaf 1.3 12
Root 810
Isobanerenol Root
Kilocalories Root 2,170
L-arabinose Root
L-rhamnose Root
Lasiocarpine Root
Lithospermic-acid Root
Lycopsamine Root
Magnesium Leaf 77 700
Root 1,700
Manganese Leaf 0.6 5.8
Root 67
Mucilage Root 290,000
Mucopolysaccharides Root 250,000 300,000
Niacin Leaf 10 89
Root 67
Octadecatetraenic-acid Seed
Phosphorus Leaf 242 2,200
Root 2,111
Potassium Leaf 1,870 17,000
Root 15,900
Protein Leaf 15,400 140,000
Root 94,000
Pyrocatechins Root 24,000
Reducing-sugars Root 51,500
Resin Root
Riboflavin Leaf 0.8 7.2
Root 7.2
Rosmarinic-acid Leaf 5,000
Selenium Leaf 0.1 1.2
Root 5.7
Silicic-acid Leaf 40,000
Root
Silicon Leaf 1 9
Root 35
Sitosterol Root
Sodium Leaf 12 110
Root 3,510
Stigmasterol Root
Sucrose Root
Sugars Leaf 9,900 90,000
Symlandine Plant
Symphytine Root
Symphytocynoglossin Root 21
Tannin Plant 80,000 90,000
Thiamin Root 1.2
Thiamine Leaf 0.2 2.2
Tin Leaf 0.7 6.7
Root 6.7
Viridiflorine Plant
Water Leaf 890,000
Root 862,000
Xylose Root
Zinc Leaf
Root 2.8
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]