Sonchus oleraceus Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
annual sow thistle common milk thistle common sow thistle hare's-lettuce milk thistle smooth sow thistle sow thistle

Sonchus oleraceus is native to Asia and Europe. The Latin name Sonchus refers to the hollow stem, while oleraceus refers to its good taste. The common name sow thistle refers to its attractiveness to swine, and the similarity of the leaf to younger thistle plants. The common name hare's thistle refers to its purported beneficial effects on hare and rabbits.

Sonchus oleraceus

Medical use

Economic importance of Sonchus oleraceus

Medicines folklore
Weed potential sed contaminant

Gallery

Sonchus oleraceus Sonchus oleraceus Sonchus oleraceus Sonchus oleraceus Sonchus oleraceus Sonchus oleraceus Sonchus oleraceus Sonchus oleraceus Sonchus oleraceus Sonchus oleraceus Sonchus oleraceus Sonchus oleraceus

Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Native
    • Macaronesia: Portugal - Madeira Islands; Spain - Canary Islands
    • Northern Africa: Algeria; Egypt; Libya; Morocco; Tunisia
    Naturalized
    • Macaronesia: Cape Verde; Portugal - Azores
    • Northeast Tropical Africa: Eritrea; Ethiopia; Somalia; Yemen - Socotra
    • East Tropical Africa: Kenya; Tanzania; Uganda
    • West-Central Tropical Africa: Burundi; Cameroon; Equatorial Guinea; Rwanda; Zaire
    • West Tropical Africa: Guinea; Mali; Nigeria; Senegal
    • South Tropical Africa: Angola; Malawi; Mozambique; Zambia; Zimbabwe
    • Southern Africa: Botswana; Lesotho; Namibia; South Africa; Swaziland
    • Western Indian Ocean: Mauritius; Reunion
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Western Asia: Afghanistan; Cyprus; Egypt - Sinai; Iran; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey
    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation - Ciscaucasia, Dagestan
    • Siberia: Russian Federation - Altay, Eastern Siberia, Western Siberia
    • Middle Asia: Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan
    • Russian Far East: Russian Federation - Amur, Magadan, Primorye, Sakhalin
    • Eastern Asia: Korea
    Naturalized
    • Arabian Peninsula: Oman; Yemen
    • Mongolia: Mongolia
    • China: China
    • Eastern Asia: Taiwan
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Native
    • Indian Subcontinent: Pakistan
    Naturalized
    • Indian Subcontinent: Bhutan; India; Nepal; Sri Lanka
    • Indo-China: Cambodia; Myanmar; Thailand; Vietnam
    • Malesia: Indonesia; Malaysia; Papua New Guinea; Philippines
  • AUSTRALASIA
    Naturalized
    • Australia: Australia
    • New Zealand: New Zealand
  • EUROPE
    Native
    • Northern Europe: Denmark; Finland; Ireland; Norway; Sweden; United Kingdom
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czech Republic; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Slovakia; Switzerland
    • East Europe: Belarus; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Russian Federation - European part; Ukraine
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Greece ; Italy ; Macedonia; Montenegro; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia
    • Southwestern Europe: France ; Portugal; Spain
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Naturalized
    • Subarctic America: Canada - Northwest Territory; Greenland; United States - Alaska
    • Eastern Canada: Canada - New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec; St. Pierre and Miquelon
    • Western Canada: Canada - Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Saskatchewan
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wisconsin
    • Northwestern U.S.A.: United States - Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia
    • South-Central U.S.A.: United States - New Mexico, Texas
    • Southwestern U.S.A.: United States - Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah
    • Northern Mexico: Mexico - Baja Norte, Baja Sur, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Zacatecas
    • Southern Mexico: Mexico - Campeche, Chiapas, Colima, Federal District, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana Roo, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Yucatan
  • PACIFIC
    Naturalized
    • North-Central Pacific: U.S. Outlying Islands - Johnston Atoll, Midway Islands; United States - Hawaii
    • Northwestern Pacific: Guam; Marshall Islands; Micronesia - Pohnpei; U.S. Outlying Islands - Wake Island
    • South-Central Pacific: Cook Islands; French Polynesia; Kiribati - Line Islands; Pitcairn
    • Southwestern Pacific: Fiji; Kiribati - Gilbert Islands; New Caledonia; Niue; Tonga; Wallis and Futuna Islands

Biological activities

Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Luteolin-7-glucoside found in Plant
Luteolin-7-glucuronide found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Allelochemic
Scopoletin found in Plant
Allergenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Analgesic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
Thiamin found in Leaf (19 ppm)
Anesthetic
Scopoletin found in Plant
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (59000 ppm)
AntiAGE
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
AntiCFS
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
AntiCTS
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
AntiLyme
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (16 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (19 ppm)
AntiPMS
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (19265 ppm)
Antiacne
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Antiacrodynic
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Antiadrenergic
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antiaflatoxin
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antiaggregant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Antiaging
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Antiakathisic
Iron found in Leaf (455 ppm)
Antialcoholic
Thiamin found in Leaf (19 ppm)
Antiallergic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (19265 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Antialzheimeran
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (19 ppm)
Antiamblyopic
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Antianemic
Iron found in Leaf (455 ppm)
Antianginal
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Antianorectic
Thiamin found in Leaf (19 ppm)
Antianxiety
Calcium found in Leaf (19265 ppm)
Antiarrhythmic
Calcium found in Leaf (19265 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antiarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (19265 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antiatherosclerotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (19265 ppm)
Antibackache
Thiamin found in Leaf (19 ppm)
Antibacterial
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antiberiberi
Thiamin found in Leaf (19 ppm)
Antibronchoconstrictor
Scopoletin found in Plant
Anticancer
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Anticanker
Iron found in Leaf (455 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (19 ppm)
Anticarcinomic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Anticardiospasmic
Thiamin found in Leaf (19 ppm)
Anticarpal-Tunnel
Riboflavin found in Leaf (16 ppm)
Anticataract
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (16 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (19 ppm)
Anticephalagic
Riboflavin found in Leaf (16 ppm)
Anticervicaldysplasic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (16 ppm)
Anticheilitic
Iron found in Leaf (455 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (16 ppm)
Antichilblain
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Anticholinergic
Scopoletin found in Plant
Anticold
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Anticonvulsant
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Anticoronary
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Antidecubitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (16 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (19 ppm)
Antideliriant
Thiamin found in Leaf (19 ppm)
Antidementia
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (19 ppm)
Antidepressant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (19265 ppm)
Antidermatic
Luteolin-7-glucoside found in Plant
Antidermatitic
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Antidiabetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (59000 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Antidyspeptic
Thiamin found in Leaf (19 ppm)
Antidysphagic
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Antieczemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Antiedemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
Taraxasterol found in Plant
Antiencephalitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Antiencephalopathic
Thiamin found in Leaf (19 ppm)
Antifatigue
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (19 ppm)
Antifeedant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antifibrotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Antigallstone
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Antigastritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (19 ppm)
Antigingivitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Antiglaucomic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Antiglossitic
Riboflavin found in Leaf (16 ppm)
Antihangover
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (19 ppm)
Antiheartburn
Thiamin found in Leaf (19 ppm)
Antihemorrhagic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Antihepatitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Antihepatotoxic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antiherpetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Luteolin-7-glucoside found in Plant
Thiamin found in Leaf (19 ppm)
Antihistaminic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Antihyperactivity
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Antihyperkeratotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Antihyperkinetic
Calcium found in Leaf (19265 ppm)
Antihypertensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (19265 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (59000 ppm)
Antiichythyotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Antiinfertility
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Antiinflammatory
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Luteolin-7-glucoside found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Taraxasterol found in Plant
Antiinsomniac
Calcium found in Leaf (19265 ppm)
Antiinsomnic
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Antikeratitic
Riboflavin found in Leaf (16 ppm)
Antilepric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Antileukoplakic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Antileukotrienogenic
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antilipoperoxidant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Antilithic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Antilupus
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Antimaculitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Antimastitic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Antimeasles
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Antimenopausal
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (19265 ppm)
Antimenorrhagic
Iron found in Leaf (455 ppm)
Antimigraine
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (16 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (19 ppm)
Antimutagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antimyocarditic
Thiamin found in Leaf (19 ppm)
Antineuralgic
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (19 ppm)
Antineuramidase
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Antineurasthenic
Thiamin found in Leaf (19 ppm)
Antineuritic
Thiamin found in Leaf (19 ppm)
Antineuropathic
Thiamin found in Leaf (19 ppm)
Antinitrosic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Antiobesity
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (19265 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (59000 ppm)
Antiorchitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Antiosteoarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Antiosteoporotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (19265 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (5440 ppm)
Antioxidant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Luteolin-7-glucuronide found in Plant
Riboflavin found in Leaf (16 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antiozenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Antipapillomic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Antiparkinsonian
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Antiparotitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Antipellagric
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (16 ppm)
Antiperiodontitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (19265 ppm)
Antiphotophobic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (16 ppm)
Antipityriasic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Antipneumonic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Antipodriac
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Antipoliomyelitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (19 ppm)
Antiporphyric
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Antiproliferant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antiprostaglandin
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antipsoriac
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Antipyretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Antiradicular
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Antiretinotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Antirheumatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (19265 ppm)
Antirhinitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Antiscorbutic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Antiscotomic
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Antiseptic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antishingles
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Antispasmodic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antistress
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (19265 ppm)
Antisyndrome-X
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Antitic
Calcium found in Leaf (19265 ppm)
Antitumor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (59000 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antiulcer
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (59000 ppm)
Antivertigo
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Antiviral
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Luteolin-7-glucoside found in Plant
Antixerophthalmic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Anxiolytic
Calcium found in Leaf (19265 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (5440 ppm)
Apoptotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
Asthma-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Beta-Blocker
Fiber found in Leaf (59000 ppm)
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Bronchorelaxant
Scopoletin found in Plant
CNS-Depressant
Scopoletin found in Plant
CNS-Stimulant
Scopoletin found in Plant
COX-1-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
COX-2-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Calcium-Antagonist
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Calcium-Channel-Blocker
Calcium found in Leaf (19265 ppm)
Cancer-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (59000 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (16 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
Cardioprotective
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (59000 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Chemopreventive
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Cholagogue
Scopoletin found in Plant
Choleretic
Scopoletin found in Plant
Cold-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Collagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Colorant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Cytotoxic
Scopoletin found in Plant
Detoxicant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Diuretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (19265 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (59000 ppm)
Fibrinolytic
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Fistula-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Fungicide
Scopoletin found in Plant
Gastroprotective
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Hepatoprotective
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
Hepatotoxic
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Herbicide
Scopoletin found in Plant
Hypocholesterolemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (19265 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (59000 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Hypoglycemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
Hypolipidemic
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Hypotensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (19265 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (59000 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
Hypouricemic
Fiber found in Leaf (59000 ppm)
Immunomodulator
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Immunostimulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (5440 ppm)
Insectifuge
Thiamin found in Leaf (19 ppm)
Interferon-Synergist
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Interferonogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Laxative
Calcium found in Leaf (19265 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (59000 ppm)
Lithogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
MAO-Inhibitor
Scopoletin found in Plant
Mucogenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Mucolytic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Musculotropic
Scopoletin found in Plant
Myorelaxant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Neuroprotective
Thiamin found in Leaf (19 ppm)
Osteogenic
Phosphorus found in Leaf (5440 ppm)
Pesticide
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Luteolin-7-glucoside found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Thiamin found in Leaf (19 ppm)
Phagocytotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Phytoalexin
Scopoletin found in Plant
Phytohormonal
Scopoletin found in Plant
Prooxidant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Iron found in Leaf (455 ppm)
Sedative
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Serotoninergic
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Thymoprotective
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Tranquilizer
Calcium found in Leaf (19265 ppm)
Ubiquiot
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (545 ppm)
Uricosuric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Urinary-Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Uterosedative
Scopoletin found in Plant
Vasodilator
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (19265 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (59000 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (118 ppm)
Vulnerary
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (625 ppm)

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
Apigenin-7-glucuronide Plant
Ascorbic-acid Leaf 50 625
Ash Leaf 16,000 235,000
Beta-carotene Leaf 14 545
Calcium Leaf 1,310 19,265
Caoutchouc Stem 1,440
Carbohydrates Leaf 30,000 488,000
Fat Leaf 3,000 44,000
Fiber Leaf 4,000 59,000
Iron Leaf 31 455
Kilocalories Leaf 180 2,650
Luteolin-7-glucoside Plant
Luteolin-7-glucosylglucuronide Plant
Luteolin-7-glucuronide Plant
Niacin Leaf 8 118
Phosphorus Leaf 370 5,440
Protein Leaf 19,000 300,000
Riboflavin Leaf 1 16
Scopoletin Plant
Taraxasterol Plant
Thiamin Leaf 0.7 19
Water Leaf 920,000 932,000
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]