Sida rhombifolia Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
arrowleaf sida broomjue sida common sida Cuban-jute paddy-lucerne Queensland-hemp sida-retusa sidaweed teaweed

Sida rhombifolia is a perennial or sometimes annual plant in the Family Malvaceae, native to the New World tropics and subtropics. Other common names include Paddy’s lucerne, jelly leaf, and also somewhat confusingly as Cuban jute, Queensland hemp, and Indian hemp. Synonyms include Malva rhombifolia. It is used in Ayurvedic medicine, where it is known as kurumthotti. The stems are erect to sprawling and branched, growing 50 to 120 centimeters in height, with the lower sections being woody. The dark green, diamond-shaped leaves are arranged alternately along the stem, 4 to 8 centimeters long, with petioles that are less than a third of the length of the leaves. They are paler below, with short, grayish hairs. The apical half of the leaves have toothed or serrated margins while the remainder of the leaves are entire. The petioles have small spiny stipules at their bases. The moderately delicate flowers occur singly on flower stalks that arise from the area between the stems and leaf petioles. They consist of five petals that are 4 to 8 millimeters long, creamy to orange-yellow in color, and may be somewhat reddish in the center.

Sida rhombifolia

Medical use

Economic importance of Sida rhombifolia

Materials fiber
Medicines folklore
Vertebrate poisons mamals
Weed potential sed contaminant

Gallery

Sida rhombifolia Sida rhombifolia Sida rhombifolia Sida rhombifolia Sida rhombifolia Sida rhombifolia Sida rhombifolia Sida rhombifolia Sida rhombifolia Sida rhombifolia Sida rhombifolia Sida rhombifolia Sida rhombifolia Sida rhombifolia Sida rhombifolia Sida rhombifolia Sida rhombifolia

Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Native
    • Macaronesia: Cape Verde
    • Northeast Tropical Africa: Eritrea; Ethiopia; Sudan
    • East Tropical Africa: Kenya; Tanzania; Uganda
    • West-Central Tropical Africa: Cameroon; Equatorial Guinea; Rwanda; Zaire
    • West Tropical Africa: Ghana; Guinea; Liberia; Niger; Nigeria; Sierra Leone; Togo
    • South Tropical Africa: Angola; Malawi; Mozambique; Zambia; Zimbabwe
    • Southern Africa: Botswana; Lesotho; South Africa - Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West, Northern Cape; Swaziland
    • Western Indian Ocean: Madagascar; Mauritius; Reunion
    Naturalized
    • Macaronesia: Portugal - Azores, Madeira Islands; Spain - Canary Islands
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Arabian Peninsula: Yemen
    • Western Asia: Egypt - Sinai
    • China: China - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Sichuan, Yunnan
    • Eastern Asia: Taiwan
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Native
    • Indian Subcontinent: Bhutan; India; Nepal; Sri Lanka
    • Indo-China: Cambodia; Laos; Thailand; Vietnam
    • Malesia: Indonesia; Malaysia; Papua New Guinea; Philippines
  • AUSTRALASIA
    Naturalized
    • Australia: Australia - New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, Victoria, Western Australia
    • New Zealand: New Zealand - North Island
  • EUROPE
    Naturalized
    • Southwestern Europe: Portugal
    Adventive
    • Southwestern Europe: France; Spain
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Native
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - New Jersey, Pennsylvania
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Kansas, Oklahoma
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia
    • South-Central U.S.A.: United States - Texas
    • Southwestern U.S.A.: United States - Arizona, California
    • Northern Mexico: Mexico - Baja California, Chihuahua, Durango, Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Zacatecas
    • Southern Mexico: Mexico - Chiapas, Colima, Federal District, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Tabasco, Veracruz
  • PACIFIC
    Naturalized
    • North-Central Pacific: United States - Hawaii
    • Northwestern Pacific: Guam; Marshall Islands; Micronesia; Northern Mariana Islands
    • Southwestern Pacific: Fiji
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Native
    • Caribbean: Antigua and Barbuda; Bahamas; Barbados; Cuba; Dominican Republic; Guadeloupe; Haiti; Jamaica; Martinique; Netherlands Antilles; Puerto Rico; St. Kitts and Nevis; St. Lucia; St. Vincent and Grenadines
    • Mesoamerica: Belize; Costa Rica; El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Nicaragua; Panama
    • Northern South America: French Guiana; Guyana; Suriname; Venezuela
    • Brazil: Brazil
    • Western South America: Bolivia; Ecuador; Peru
    • Southern South America: Argentina; Paraguay; Uruguay

Biological activities

Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Adrenergic
Ephedrine found in Root
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Allergenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Ephedrine found in Root
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Analgesic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Anesthetic
Ephedrine found in Root
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (167000 ppm)
AntiAGE
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
AntiCFS
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
AntiCTS
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
AntiLyme
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (24 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (11 ppm)
AntiPMS
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (23535 ppm)
Antiacne
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Antiacrodynic
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Antiaggregant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Antiaging
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Antiakathisic
Iron found in Leaf (253 ppm)
Antialcoholic
Thiamin found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Antiallergic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (23535 ppm)
Ephedrine found in Root
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Antiamblyopic
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Antianaphylactic
Ephedrine found in Root
Antianemic
Iron found in Leaf (253 ppm)
Antianginal
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Antianorectic
Thiamin found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Antianxiety
Calcium found in Leaf (23535 ppm)
Antiappetant
Ephedrine found in Root
Antiarabiflavinotic
Riboflavin found in Leaf (24 ppm)
Antiarachidonate
Ephedrine found in Root
Antiarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (23535 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Ephedrine found in Root
Antiatherosclerotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (23535 ppm)
Antibackache
Thiamin found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Antibacterial
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Antiberiberi
Thiamin found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Antibronchitic
Ephedrine found in Root
Anticancer
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Anticanker
Iron found in Leaf (253 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Anticarcinomic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Anticardiospasmic
Thiamin found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Anticarpal-Tunnel
Riboflavin found in Leaf (24 ppm)
Anticataract
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (24 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Anticephalagic
Riboflavin found in Leaf (24 ppm)
Anticervicaldysplasic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (24 ppm)
Anticheilitic
Iron found in Leaf (253 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (24 ppm)
Antichilblain
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Anticholinesterase
Ephedrine found in Root
Anticlimacteric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (23535 ppm)
Anticold
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Anticolitic
Thiamin found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Anticonvulsant
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Anticoronary
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Antidecubitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (24 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Antideliriant
Thiamin found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Antidementia
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Antidepressant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (23535 ppm)
Antidermatitic
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Antidiabetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (167000 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Antidyspeptic
Thiamin found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Antidysphagic
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Antieczemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Antiedemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Ephedrine found in Root
Antiemphysemic
Ephedrine found in Root
Antiencephalitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Antiencephalopathic
Thiamin found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Antiendometriotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Antienuretic
Ephedrine found in Root
Antiepileptic
Ephedrine found in Root
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Antifatigue
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Antifibrotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Antigallstone
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Antigastritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Antigingivitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Antiglaucomic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Antiglossitic
Riboflavin found in Leaf (24 ppm)
Antihangover
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Antiheartburn
Thiamin found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Antihemorrhagic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Antihepatotoxic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Antiherpetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Ephedrine found in Root
Thiamin found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Antihiccup
Ephedrine found in Root
Antihistaminic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Ephedrine found in Root
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Antihyperkeratotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Antihyperkinetic
Calcium found in Leaf (23535 ppm)
Antihypertensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (23535 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (167000 ppm)
Antiichythyotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Antiinfertility
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Antiinflammatory
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Ephedrine found in Root
Antiinsomniac
Calcium found in Leaf (23535 ppm)
Antikeratitic
Riboflavin found in Leaf (24 ppm)
Antilepric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Antileukoplakic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Antilipoperoxidant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Antilithic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Antilupus
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Antimaculitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Antimastitic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Antimeasles
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Antimenopausal
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (23535 ppm)
Antimenorrhagic
Iron found in Leaf (253 ppm)
Antimigraine
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (24 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Antimutagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Antimyasthenic
Ephedrine found in Root
Antimyocarditic
Thiamin found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Antinarcoleptic
Ephedrine found in Root
Antineuralgic
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Antineuramidase
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Antineurasthenic
Thiamin found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Antineuritic
Thiamin found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Antineuropathic
Thiamin found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Antinitrosic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Antiobesity
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (23535 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (167000 ppm)
Antiorchitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Antiosteoarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Antiosteoporotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (23535 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (2930 ppm)
Antioxidant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (24 ppm)
Antiozenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Antipapillomic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Antiparkinsonian
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Antiparotitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Antipellagric
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (24 ppm)
Antiperiodontitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (23535 ppm)
Antiphotophobic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (24 ppm)
Antipityriasic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Antipneumonic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Antipodriac
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Antipoliomyelitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Antiporphyric
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Antiproliferant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Antipsoriac
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Antipyretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Antiradicular
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Antiretinotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Antirheumatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (23535 ppm)
Antirhinitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Ephedrine found in Root
Antiscorbutic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Antiscotomic
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Antiseptic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Antisinusitic
Ephedrine found in Root
Antispasmodic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Antistress
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (23535 ppm)
Antisyncopic
Ephedrine found in Root
Antisyndrome-X
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Antitic
Calcium found in Leaf (23535 ppm)
Antitumor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (167000 ppm)
Antitussive
Ephedrine found in Root
Antiulcer
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (167000 ppm)
Antivertigo
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Antiviral
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Ephedrine found in Root
Antixerophthalmic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Anxiolytic
Calcium found in Leaf (23535 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (2930 ppm)
Apoptotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Asthma-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Beta-Blocker
Fiber found in Leaf (167000 ppm)
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Bronchodilator
Ephedrine found in Root
Bronchorelaxant
Ephedrine found in Root
CNS-Stimulant
Ephedrine found in Root
COX-1-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
COX-2-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Calcium-Antagonist
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Calcium-Channel-Blocker
Calcium found in Leaf (23535 ppm)
Cancer-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (167000 ppm)
Mucilage found in Stem
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (24 ppm)
Cardioprotective
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (167000 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Cardiotonic
Ephedrine found in Root
Cerebrostimulant
Ephedrine found in Root
Chemopreventive
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Circulotonic
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Cold-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Collagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Colorant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Controlled
Ephedrine found in Root
Decongestant
Ephedrine found in Root
Demulcent
Mucilage found in Stem
Dermatitigenic
Ephedrine found in Root
Detoxicant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Diuretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (23535 ppm)
Ephedrine found in Root
Fiber found in Leaf (167000 ppm)
Fibrinolytic
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Fistula-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Gastroprotective
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Hallucinogenic
Ephedrine found in Root
Hepatoprotective
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Hepatotoxic
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Hypertensive
Ephedrine found in Root
Hypocholesterolemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (23535 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (167000 ppm)
Mucilage found in Stem
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Hypoglycemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Hypolipidemic
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Hypotensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (23535 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (167000 ppm)
Hypouricemic
Fiber found in Leaf (167000 ppm)
Immunomodulator
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Immunostimulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (2930 ppm)
Insecticide
Ephedrine found in Root
Insectifuge
Thiamin found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Interferon-Synergist
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Interferonogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Laxative
Calcium found in Leaf (23535 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (167000 ppm)
Lithogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Mucogenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Mucolytic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Mydriatic
Ephedrine found in Root
Myocardiotonic
Ephedrine found in Root
Myorelaxant
Ephedrine found in Root
Neuroprotective
Thiamin found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Osteogenic
Phosphorus found in Leaf (2930 ppm)
Pesticide
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Ephedrine found in Root
Thiamin found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Phagocytotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Prooxidant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Iron found in Leaf (253 ppm)
Respirastimulant
Ephedrine found in Root
Sedative
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Serotoninergic
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Stimulant
Ephedrine found in Root
Sympathomimetic
Ephedrine found in Root
Tachycardic
Ephedrine found in Root
Thymoprotective
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Tracheorelaxant
Ephedrine found in Root
Tranquilizer
Calcium found in Leaf (23535 ppm)
Ubiquiot
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Uricosuric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Urinary-Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Uterocontractant
Ephedrine found in Root
Vasoconstrictor
Ephedrine found in Root
Vasodilator
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (23535 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (167000 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm)
Vulnerary
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (4545 ppm)

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
Alkaloids Root 540
Ascorbic-acid Leaf 900 4,545
Ash Leaf 16,000 81,000
Beta-carotene Leaf 60 305
Calcium Leaf 4,660 23,535
Carbohydrates Leaf 94,000 475,000
Ephedrine Root
Fat Leaf 14,000 71,000
Fiber Leaf 33,000 167,000
Iron Leaf 50 253
Kilocalories Leaf 630 3,180
Mucilage Stem
Niacin Leaf 21 105
Phosphorus Leaf 580 2,930
Protein Leaf 74,000 374,000
Riboflavin Leaf 4.7 24
Saponin Leaf
Thiamin Leaf 2.2 11
Water Leaf 802,000
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]