Sambucus nigra Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
American elder American elderberry black elder blue elder blue elderberry blueberry elder Canadian elder common elder elder elderberry European elder European elderberry Florida elder Mexican elder sweet elder

Sambucus nigra is a species complex of flowering plants in the family Caprifoliaceae this is an old family classification and was moved to the family Adoxaceae – adoxas. native to most of Europe. Common names include elder, elderberry, black elder, European elder, European elderberry and European black elderberry. It grows in a variety of conditions including both wet and dry fertile soils, primarily in sunny locations.

Sambucus nigra

Medical use

Gallery

Sambucus nigra Sambucus nigra Sambucus nigra Sambucus nigra Sambucus nigra Sambucus nigra Sambucus nigra Sambucus nigra Sambucus nigra Sambucus nigra Sambucus nigra Sambucus nigra Sambucus nigra Sambucus nigra Sambucus nigra Sambucus nigra Sambucus nigra Sambucus nigra

Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Native
    • Macaronesia: Spain - Canary Islands
    • Northern Africa: Tunisia
    Naturalized
    • Macaronesia: Portugal - Azores, Madeira Islands
    • Northern Africa: Algeria; Morocco
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Western Asia: Iran ; Iraq ; Turkey
    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation - Ciscaucasia, Dagestan
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Native
    • Indian Subcontinent: India - Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir
  • AUSTRALASIA
    Naturalized
    • New Zealand: New Zealand
  • EUROPE
    Native
    • Northern Europe: Denmark; Finland; Ireland; Norway; Sweden; United Kingdom
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czechoslovakia; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Switzerland
    • East Europe: Belarus; Moldova; Russian Federation - European part ; Ukraine
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bulgaria; Former Yugoslavia; Greece; Italy ; Romania
    • Southwestern Europe: France ; Portugal; Spain
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Native
    • Eastern Canada: Canada - New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario , Prince Edward Island, Quebec
    • Western Canada: Canada - Alberta , British Columbia , Manitoba
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Connecticut, Indiana, Maine , Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Illinois, Iowa, Kansas , Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska , North Dakota , Oklahoma, South Dakota , Wisconsin
    • Northwestern U.S.A.: United States - Colorado, Idaho, Montana , Oregon, Washington, Wyoming
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Alabama , Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia , Kentucky, Louisiana , Maryland, Mississippi , North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia
    • South-Central U.S.A.: United States - New Mexico, Texas
    • Southwestern U.S.A.: United States - Arizona, California, Utah
    • Northern Mexico: Mexico - Baja Norte, Baja Sur, Chihuahua, Durango, Nuevo Leon, Sinaloa, Sonora
    • Southern Mexico: Mexico - Hidalgo, Oaxaca, Puebla, Veracruz
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Native
    • Mesoamerica: Belize; Costa Rica; El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Nicaragua; Panama
    • Western South America: Bolivia; Colombia; Ecuador; Peru
    • Southern South America: Argentina
    Naturalized
    • Caribbean: West Indies
    • Mesoamerica: Central America

Biological activities

11B-HSD-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Linoleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Oleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Palmitic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Seed
Palmitoleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Seed
Stearic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
5-HT-Inhibitor
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
ACE-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Astragalin found in Flower ;found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Flower
Myrcene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
AChE-Inhibitor
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
ATPase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Abortifacient
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Acaricide
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Oxalic-acid found in Fruit (410 ppm)
Acetylcholinergic
Glucose found in Fruit (221410 ppm)
Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Lactic-acid found in Fruit (1800 ppm)
Addictive
Acetaldehyde found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil
Aggregant
Sucrose found in Fruit (9530 ppm)
Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Astragalin found in Flower ;found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Hyperoside found in Plant
Indole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Isoquercitrin found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Flower
Myrcene found in Flower Essent. Oil
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Sambunigrin found in Leaf (420 ppm)
Allelochemic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Allelopathic
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Allergenic
Benzaldehyde found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil ;found in Plant
Benzyl-alcohol found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Citric-acid found in Fruit (7340 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Myrcene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Alpha-Amylase-Inhibitor
Citric-acid found in Fruit (7340 ppm)
Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Oleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Analgesic
Alpha-amyrin found in Bark (379 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Beta-amyrin found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Ethyl-salicylate found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Hyperoside found in Plant
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Myrcene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Quercetin found in Leaf
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Thiamin found in Plant (1 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Androgenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Anemiagenic
Oleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Anesthetic
Benzaldehyde found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil ;found in Plant
Benzyl-alcohol found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Angiogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (392935 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (22090 ppm)
Anorexic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Anthelmintic
Betulinic-acid found in Bark
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
AntiAGE
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
AntiBPH
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
AntiCFS
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
AntiCTS
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
AntiCVI
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
AntiEBV
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Lupeol found in Flower
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
AntiGTF
Quercetin found in Leaf
AntiHIV
Betulin found in Bark
Betulinic-acid found in Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
AntiLegionella
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
AntiMS
Linoleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
AntiPGE2
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
AntiPMS
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (1440 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Manganese found in Fruit (11 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
AntiTGF-beta
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Antiacetylcholinesterase
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Antiacne
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Indole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Linoleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antiacrodermatitic
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antiacrodynic
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Antiadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Antiadenoviral
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antiaflatoxin
Kaempferol found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiakathisic
Iron found in Fruit (90 ppm)
Antialcoholic
Fructose found in Fruit (154150 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Manganese found in Fruit (11 ppm)
Thiamin found in Plant (1 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antiallergic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (1440 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Flower
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Antialopecic
Biotin found in Fruit (0.009 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Oleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Palmitic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Seed
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antialzheimeran
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Choline found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Plant (1 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antiamblyopic
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Antianaphylactic
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Linoleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiandrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Linoleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Oleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Palmitic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Seed
Antianemic
Alpha-amyrin-palmitate found in Leaf
Iron found in Fruit (90 ppm)
Manganese found in Fruit (11 ppm)
Antianginal
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Antiangiogenic
Lupeol found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antianorectic
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Thiamin found in Plant (1 ppm)
Antianorexic
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antianxiety
Calcium found in Fruit (1440 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Antiaphthic
Citric-acid found in Fruit (7340 ppm)
Antiapoplectic
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Antiarabiflavinotic
Riboflavin found in Plant (0.7 ppm)
Antiarrhythmic
Calcium found in Fruit (1440 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Potassium found in Fruit (22090 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Antiarteriosclerotic
Linoleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antiarthritic
Alpha-amyrin-palmitate found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (1440 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Manganese found in Fruit (11 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Quercetin found in Leaf
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Antiatherogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Antiatheromic
Pectin found in Flower ;found in Leaf (2300 ppm)
Antiatherosclerotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (1440 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Citric-acid found in Fruit (7340 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Malic-acid found in Fruit (19000 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Antibacillus
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Antibackache
Thiamin found in Plant (1 ppm)
Antibacterial
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Benzaldehyde found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil ;found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Betulinic-acid found in Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Citric-acid found in Fruit (7340 ppm)
Cycloartenol found in Flower
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Hyperoside found in Plant
Indole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Isoquercitrin found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Flower
Lauric-acid found in Flower ;found in Seed
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Malic-acid found in Fruit (19000 ppm)
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Myrcene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Nerol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Pectin found in Flower ;found in Leaf (2300 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Antiberiberi
Thiamin found in Plant (1 ppm)
Antibronchitic
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Anticalculic
Citric-acid found in Fruit (7340 ppm)
Anticancer
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Benzaldehyde found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil ;found in Plant
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Betulinic-acid found in Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Hyperoside found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Flower
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Anticanker
Iron found in Fruit (90 ppm)
Thiamin found in Plant (1 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Anticapillary-Fragility
Hyperoside found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Anticarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Anticarcinomic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Betulin found in Bark
Betulinic-acid found in Bark
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Anticardiospasmic
Thiamin found in Plant (1 ppm)
Anticariogenic
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Indole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Anticarpal-Tunnel
Riboflavin found in Plant (0.7 ppm)
Anticataract
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Riboflavin found in Plant (0.7 ppm)
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Thiamin found in Plant (1 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Anticephalagic
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Plant (0.7 ppm)
Anticervicaldysplasic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Plant (0.7 ppm)
Anticheilitic
Iron found in Fruit (90 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Plant (0.7 ppm)
Antichilblain
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Nicotinic-acid found in Fruit
Anticholestatic
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Antichoreic
Choline found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Anticirrhotic
Choline found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Anticlastogen
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Anticlimacteric
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (1440 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Anticoagulant
Citric-acid found in Fruit (7340 ppm)
Anticoeliac
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Anticold
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Anticolic
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Anticolitic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Plant (1 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Anticomplement
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Anticomplementary
Quercetin found in Leaf
Anticonvulsant
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Myrcene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Anticoronary
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Anticystinuric
Choline found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Anticystitic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antidandruff
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antidecubitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Plant (0.7 ppm)
Thiamin found in Plant (1 ppm)
Antideliriant
Thiamin found in Plant (1 ppm)
Antidementia
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Choline found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Thiamin found in Plant (1 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antidepressant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Beta-amyrin-palmitate found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Calcium found in Fruit (1440 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (22090 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antidermatitic
Biotin found in Fruit (0.009 ppm)
Hyperoside found in Plant
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Antidiabetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Choline found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Fiber found in Fruit (392935 ppm)
Fructose found in Fruit (154150 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Manganese found in Fruit (11 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Pectin found in Flower ;found in Leaf (2300 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antidiarrheic
Pectin found in Flower ;found in Leaf (2300 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
Antidiscotic
Manganese found in Fruit (11 ppm)
Antidysenteric
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
Antidysgeuzic
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antidyskinetic
Choline found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Manganese found in Fruit (11 ppm)
Antidysmenorrheic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Antidyspeptic
Thiamin found in Plant (1 ppm)
Antidysphagic
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Antieczemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antiedemic
Alpha-amyrin found in Bark (379 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Beta-amyrin found in Flower
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Betulinic-acid found in Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Glucose found in Fruit (221410 ppm)
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Lupeol found in Flower
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Antielastase
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Hyperoside found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiencephalitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiencephalopathic
Thiamin found in Plant (1 ppm)
Tyrosine found in Fruit Juice ;found in Fruit (2900 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antiendometriotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Antienteritic
Pectin found in Flower ;found in Leaf (2300 ppm)
Antienterotic
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Antiepileptic
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Manganese found in Fruit (11 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antierythemic
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Antiescherichic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Quercetin found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Antiesophagitic
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Antiestrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antifatigue
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (22090 ppm)
Thiamin found in Plant (1 ppm)
Antifeedant
Alpha-amyrin-palmitate found in Leaf
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Betulin found in Bark
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Isoquercitrin found in Flower
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Antifertility
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Flower
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Antifibrinolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Palmitic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Seed
Antifibromyalgic
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Malic-acid found in Fruit (19000 ppm)
Antifibrosarcomic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Antifibrotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antiflu
Betulin found in Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Hyperoside found in Plant
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Lupeol found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antifuruncular
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antigallstone
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Pectin found in Flower ;found in Leaf (2300 ppm)
Antigastric
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antigastritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Pectin found in Flower ;found in Leaf (2300 ppm)
Thiamin found in Plant (1 ppm)
Antigastrotic
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Antigenotoxic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Antigingivitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Flower
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antiglaucomic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Antiglossitic
Riboflavin found in Plant (0.7 ppm)
Antiglutamaergic
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Antigonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Antigonadotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antigranular
Linoleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antihalitosic
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Antihangover
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Fructose found in Fruit (154150 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Thiamin found in Plant (1 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antiheartburn
Thiamin found in Plant (1 ppm)
Antihelicobacter
Nerol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Antihematuric
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Antihemolytic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Antihemorrhagic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Antihemorrhoidal
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Antihepatitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Antihepatoadenomic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antihepatotoxic
Alpha-amyrin-palmitate found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Beta-amyrin-palmitate found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Glucose found in Fruit (221410 ppm)
Hyperoside found in Plant
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Antiherpetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Thiamin found in Plant (1 ppm)
Antihiccup
Sucrose found in Fruit (9530 ppm)
Antihistaminic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Flower
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Linoleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Antihomocysteine
Choline found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Antihyperglycemic
Lupeol found in Flower
Antihyperlipoproteinaemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Antihypertensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (1440 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (392935 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (22090 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
Antihyperthyroid
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Antihypoglycemic
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Antiichythyotic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Antiimplantation
Kaempferol found in Flower
Antiimpotence
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antiinfective
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antiinfertility
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antiinflammatory
Alpha-amyrin found in Bark (379 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Alpha-amyrin-palmitate found in Leaf
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Beta-amyrin found in Flower
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Betulin found in Bark
Betulinic-acid found in Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Cycloartenol found in Flower
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Hyperoside found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Flower
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Linoleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Lupeol found in Flower
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
N-hentriacontane found in Leaf
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Oleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Antiinsomnic
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Antiischemic
Hyperoside found in Plant
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antikeratitic
Riboflavin found in Plant (0.7 ppm)
Antiketotic
Fructose found in Fruit (154150 ppm)
Glucose found in Fruit (221410 ppm)
Antileishmanic
Citric-acid found in Fruit (7340 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Antilepric
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antileukemic
Astragalin found in Flower ;found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Betulinic-acid found in Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Flower
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Antileukonychic
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antileukotriene-D4
Linoleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Oleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antileukotriene
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antilipolytic
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
Antilisteria
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Antilithic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Lupeol found in Flower
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Pectin found in Flower ;found in Leaf (2300 ppm)
Antilupus
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Antimaculitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antimalarial
Betulinic-acid found in Bark
Lupeol found in Flower
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Antimange
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Antimanic
Choline found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Antimastalgic
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Antimastitic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Antimeasles
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Antimelanogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Antimelanomic
Betulinic-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Antimenopausal
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (1440 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Antimenorrhagic
Iron found in Fruit (90 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antimetastatic
Pectin found in Flower ;found in Leaf (2300 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antimigraine
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Plant (0.7 ppm)
Thiamin found in Plant (1 ppm)
Antimite
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Antimitral-valve-prolapse
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Antimutagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Benzaldehyde found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil ;found in Plant
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Citric-acid found in Fruit (7340 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Flower
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Myrcene found in Flower Essent. Oil
N-nonacosane found in Leaf
Pectin found in Flower ;found in Leaf (2300 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Antimyalgic
Ethyl-salicylate found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Antimyocarditic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Plant (1 ppm)
Antinauseant
Fructose found in Fruit (154150 ppm)
Antineoplastic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Antinephritic
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Antinephrolytic
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Antineuralgic
Biotin found in Fruit (0.009 ppm)
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Thiamin found in Plant (1 ppm)
Antineuramidase
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Antineurasthenic
Thiamin found in Plant (1 ppm)
Antineuritic
Thiamin found in Plant (1 ppm)
Antineuropathic
Thiamin found in Plant (1 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antineurotic
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Antinitrosaminic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Myrcene found in Flower Essent. Oil
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antinitrosic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Antinociceptive
Alpha-amyrin found in Bark (379 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Beta-amyrin found in Flower
Betulinic-acid found in Bark
Choline found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Hyperoside found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Flower
Myrcene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antinyctalopic
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antiobesity
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (1440 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (392935 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Pectin found in Flower ;found in Leaf (2300 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antiodontalgic
Benzyl-alcohol found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Antiophidic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Stigmasterol found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
Antiophthalmic
Sucrose found in Fruit (9530 ppm)
Antiorchitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Antiosteoarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Antiosteoporotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (1440 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Manganese found in Fruit (11 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Fruit (3300 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antiototic
Manganese found in Fruit (11 ppm)
Antioxalate
Lupeol found in Flower
Antioxidant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Campesterol found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Cholesterol found in Flower ;found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Hyperoside found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Flower
Lauric-acid found in Flower ;found in Seed
Lupeol found in Flower
Manganese found in Fruit (11 ppm)
Myrcene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Myristic-acid found in Flower ;found in Seed
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Palmitic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Seed
Pentadecanoic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Riboflavin found in Plant (0.7 ppm)
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Stigmasterol found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Sucrose found in Fruit (9530 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Tridecanoic-acid found in Flower
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Antiozenic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Antipancreatitic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antipapillomic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Antiparkinsonian
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Tyrosine found in Fruit Juice ;found in Fruit (2900 ppm)
Antiparotitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Antipellagric
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Plant (0.7 ppm)
Antipeptic
Benzaldehyde found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil ;found in Plant
Antiperiodontal
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiperiodontic
Kaempferol found in Flower
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antiperiodontitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (1440 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antiperistaltic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antipermeability
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiperoxidant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Lupeol found in Flower
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Antipharyngitic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiphenylketonuric
Tyrosine found in Fruit Juice ;found in Fruit (2900 ppm)
Antiphotophobic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Plant (0.7 ppm)
Antipityriasic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Antiplaque
Kaempferol found in Flower
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antiplasmodial
Betulinic-acid found in Bark
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Antiplatelet
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Antipneumonic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Antipodriac
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antipolio
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Cyanin found in Fruit
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antipoliomyelitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Thiamin found in Plant (1 ppm)
Antiporphyric
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Antiprogestational
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Antiprolactin
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antiproliferant
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Antiproliferative
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Antiprostaglandin
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Lupeol found in Flower
Antiprostanoid
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiprostatadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Antiprostatitic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Linoleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antiprotozoal
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Antipruritic
Benzyl-alcohol found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Antipsoriac
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antipurpuric
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Antipyretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Antiradicular
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Hyperoside found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
Antirenitic
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
Antiretinopathic
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Antiretinotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Antirheumatalgic
Ethyl-salicylate found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Antirheumatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (1440 ppm)
Cycloartenol found in Flower
Lupeol found in Flower
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antirhinitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Antisalmonella
Indole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Antisarcomic
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antischizophrenic
Nicotinic-acid found in Fruit
Antiscorbutic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Antiscotomic
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Antiseborrheic
Biotin found in Fruit (0.009 ppm)
Citric-acid found in Fruit (7340 ppm)
Malic-acid found in Fruit (19000 ppm)
Antiseptic
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Benzaldehyde found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil ;found in Plant
Benzyl-alcohol found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Caprylic-acid found in Seed
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Citric-acid found in Fruit (7340 ppm)
Indole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Kaempferol found in Flower
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Malic-acid found in Fruit (19000 ppm)
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Nerol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Oxalic-acid found in Fruit (410 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antiserotonin
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Flower
Antishingles
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Antishock
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Antisinusitic
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Antispare-Tire
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antispasmodic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Benzaldehyde found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil ;found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Flower
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Myrcene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Potassium found in Fruit (22090 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Valerianic-acid found in Fruit
Antispasmophilic
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Antistaphylococcic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cycloartenol found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Flower
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Antisteatotic
Choline found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Antistomatitic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antistreptococcic
Indole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antistress
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (1440 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Antistroke
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (22090 ppm)
Antisunburn
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Antisyndrome-X
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Manganese found in Fruit (11 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antitartar
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Antithiamin
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antithrombic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antithrombogenic
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Antithromboxane
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Antithyroid
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Antithyrotoxic
Nicotinic-acid found in Fruit
Antitic
Calcium found in Fruit (1440 ppm)
Antitinnitic
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antitriglyceride
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antitrypanosomic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Antitubercular
Citric-acid found in Fruit (7340 ppm)
Malic-acid found in Fruit (19000 ppm)
Antitumor-Promoter
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Antitumor
Alpha-amyrin found in Bark (379 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Benzaldehyde found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil ;found in Plant
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Betulin found in Bark
Betulinic-acid found in Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Citric-acid found in Fruit (7340 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Fiber found in Fruit (392935 ppm)
Isoquercitrin found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Flower
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Lupeol found in Flower
Malic-acid found in Fruit (19000 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Antitussive
Hyperoside found in Plant
Pectin found in Flower ;found in Leaf (2300 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Antiulcer
Alpha-amyrin found in Bark (379 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Beta-amyrin found in Flower
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (392935 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Flower
Nerol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Pectin found in Flower ;found in Leaf (2300 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Tyrosine found in Fruit Juice ;found in Fruit (2900 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Antiulcerogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antiurethrotic
Lupeol found in Flower
Antivaccinia
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antivaginitic
Lactic-acid found in Fruit (1800 ppm)
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Antivaricose
Glucose found in Fruit (221410 ppm)
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Antivertigo
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Antiviral
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Betulin found in Bark
Betulinic-acid found in Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Cyanin found in Fruit
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Hyperoside found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Flower
Lauric-acid found in Flower ;found in Seed
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Lupeol found in Flower
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Antivulvitic
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Antiwrinkle
Hyperoside found in Plant
Antixerophthalmic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Antixerotic
Lactic-acid found in Fruit (1800 ppm)
Anxiolytic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Calcium found in Fruit (1440 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Fruit (3300 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (22090 ppm)
Aphidifuge
Betulin found in Bark
Apoptotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Betulinic-acid found in Bark
Kaempferol found in Flower
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Aromatase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Flower
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Artemicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Stigmasterol found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Arteriodilator
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Asthma-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Astringent
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Atherogenic
Sucrose found in Fruit (9530 ppm)
Autotoxic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Bacteriostatic
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Bacteristat
Malic-acid found in Fruit (19000 ppm)
N-hexacosane found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Barbituate-Synergist
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Beta-Blocker
Fiber found in Fruit (392935 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Potassium found in Fruit (22090 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Bradycardiac
Quercetin found in Leaf
Bradycardic
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Bronchomucolytic
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Bronchomucotropic
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Bronchoprotectant
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Bronchorelaxant
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Bronchorrheic
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Bruchifuge
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Bruchiphobe
Malic-acid found in Fruit (19000 ppm)
CNS-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
CNS-Depressant
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
CNS-Paralytic
Oxalic-acid found in Fruit (410 ppm)
CNS-Stimulant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
COMT-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
COX-1-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Lauric-acid found in Flower ;found in Seed
COX-2-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Flower
Lauric-acid found in Flower ;found in Seed
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Calcium-Antagonist
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Hyperoside found in Plant
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Calcium-Channel-Blocker
Calcium found in Fruit (1440 ppm)
Calmodulin-Antagonist
Quercetin found in Leaf
Cancer-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Fiber found in Fruit (392935 ppm)
Hyperoside found in Plant
Indole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Isoquercitrin found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Flower
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Linoleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Mucilage found in Plant
Myristic-acid found in Flower ;found in Seed
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Oleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Pectin found in Flower ;found in Leaf (2300 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Riboflavin found in Plant (0.7 ppm)
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Stigmasterol found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
Tyrosine found in Fruit Juice ;found in Fruit (2900 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Candidicide
Benzaldehyde found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil ;found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Caprylic-acid found in Seed
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Lauric-acid found in Flower ;found in Seed
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Quercetin found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Candidistat
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Capillarifortificant
Hyperoside found in Plant
Capillarigenic
Hyperoside found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Flower
Capillariprotective
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Indole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Kaempferol found in Flower
Linoleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
Cardiac
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Cardiodepressant
Choline found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Cardioprotective
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (392935 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Potassium found in Fruit (22090 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Cardiotonic
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Cardiotoxic
Potassium found in Fruit (22090 ppm)
Carminative
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Caspase-8-Inducer
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Catabolic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Cerebrotonic
Choline found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Chelator
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
Chemopreventive
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Myrcene found in Flower Essent. Oil
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Pectin found in Flower ;found in Leaf (2300 ppm)
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Cholagogue
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Choleretic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Flower
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Nicotinic-acid found in Fruit
Oleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Cholesterolytic
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Cholinergic
Choline found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Cicatrizant
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Ciliotoxic
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Circulotonic
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Clastogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Co-carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cold-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Collagen-Sparing
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Collagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Collyrium
Sucrose found in Fruit (9530 ppm)
Colorant
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Comedolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Congestant
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Convulsant
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Copper-Antagonist
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Copper-Chelator
Kaempferol found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Cosmetic
Behenic-acid found in Plant
Myristic-acid found in Flower ;found in Seed
N-hentriacontane found in Leaf
Stearic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Counterirritant
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Culicide
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Cyanogenic
Sambunigrin found in Leaf (420 ppm)
Zierin found in Leaf
Cyclooxygenase-Activator
Hyperoside found in Plant
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Flower
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Cytochrome-P450-1A2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Cytoprotective
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Cytotoxic
Alpha-amyrin found in Bark (379 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Betulin found in Bark
Betulinic-acid found in Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Flower
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Lupeol found in Flower
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
DNA-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
DNA-Protective
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Demulcent
Mucilage found in Plant
Pectin found in Flower ;found in Leaf (2300 ppm)
Sucrose found in Fruit (9530 ppm)
Deodorant
Undecylenic-acid found in Seed
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Dermatitigenic
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Oleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Detoxicant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Diaphoretic
Isoquercitrin found in Flower
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Differentiator
Quercetin found in Leaf
Disinfectant
Citric-acid found in Fruit (7340 ppm)
Diuretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Calcium found in Fruit (1440 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (392935 ppm)
Hyperoside found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Flower
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
N-hentriacontane found in Leaf
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Potassium found in Fruit (22090 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Elastase-Inhibitor
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Emetic
Calcium-oxalate found in Plant
Coniine found in Leaf
Cyanin found in Fruit
Isoamyl-alcohol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Enterocontractant
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Enterorelaxant
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Ergogenic
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Estrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Flower
Nerol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Quercetin found in Leaf
Stigmasterol found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Expectorant
Astragalin found in Flower ;found in Plant
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
FLavor
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Benzaldehyde found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil ;found in Plant
Benzyl-alcohol found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil
Citric-acid found in Fruit (7340 ppm)
Ethyl-salicylate found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Lactic-acid found in Fruit (1800 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Methyl-isobutyl-ketone found in Flower Essent. Oil
Myrcene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Nerol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Oleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Palmitic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Seed
Phenyl-acetaldehyde found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Fruit
Stearic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
FPTase-Inhibitor
Lupeol found in Flower
Fatal
Oxalic-acid found in Fruit (410 ppm)
Febrifuge
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Fibrinolytic
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Fistula-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Flatugenic
Sucrose found in Fruit (9530 ppm)
Fungicide
Acetaldehyde found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil
Benzyl-alcohol found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Caprylic-acid found in Seed
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Flower
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Myrcene found in Flower Essent. Oil
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Pectin found in Flower ;found in Leaf (2300 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Undecylenic-acid found in Seed
Fungiphilic
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Fungistat
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
GABA-nergic
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Gastroprotective
Alpha-amyrin found in Bark (379 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Beta-amyrin found in Flower
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Gastrosedative
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
Gonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
HIV-RT-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Hemolytic
Palmitic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Seed
Hemostat
Citric-acid found in Fruit (7340 ppm)
Pectin found in Flower ;found in Leaf (2300 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Hemostatic
Oxalic-acid found in Fruit (410 ppm)
Hepatomagenic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Hepatoprotective
Alpha-amyrin found in Bark (379 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Beta-amyrin found in Flower
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Choline found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Hyperoside found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Flower
Linoleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Hepatotoxic
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Hepatotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Herbicide
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Histamine-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Histaminic
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Hydrocholerectic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Hypercholesterolemic
Lauric-acid found in Flower ;found in Seed
Myristic-acid found in Flower ;found in Seed
Palmitic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Seed
Sucrose found in Fruit (9530 ppm)
Hyperglycemic
Glucose found in Fruit (221410 ppm)
Hypertensive
Sodium found in Fruit (535 ppm)
Hypnotic
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Hypocholesterolemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Calcium found in Fruit (1440 ppm)
Campesterol found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Cycloartenol found in Flower
Fiber found in Fruit (392935 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Mucilage found in Plant
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Nicotinic-acid found in Fruit
Oleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Pectin found in Flower ;found in Leaf (2300 ppm)
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Stigmasterol found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Hypoglycemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Manganese found in Fruit (11 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Nicotinic-acid found in Fruit
Pectin found in Flower ;found in Leaf (2300 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Hypolipemic
Betulin found in Bark
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Hypolipidemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Hypotensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Astragalin found in Flower ;found in Plant
Calcium found in Fruit (1440 ppm)
Choline found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Fiber found in Fruit (392935 ppm)
Hyperoside found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Flower
Lupeol found in Flower
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Potassium found in Fruit (22090 ppm)
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Hypothermic
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Myrcene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Hypouricemic
Fiber found in Fruit (392935 ppm)
ICAM-1-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Flower
Ileorelaxant
Choline found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Immunomodulator
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Linoleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Immunostimulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Astragalin found in Flower ;found in Plant
Benzaldehyde found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil ;found in Plant
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Phosphorus found in Fruit (3300 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Immunosuppressant
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Inflammatory
Calcium-oxalate found in Plant
Inotropic
Kaempferol found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Insecticide
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Benzaldehyde found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil ;found in Plant
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Ocimene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Insectifuge
Alpha-amyrin found in Bark (379 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Benzaldehyde found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil ;found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Linoleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Myrcene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Oleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Thiamin found in Plant (1 ppm)
Insectiphile
Indole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Isoquercitrin found in Flower
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Insulinase-Inhibitor
Nicotinic-acid found in Fruit
Insulinogenic
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Insulinotonic
Nicotinic-acid found in Fruit
Interferon-Synergist
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Interferonogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Interleukin-6-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Flower
Irritant
Caprylic-acid found in Seed
Citric-acid found in Fruit (7340 ppm)
Isoamyl-acetate found in Flower Essent. Oil
Isoamyl-alcohol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Lactic-acid found in Fruit (1800 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Myrcene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Oleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Oxalic-acid found in Fruit (410 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower Essent. Oil
JNK-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Flower
Juvabional
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Keratolytic
Lactic-acid found in Fruit (1800 ppm)
Larvicide
Beta-amyrin found in Flower
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Larvistat
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Laxative
Calcium found in Fruit (1440 ppm)
Calcium-oxalate found in Plant
Fiber found in Fruit (392935 ppm)
Fructose found in Fruit (154150 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Leptingenic
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Leucocytogenic
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Leukotriene-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Lipolytic
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Nicotinic-acid found in Fruit
Lipotropic
Choline found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Flower
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Lithogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Calcium-oxalate found in Plant
Litholytic
Citric-acid found in Fruit (7340 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Lubricant
Myristic-acid found in Flower ;found in Seed
Palmitic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Seed
Stearic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Lyase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
MAO-A-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
MAO-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Flower
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
MMP-9-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Mast-Cell-Stabilizer
Quercetin found in Leaf
Memorigenic
Choline found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Memory-Enhancer
Glucose found in Fruit (221410 ppm)
Metal-Chelator
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Metastatic
Linoleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Monoamine-Precursor
Tyrosine found in Fruit Juice ;found in Fruit (2900 ppm)
Mosquitocide
Beta-amyrin found in Flower
Mosquitofuge
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Motor-Depressant
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Benzaldehyde found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil ;found in Plant
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Mucogenic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Mucolytic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Mutagenic
Kaempferol found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Mycobactericide
Citric-acid found in Fruit (7340 ppm)
Malic-acid found in Fruit (19000 ppm)
Myoprotective
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Myorelaxant
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Myrcene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
NEP-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
NO-Genic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
NO-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
NO-Synthase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Narcotic
Benzaldehyde found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil ;found in Plant
Natriuretic
Kaempferol found in Flower
Nematicide
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Benzaldehyde found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil ;found in Plant
Indole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Linoleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Myristic-acid found in Flower ;found in Seed
Palmitic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Seed
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Neoplastic
Fructose found in Fruit (154150 ppm)
Neurodepressant
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Neuropathogenic
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Neuroprotective
Kaempferol found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Plant (1 ppm)
Neurotransmitter
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Nociceptive
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Odontolytic
Citric-acid found in Fruit (7340 ppm)
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Osteogenic
Phosphorus found in Fruit (3300 ppm)
Oviposition-Stimulant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Ovulant
Stigmasterol found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Ozone-Scavenger
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
P450-2B1-Inhibitor
Myrcene found in Flower Essent. Oil
P450-Inducer
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Quercetin found in Leaf
P450-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
PAF-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Flower
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
PGE2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
PTK-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Paralytic
Coniine found in Leaf
Parasympathomimetic
Choline found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Percutaneostimulant
Oleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Perfume
Isoamyl-alcohol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Perfumery
Acetaldehyde found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Indole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Isoamyl-acetate found in Flower Essent. Oil
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Methyl-isobutyl-ketone found in Flower Essent. Oil
Myrcene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Nerol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Ocimene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Oleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Phenyl-acetaldehyde found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Fruit
Stearic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Tridecanoic-acid found in Flower
Peristaltic
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Pectin found in Flower ;found in Leaf (2300 ppm)
Pesticide
Acetaldehyde found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Benzaldehyde found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil ;found in Plant
Benzyl-alcohol found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Caprylic-acid found in Seed
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Cyanin found in Fruit
Cycloartenol found in Flower
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Hyperoside found in Plant
Indole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Isoquercitrin found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Flower
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Lupeol found in Flower
Malic-acid found in Fruit (19000 ppm)
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Myrcene found in Flower Essent. Oil
N-hexacosane found in Leaf
Nerol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Oxalic-acid found in Fruit (410 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Palmitic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Seed
Pectin found in Flower ;found in Leaf (2300 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Thiamin found in Plant (1 ppm)
Undecylenic-acid found in Seed
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Phagocytotic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Phospholipase-A2-Inhibitor
Betulinic-acid found in Bark
Phospholipase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Photosensitizer
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Pigment
Cyanin found in Fruit
Piscicide
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Plasmodicide
Quercetin found in Leaf
Potassium-Sparing
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Preservative
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Sucrose found in Fruit (9530 ppm)
Propecic
Linoleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Oleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Palmitic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Seed
Stearic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Prostaglandigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Betulin found in Bark
Betulinic-acid found in Bark
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Protease-Inhibitor
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Protisticide
Kaempferol found in Flower
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Psychotropic
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
Quinone-Reductase-Inducer
Kaempferol found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Refrigerant
Citric-acid found in Fruit (7340 ppm)
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Renoirritant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Renotoxic
Oxalic-acid found in Fruit (410 ppm)
Respiraparalytic
Acetaldehyde found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil
Rubefacient
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Sedative
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Benzaldehyde found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil ;found in Plant
Benzyl-alcohol found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil
Beta-amyrin-palmitate found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Nerol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Stigmasterol found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Serotoninergic
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Sialogogue
Malic-acid found in Fruit (19000 ppm)
Soap
Palmitic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Seed
Palmitoleic-acid found in Flower ;found in Seed
Sodium-Sparing
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Spermicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Spermigenic
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Sunscreen
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Suppository
Stearic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Sweetener
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Dextrose found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
Fructose found in Fruit (154150 ppm)
Levulose found in Fruit (29000 ppm)
Sucrose found in Fruit (9530 ppm)
TNF-alpha-Inhibitor
Isoquercitrin found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
TOPO-2-Inhibitor
Lupeol found in Flower
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Teratologic
Kaempferol found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Termiticide
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Benzaldehyde found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil ;found in Plant
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Termitifuge
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Thymoprotective
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (150 ppm)
Tissue-Thromboplastin-Inhibitor
Hyperoside found in Plant
Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor
Betulin found in Bark
Isoquercitrin found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Tranquilizer
Calcium found in Fruit (1440 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Transdermal
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Limonene found in Flower Essent. Oil
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Trichomonicide
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Nerol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Triglycerigenic
Sucrose found in Fruit (9530 ppm)
Trypanocide
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Tumor-Promoter
Linalool found in Flower Essent. Oil
Tumorigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Indole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
Acetaldehyde found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil
Benzaldehyde found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Flower Essent. Oil ;found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Flower
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Ulcerogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Uricogenic
Sucrose found in Fruit (9530 ppm)
Uricosuric
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
VEGF-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Varroacide
Oxalic-acid found in Fruit (410 ppm)
Vasodilator
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (1440 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (392935 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Flower
Magnesium found in Fruit (1635 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (22090 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Vasopressor
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark (503 ppm);found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark ;found in Leaf ;found in Flower
Vibriocide
Menthol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Vulnerary
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1515 ppm);found in Leaf (11000 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower (26000 ppm)
Sucrose found in Fruit (9530 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower Essent. Oil
Zinc found in Fruit (17 ppm)
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Hyperoside found in Plant
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Leaf (30000 ppm)
cAMP-Inhibitor
Hyperoside found in Plant
cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower (25000 ppm);found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
iNOS-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
1-caffeoyl-beta-d-glucoside Flower
1-feruloyl-beta-d-glucoside Plant
2-methylheptane Flower Essent. Oil
2-phenylethanol Flower Essent. Oil
20-beta-hydroxyursolic-acid Flower
24-methyl-cycloartenol Flower
30-beta-hydroxyursolic-acid Flower
Acetaldehyde Leaf Essent. Oil
Flower Essent. Oil
Alkanes Flower 210 70,000
Alpha-amyrenone Bark 178
Alpha-amyrin Bark 379
Flower
Leaf
Alpha-amyrin-palmitate Leaf
Alpha-hydroxybehenic-acid Bark
Alpha-terpineol Flower Essent. Oil
Antirhinin Fruit
Arachidic-acid Flower
Seed
Arachidyl-alcohol Flower
Ascorbic-acid Fruit 128 1,515
Leaf 739 11,000
Ash Fruit 8,600 48,765
Astragalin Flower
Plant
Balanophorin Leaf
Behenic-acid Plant
Benzaldehyde Leaf Essent. Oil
Flower Essent. Oil
Plant
Benzoic-acid-ethyl-ester Leaf Essent. Oil
Benzyl-alcohol Leaf Essent. Oil
Flower Essent. Oil
Beta-amyrin Flower
Beta-amyrin-palmitate Leaf
Beta-carotene Fruit 100 150
Leaf 150
Beta-caryophyllene Flower Essent. Oil
Beta-sitosterol Bark
Leaf
Flower
Betulin Bark
Betulinic-acid Bark
Biotin Fruit 0.007 0.009
But-3-en-2-one Leaf Essent. Oil
Flower Essent. Oil
Butyl-acetate Flower Essent. Oil
Caffeic-acid Plant
Calcium Fruit 235 1,440
Calcium-nitrate Plant
Calcium-oxalate Plant
Campesterol Flower
Leaf
Caprifolic-acid Seed 20,000
Capronic-acid Seed
Caprylic-acid Seed
Carqueol-acetate Flower Essent. Oil
Ceryl-alcohol Bark
Chlorogenic-acid Flower 26,000
Cholesterol Flower
Plant
Choline Bark
Leaf
Flower
Chrysanthemin Fruit
Cis-linalool-oxide Flower Essent. Oil
Cis-rose-oxide Flower Essent. Oil
Citric-acid Fruit 500 7,340
Coniine Leaf
Cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside Fruit
Cyanidin-3-o-(6-o-cis-p-coumaroyl-2-o-beta-d-xylopyranosyl)-beta-d-glucopyranoside-5-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside Fruit
Cyanidin-3-o-(6-o-trans-p-coumaroyl-2-o-beta-d-xylopyranosyl)-beta-d-glucopyranoside-5-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside Fruit
Cyanidin-3-o-(6-trans-p-coumaroyl-2-o-beta-d-xylopyranosyl)-beta-d-glucopyranoside Fruit
Cyanidin-3-sambubioside Fruit
Cyanidin-3-sambubioside-5-glucoside Plant
Cyanin Fruit
Cycloartenol Flower
Dextrose Fruit 25,000 30,000
Emulsin Plant
Eo Flower 37 3,200
Ethyl-amine Flower
Ethyl-salicylate Leaf Essent. Oil
Fat Fruit 800 5,045
Leaf 48,200
Seed 123,000
Fatty-acids Flower 2,000
Ferulic-acid Plant
Fiber Fruit 63,000 392,935
Flavoxanthin Plant
Fructose Fruit 24,100 154,150
Glucose Fruit 31,000 221,410
Glucosides Plant 640
Heneicosane Plant 23,000
Heptacosan-1-ol Flower
Heptadecan-1-ol Flower
Heptadecenoic-acid Flower
Heptan-1-al Flower Essent. Oil
Hex-2-en-1-al Leaf Essent. Oil
Flower Essent. Oil
Hex-3-en-1-ol Leaf Essent. Oil
Flower Essent. Oil
Hex-4-en-1-ol Flower Essent. Oil
Hexacosan-1-ol Flower
Hexan-1-al Flower Essent. Oil
Hexan-1-ol Leaf Essent. Oil
Flower Essent. Oil
Hexen-2-al Plant
Hotrienol Flower Essent. Oil
Hyperoside Plant
Indole Leaf Essent. Oil
Invertose Plant
Iron Fruit 15 90
Isoamyl-acetate Flower Essent. Oil
Isoamyl-alcohol Flower Essent. Oil
Isoamyl-amine Flower
Plant
Isobutyl-amine Flower
Isoquercitrin Flower
Kaempferol Flower
Lactic-acid Fruit 1,800
Lauric-acid Flower
Seed
Levulose Fruit 21,000 29,000
Limonene Flower Essent. Oil
Linalool Flower Essent. Oil
Linoleic-acid Flower
Leaf
Linolenic-acid Flower
Lupeol Flower
Magnesium Fruit 265 1,635
Malic-acid Fruit 1,200 19,000
Manganese Fruit 2 11
Margaric-acid Flower
Menthol Flower Essent. Oil
Methyl-isobutyl-ketone Flower Essent. Oil
Montanyl-alcohol Flower
Morroniside Shoot 1,400
Mucilage Plant
Myrcene Flower Essent. Oil
Myristic-acid Flower
Seed
N-heneicosane Flower Essent. Oil
N-hentriacontane Leaf
N-heptacosane Leaf
N-heptadecane Flower Essent. Oil
N-hexacosane Leaf
N-nonacosane Leaf
N-nonadecane Flower Essent. Oil
N-octacosane Leaf
N-octadecane Flower Essent. Oil
N-pentacosane Leaf
N-tetradecane Leaf Essent. Oil
N-triacontane Leaf
N-tricosane Flower Essent. Oil
Nerol Flower Essent. Oil
Nerol-oxide Flower Essent. Oil
Niacin Fruit 4 7
Nicotinic-acid Fruit
Nigrin-b Bark
Nigritin-f-1 Fruit
Nigritin-f-2 Fruit
Nonadecan-1-ol Flower
Nonadecanoic-acid Flower
Ocimene Flower Essent. Oil
Octacosan-1-ol Flower
Octan-1-al Flower Essent. Oil
Oleanolic-acid Bark 503
Flower
Leaf
Oleic-acid Flower
Leaf
Oxalic-acid Fruit 410
P-coumaric-acid Flower
Palmitic-acid Flower
Leaf
Seed
Palmitoleic-acid Flower
Seed
Pectin Flower
Leaf 2,300
Pent-3-en-2-one Flower Essent. Oil
Pentacosan-1-ol Flower
Pentadecanoic-acid Flower
Pentadecenoic-acid Flower
Pentenol Leaf Essent. Oil
Phenyl-acetaldehyde Leaf Essent. Oil
Fruit
Phosphorus Fruit 540 3,300
Plastocynin Flower
Potassium Fruit 105 22,090
Propionic-acid-ethyl-ester Flower Essent. Oil
Propionic-acid-propyl-ester Flower Essent. Oil
Protein Fruit 19,400 114,910
Seed 269,000
Quercetin Leaf
Quercetin-3-o-2(g)-rhamnosyl-rutinoside Flower
Quercetin-3-o-neohesperidoside Flower
R-holocalin Plant
Resin Leaf 43,400
Riboflavin Plant 0.6 0.7
Rubber Root 540
Rutin Flower 19,000 25,000
Leaf 210 9,200
S-sambunigrin Leaf 420
Salicylic-acid-methyl-ester Leaf Essent. Oil
Flower Essent. Oil
Sambubiose Plant
Sambucine Bark
Plant 1,100
Sambuculin-a Plant
Sambucyanin Plant
Sambunigrin Leaf 420
Shikimic-acid Plant
Sodium Fruit 75 535
Stearic-acid Flower
Leaf
Stigmasterol Flower
Leaf
Sucrose Fruit 700 9,530
Sugar Fruit 47,000 58,000
Tannin Leaf 4,400 30,000
Terpinen-4-ol Flower Essent. Oil
Tetracosan-1-ol Flower
Thiamin Plant 1
Trans-linalool-oxide Flower Essent. Oil
Trans-rose-oxide Flower Essent. Oil
Tricosan-1-ol Flower
Tricosane Flower 18,720
Tridecanoic-acid Flower
Tyrosine Fruit Juice
Fruit 2,200 2,900
Undecylenic-acid Seed
Ursolic-acid Bark
Leaf
Flower
Valerianic-acid Fruit
Water Fruit 791,000 821,600
Zierin Leaf
Zinc Fruit 3 17
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]