Rhizophora mangle Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
American mangrove mangrove red mangrove

Rhizophora mangle, known as the red mangrove, is distributed in estuarine ecosystems throughout the tropics. Its viviparous "seeds," in actuality called propagules, become fully mature plants before dropping off the parent tree. These are dispersed by water until eventually embedding in the shallows. Rhizophora mangle grows on aerial prop roots, which arch above the water level, giving stands of this tree the characteristic "mangrove" appearance. It is a valuable plant in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas coastal ecosystems. In its native habitat it is threatened by invasive species such as the Brazilian pepper tree,. The red mangrove itself is considered an invasive species in some locations, such as Hawaii, where it forms dense, monospecific thickets. R. mangle thickets, however, are known to provide nesting and hunting habitat for a diverse array of organisms, including fish, birds, and crocodiles.

Rhizophora mangle

Medical use

Economic importance of Rhizophora mangle

Materials tanin/dyestuf wod
Medicines folklore

Gallery

Rhizophora mangle Rhizophora mangle Rhizophora mangle Rhizophora mangle Rhizophora mangle Rhizophora mangle Rhizophora mangle Rhizophora mangle Rhizophora mangle Rhizophora mangle Rhizophora mangle Rhizophora mangle Rhizophora mangle Rhizophora mangle Rhizophora mangle Rhizophora mangle

Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Native
    • West Tropical Africa: Guinea; Nigeria; Senegal; Sierra Leone
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Native
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Florida
    • Northern Mexico: Mexico - Baja California, Sonora, Tamaulipas
    • Southern Mexico: Mexico - Nayarit, Veracruz
  • PACIFIC
    Naturalized
    • North-Central Pacific: United States - Hawaii
    • South-Central Pacific: French Polynesia
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Native
    • Caribbean: Dominican Republic; Jamaica; Puerto Rico
    • Mesoamerica: Belize; Costa Rica; Honduras; Nicaragua; Panama
    • Northern South America: French Guiana; Guyana; Suriname; Venezuela
    • Brazil: Brazil
    • Western South America: Colombia; Ecuador; Peru

Biological activities

ACE-Inhibitor
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Acarifuge
Sulfur found in Leaf (7900 ppm)
Acnegenic
Iodine found in Leaf
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Allergenic
Niacin found in Leaf
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Analgesic
Thiamin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Androgenic
Boron found in Leaf (83 ppm)
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Fiber found in Leaf (145000 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (6500 ppm)
Anthelmintic
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)
AntiBPH
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
AntiCFS
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
AntiHIV
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
AntiLyme
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf
Riboflavin found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Leaf
AntiMS
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
AntiPMS
Calcium found in Leaf (13500 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (300 ppm)
AntiSpina-Bifida
Folacin found in Leaf (6.8 ppm)
Antiacne
Sulfur found in Leaf (7900 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antiacrodermatitic
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antiacrodynic
Niacin found in Leaf
Antiaggregant
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Antiakathisic
Iron found in Leaf (152 ppm)
Antialcoholic
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (300 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antiallergic
Calcium found in Leaf (13500 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf
Pantothenic-acid found in Leaf (53 ppm)
Antialopecic
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antialzheimeran
Choline found in Leaf
Niacin found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antiamblyopic
Niacin found in Leaf
Antianacarditic
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Antianemic
Copper found in Leaf (35 ppm)
Folacin found in Leaf (6.8 ppm)
Iron found in Leaf (152 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (300 ppm)
Antianginal
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf
Antiangiogenic
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antianorectic
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf
Antianorexic
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antianxiety
Calcium found in Leaf (13500 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Antiarabiflavinotic
Riboflavin found in Leaf
Antiarrhythmic
Calcium found in Leaf (13500 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (6500 ppm)
Antiarthritic
Calcium found in Leaf (13500 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (35 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (300 ppm)
Pantothenic-acid found in Leaf (53 ppm)
Sulfur found in Leaf (7900 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Antiatherosclerotic
Calcium found in Leaf (13500 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Antibackache
Thiamin found in Leaf
Antibacterial
Chlorophyll found in Leaf (2230 ppm)
Iodine found in Leaf
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)
Antiberiberi
Thiamin found in Leaf
Anticancer
Chlorophyll found in Leaf (2230 ppm)
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)
Anticanker
Iron found in Leaf (152 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Anticardiospasmic
Thiamin found in Leaf
Anticariogenic
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)
Anticarpal-Tunnel
Riboflavin found in Leaf
Anticataract
Niacin found in Leaf
Riboflavin found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Anticephalagic
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Pantothenic-acid found in Leaf (53 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf
Anticervicaldysplasic
Folacin found in Leaf (6.8 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf
Anticheilitic
Folacin found in Leaf (6.8 ppm)
Iron found in Leaf (152 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf
Antichilblain
Niacin found in Leaf
Antichoreic
Choline found in Leaf
Anticirrhotic
Choline found in Leaf
Anticlimacteric
Calcium found in Leaf (13500 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Anticoeliac
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Anticold
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Anticolitic
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Anticonvulsant
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf
Anticoronary
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Anticystinuric
Choline found in Leaf
Antidandruff
Sulfur found in Leaf (7900 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antidecubitic
Chlorophyll found in Leaf (2230 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf
Antideliriant
Thiamin found in Leaf
Antidementia
Choline found in Leaf
Niacin found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antidepressant
Calcium found in Leaf (13500 ppm)
Folacin found in Leaf (6.8 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (6500 ppm)
Antidermatitic
Niacin found in Leaf
Pantothenic-acid found in Leaf (53 ppm)
Antidermatotic
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Antidiabetic
Choline found in Leaf
Copper found in Leaf (35 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (145000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (300 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antidiarrheic
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)
Antidiscotic
Manganese found in Leaf (300 ppm)
Antidote
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Antidysenteric
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)
Antidysgeuzic
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antidyskinetic
Choline found in Leaf
Manganese found in Leaf (300 ppm)
Antidysmenorrheic
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Antidyspeptic
Thiamin found in Leaf
Antidysphagic
Niacin found in Leaf
Antieczemic
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antiencephalitic
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Antiencephalopathic
Thiamin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antiendometriotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Antienteritic
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Antienterotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Antiepileptic
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (300 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antifatigue
Copper found in Leaf (35 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Pantothenic-acid found in Leaf (53 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (6500 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf
Antifeedant
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Antifibromyalgic
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Antifibrotic
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antifuruncular
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antigargantitic
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Antigastritic
Thiamin found in Leaf
Antigastrotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Antigingivitic
Folacin found in Leaf (6.8 ppm)
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Antiglaucomic
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Antiglossitic
Folacin found in Leaf (6.8 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf
Antigoiter
Iodine found in Leaf
Antigrey
Sulfur found in Leaf (7900 ppm)
Antihalitosic
Chlorophyll found in Leaf (2230 ppm)
Antihangover
Niacin found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antiheartburn
Thiamin found in Leaf
Antihemorrhoidal
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Antihepatotoxic
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)
Antiherpetic
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf
Antihistaminic
Niacin found in Leaf
Antihomocysteine
Choline found in Leaf
Antihyperactivity
Niacin found in Leaf
Antihypercholesterolemic
Pantothenic-acid found in Leaf (53 ppm)
Antihyperkinetic
Calcium found in Leaf (13500 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Antihypertensive
Calcium found in Leaf (13500 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (145000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (6500 ppm)
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)
Antihypoglycemic
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Antiimpotence
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antiinfective
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antiinfertility
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antiinflammatory
Copper found in Leaf (35 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Antiinsomniac
Calcium found in Leaf (13500 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antiinsomnic
Niacin found in Leaf
Antikeratitic
Riboflavin found in Leaf
Antilepric
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antileukonychic
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antilipolytic
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)
Antilithic
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Antilymphomic
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antimaculitic
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antimanic
Choline found in Leaf
Antimastalgic
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Antimenopausal
Calcium found in Leaf (13500 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Antimenorrhagic
Chlorophyll found in Leaf (2230 ppm)
Iron found in Leaf (152 ppm)
Antimetastatic
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antimigraine
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Leaf
Antimitral-valve-prolapse
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Antimutagenic
Chlorophyll found in Leaf (2230 ppm)
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)
Antimyelotoxic
Folacin found in Leaf (6.8 ppm)
Antimyocarditic
Thiamin found in Leaf
Antinephritic
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)
Antinephrolytic
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Antineuralgic
Niacin found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Leaf
Antineurasthenic
Thiamin found in Leaf
Antineuritic
Thiamin found in Leaf
Antineuropathic
Folacin found in Leaf (6.8 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antineurotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Antinitrosaminic
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Antinociceptive
Choline found in Leaf
Copper found in Leaf (35 ppm)
Antinyctalopic
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antiobesity
Calcium found in Leaf (13500 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (145000 ppm)
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antiophidic
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)
Antiosteoarthritic
Boron found in Leaf (83 ppm)
Sulfur found in Leaf (7900 ppm)
Antiosteoporotic
Boron found in Leaf (83 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (13500 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (35 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (300 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (1400 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antiotitic
Chlorophyll found in Leaf (2230 ppm)
Antiototic
Manganese found in Leaf (300 ppm)
Antioxidant
Chlorophyll found in Leaf (2230 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (300 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)
Antiparkinsonian
Niacin found in Leaf
Antipellagric
Niacin found in Leaf
Riboflavin found in Leaf
Antiperiodontitic
Calcium found in Leaf (13500 ppm)
Folacin found in Leaf (6.8 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antipharyngitic
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Antiphotophobic
Riboflavin found in Leaf
Antiplaque
Folacin found in Leaf (6.8 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antipolio
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Antipoliomyelitic
Thiamin found in Leaf
Antiprolactin
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antiprostatitic
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antipsychotic
Folacin found in Leaf (6.8 ppm)
Antiradicular
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)
Antirenitic
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)
Antiretinopathic
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Antirheumatic
Calcium found in Leaf (13500 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antirhinitic
Chlorophyll found in Leaf (2230 ppm)
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Antiscotomic
Niacin found in Leaf
Antiseborrheic
Sulfur found in Leaf (7900 ppm)
Antiseptic
Iodine found in Leaf
Sulfur found in Leaf (7900 ppm)
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antisinusitic
Chlorophyll found in Leaf (2230 ppm)
Antispare-Tire
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antispasmodic
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf
Potassium found in Leaf (6500 ppm)
Antispasmophilic
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Antisteatotic
Choline found in Leaf
Antistomatitic
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antistress
Calcium found in Leaf (13500 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Antistroke
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (6500 ppm)
Antisyndrome-X
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (300 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antithyrotoxic
Iodine found in Leaf
Antitic
Calcium found in Leaf (13500 ppm)
Antitinnitic
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antitonsilitic
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Antitriglyceride
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antitumor-Promoter
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)
Antitumor
Fiber found in Leaf (145000 ppm)
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)
Antiulcer
Chlorophyll found in Leaf (2230 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (145000 ppm)
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Antivertigo
Niacin found in Leaf
Antiviral
Iodine found in Leaf
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)
Anxiolytic
Calcium found in Leaf (13500 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (1400 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (6500 ppm)
Astringent
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Beta-Blocker
Fiber found in Leaf (145000 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (6500 ppm)
CNS-Depressant
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Calcium-Antagonist
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Calcium-Channel-Blocker
Calcium found in Leaf (13500 ppm)
Cancer-Preventive
Chlorophyll found in Leaf (2230 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (145000 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf
Pantothenic-acid found in Leaf (53 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)
Carcinogenic
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)
Cardiodepressant
Choline found in Leaf
Cardiomyopathogenic
Cobalt found in Leaf (5 ppm)
Cardioprotective
Copper found in Leaf (35 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (145000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf
Potassium found in Leaf (6500 ppm)
Cardiotoxic
Potassium found in Leaf (6500 ppm)
Cerebrotonic
Choline found in Leaf
Chelator
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)
Cholinergic
Choline found in Leaf
Circulotonic
Niacin found in Leaf
Collagenic
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Colorant
Chlorophyll found in Leaf (2230 ppm)
Comedogenic
Sulfur found in Leaf (7900 ppm)
Contraceptive
Copper found in Leaf (35 ppm)
Copper-Antagonist
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)
Cytotoxic
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Deodorant
Chlorophyll found in Leaf (2230 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Dermatitigenic
Iodine found in Leaf
Detoxicant
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Diuretic
Calcium found in Leaf (13500 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (145000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (6500 ppm)
Dye
Chlorophyll found in Leaf (2230 ppm)
Emetic
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Ergogenic
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Erythrocytogenic
Cobalt found in Leaf (5 ppm)
Estrogenic
Boron found in Leaf (83 ppm)
FLavor
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Fibrinolytic
Niacin found in Leaf
Fungicide
Iodine found in Leaf
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)
Goitrogenic
Iodine found in Leaf
Hematopoietic
Folacin found in Leaf (6.8 ppm)
Hemostat
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Hepatoprotective
Choline found in Leaf
Niacin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)
Hepatotoxic
Niacin found in Leaf
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Hypertensive
Sodium found in Leaf (9200 ppm)
Hyperthyroid
Iodine found in Leaf
Hypocholesterolemic
Calcium found in Leaf (13500 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (35 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (145000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf
Hypoglycemic
Manganese found in Leaf (300 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf
Hypolipidemic
Niacin found in Leaf
Hypotensive
Calcium found in Leaf (13500 ppm)
Choline found in Leaf
Fiber found in Leaf (145000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (6500 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Hypouricemic
Fiber found in Leaf (145000 ppm)
Ileorelaxant
Choline found in Leaf
Immunomodulator
Copper found in Leaf (35 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Immunostimulant
Phosphorus found in Leaf (1400 ppm)
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Immunosuppressant
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Insectifuge
Thiamin found in Leaf
Insulinogenic
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Keratolytic
Sulfur found in Leaf (7900 ppm)
Laxative
Calcium found in Leaf (13500 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (145000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Sulfur found in Leaf (7900 ppm)
Leptingenic
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Lipotropic
Choline found in Leaf
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)
Litholytic
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
MAO-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)
Memorigenic
Choline found in Leaf
Mucogenic
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Myorelaxant
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Neuroprotective
Thiamin found in Leaf
Neurotransmitter
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)
Osteogenic
Phosphorus found in Leaf (1400 ppm)
Oxidant
Chlorophyll found in Leaf (2230 ppm)
Parasiticide
Sulfur found in Leaf (7900 ppm)
Parasympathomimetic
Choline found in Leaf
Perfumery
Chlorophyll found in Leaf (2230 ppm)
Pesticide
Chlorophyll found in Leaf (2230 ppm)
Sulfur found in Leaf (7900 ppm)
Tannic-acid found in Leaf (116800 ppm)
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Prooxidant
Iron found in Leaf (152 ppm)
Protisticide
Iodine found in Leaf
Psychotropic
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)
Scabicide
Sulfur found in Leaf (7900 ppm)
Schizophrenigenic
Copper found in Leaf (35 ppm)
Sedative
Niacin found in Leaf
Serotoninergic
Niacin found in Leaf
Spermigenic
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Testosteronigenic
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Thyrotropic
Iodine found in Leaf
Tranquilizer
Calcium found in Leaf (13500 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Trichomonicide
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Uricosuric
Folacin found in Leaf (6.8 ppm)
Uterorelaxant
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Vasodilator
Calcium found in Leaf (13500 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (145000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (8800 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf
Potassium found in Leaf (6500 ppm)
Vulnerary
Chlorophyll found in Leaf (2230 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (43 ppm)
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Folacin found in Leaf (6.8 ppm)
Tannin found in Bark (520000 ppm)

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
Ash Leaf 89,000 101,000
Boron Leaf 83
Calcium Leaf 13,500
Carbohydrates Leaf 732,000 770,000
Carotene Leaf 6
Catechin-tannins Bark 300,000 400,000
Chlorophyll Leaf 890 2,230
Choline Leaf
Cobalt Leaf 5
Copper Leaf 35
Fat Leaf 34,000 36,000
Fiber Leaf 139,000 145,000
Folacin Leaf 6.8
Gum Bark
Iodine Leaf
Iron Leaf 152
Magnesium Leaf 8,800
Manganese Leaf 300
Niacin Leaf
Pantothenic-acid Leaf 53
Phosphorus Leaf 1,400
Potassium Leaf 6,500
Protein Leaf 75,000 107,000
Riboflavin Leaf
Sodium Leaf 9,200
Sulfur Leaf 7,900
Tannic-acid Leaf 116,800
Tannin Bark 10,000 520,000
Thiamin Leaf
Water Leaf 656,000
Xanthophylls Leaf 37
Zinc Leaf 43
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]