Piper betel Health effects and herbal facts

Piper betel

Medical use

Gallery

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Biological activities

Absorbent
Starch found in Leaf (31000 ppm)
Acaricide
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Oxalic-acid found in Leaf
Acetylcholinergic
Glucose found in Leaf (32000 ppm)
Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Aggregant
Sucrose found in Leaf (25000 ppm)
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Allergenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Leaf (2350 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Analeptic
Gaba found in Plant
Analgesic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
P-cymene found in Leaf (1050 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (4.8 ppm)
Anesthetic
Carvacrol found in Leaf (2350 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (157500 ppm)
Anthelmintic
Carvacrol found in Leaf (2350 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)
AntiAGE
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
AntiCFS
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
AntiCTS
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
AntiHIV
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)
AntiLyme
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (4.8 ppm)
AntiPMS
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (15750 ppm)
AntiTNF
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Antiacetylcholinesterase
P-cymene found in Leaf (1050 ppm)
Antiacne
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Antiacrodynic
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Antiaggregant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Estragole found in Leaf (6130 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Antiaging
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Antiakathisic
Iron found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Antialcoholic
Thiamin found in Leaf (4.8 ppm)
Antiallergic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (15750 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Antialzheimeran
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (4.8 ppm)
Antiamblyopic
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Antianemic
Iron found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Antianginal
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Antianorectic
Thiamin found in Leaf (4.8 ppm)
Antianxiety
Calcium found in Leaf (15750 ppm)
Antiarabiflavinotic
Riboflavin found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Antiarachidonate
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Antiarrhythmic
Calcium found in Leaf (15750 ppm)
Antiarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (15750 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Antiatherosclerotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (15750 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Leaf (2350 ppm)
Antibacillary
P-cymene found in Leaf (1050 ppm)
Antibackache
Thiamin found in Leaf (4.8 ppm)
Antibacterial
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Leaf (2350 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
P-cymene found in Leaf (1050 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)
Antiberiberi
Thiamin found in Leaf (4.8 ppm)
Anticancer
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)
Anticanker
Iron found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (4.8 ppm)
Anticarcinomic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Anticardiospasmic
Thiamin found in Leaf (4.8 ppm)
Anticariogenic
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)
Anticarpal-Tunnel
Riboflavin found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Anticataract
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (4.8 ppm)
Anticephalagic
Gaba found in Plant
Riboflavin found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Anticerebrotic
Gaba found in Plant
Anticervicaldysplasic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Anticheilitic
Iron found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Antichilblain
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Anticholesteremic
Ornithine found in Leaf
Antichoreic
Gaba found in Plant
Anticlimacteric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (15750 ppm)
Anticold
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Anticolitic
Thiamin found in Leaf (4.8 ppm)
Anticonvulsant
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Gaba found in Plant
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Anticoronary
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Antidecubitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (4.8 ppm)
Antideliriant
Thiamin found in Leaf (4.8 ppm)
Antidementia
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (4.8 ppm)
Antidepressant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (15750 ppm)
Antidermatitic
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Antidiabetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (157500 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Antidiarrheic
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)
Antidiuretic
Carvacrol found in Leaf (2350 ppm)
Antidysenteric
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)
Antidyspeptic
Thiamin found in Leaf (4.8 ppm)
Antidysphagic
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Antieczemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Antiedemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Glucose found in Leaf (32000 ppm)
Antiencephalitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Antiencephalopathic
Ornithine found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Leaf (4.8 ppm)
Antiendometriotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Antiepileptic
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Antiestrogenic
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Antifatigue
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (4.8 ppm)
Antifeedant
Cadinene found in Leaf (3800 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Antifibrotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Antiflu
P-cymene found in Leaf (1050 ppm)
Antigallstone
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Antigastritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (4.8 ppm)
Antigenotoxic
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Antigingivitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Antiglaucomic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Antiglossitic
Riboflavin found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Antihangover
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (4.8 ppm)
Antiheartburn
Thiamin found in Leaf (4.8 ppm)
Antihemorrhagic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Antihepatitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Antihepatotoxic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Glucose found in Leaf (32000 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)
Antiherpetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (4.8 ppm)
Antihiccup
Sucrose found in Leaf (25000 ppm)
Antihistaminic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Antihyperactivity
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Antihyperkeratotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Antihyperkinetic
Calcium found in Leaf (15750 ppm)
Antihypertensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (15750 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (157500 ppm)
Gaba found in Plant
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)
Antiichythyotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Antiinfertility
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Antiinflammatory
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Leaf (2350 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Antiinsomniac
Calcium found in Leaf (15750 ppm)
Gaba found in Plant
Antiinsomnic
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Antikeratitic
Riboflavin found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Antikeratotic
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Antiketotic
Glucose found in Leaf (32000 ppm)
Antileishmanic
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Antilepric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Antilethargic
Gaba found in Plant
Antileukoplakic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Antilipolytic
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)
Antilipoperoxidant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Antilithic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Antilupus
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Antimaculitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Antimastitic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Antimeasles
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Antimelanomic
Carvacrol found in Leaf (2350 ppm)
Antimenopausal
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (15750 ppm)
Antimenorrhagic
Iron found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Antimigraine
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (4.8 ppm)
Antimitotic
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Antimutagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Hydroxy-chavicol found in Leaf
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)
Antimyocarditic
Thiamin found in Leaf (4.8 ppm)
Antinephritic
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)
Antinesidioblastosic
Starch found in Leaf (31000 ppm)
Antineuralgic
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (4.8 ppm)
Antineuramidase
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Antineurasthenic
Thiamin found in Leaf (4.8 ppm)
Antineuritic
Thiamin found in Leaf (4.8 ppm)
Antineuropathic
Thiamin found in Leaf (4.8 ppm)
Antinitrosating
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Hydroxy-chavicol found in Leaf
Antinitrosic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Antiobesity
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (15750 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (157500 ppm)
Antionychyotic
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Antiophidic
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)
Antiophthalmic
Sucrose found in Leaf (25000 ppm)
Antiorchitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Antiosteoarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Antiosteoporotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (15750 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (2740 ppm)
Antioxidant
4-allyl-pyrocatechol found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Leaf (2350 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Hydroxy-chavicol found in Leaf
Riboflavin found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Sucrose found in Leaf (25000 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)
Antiozenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Antipapillomic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Antiparkinsonian
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Antiparotitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Antipellagric
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Antiperiodontitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (15750 ppm)
Antiphotophobic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Antipityriasic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Antiplaque
Carvacrol found in Leaf (2350 ppm)
Antipneumonic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Antipodriac
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Antipoliomyelitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (4.8 ppm)
Antiporphyric
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Antiproliferant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Antiprostaglandin
Carvacrol found in Leaf (2350 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Antipsoriac
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Antipyretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Antiradicular
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Leaf (2350 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)
Antirenitic
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)
Antiretinotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Antirheumatalgic
P-cymene found in Leaf (1050 ppm)
Antirheumatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (15750 ppm)
Antirhinitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Antisalmonella
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Antiscorbutic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Antiscotomic
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Antiseptic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Leaf (2350 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Oxalic-acid found in Leaf
Antishingles
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Antisickling
Asparagine found in Leaf
Antispasmodic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Leaf (2350 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Antistaphylococcic
Carvacrol found in Leaf (2350 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Antistreptococcic
Carvacrol found in Leaf (2350 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Antistress
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (15750 ppm)
Gaba found in Plant
Antisyndrome-X
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Antithromboxane
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Antitic
Calcium found in Leaf (15750 ppm)
Antitinnitic
Gaba found in Plant
Antitumor-Promoter
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)
Antitumor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (157500 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)
Antitussive
Carvacrol found in Leaf (2350 ppm)
Antiulcer
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (157500 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)
Antivaricose
Glucose found in Leaf (32000 ppm)
Antivertigo
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Antiviral
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
P-cymene found in Leaf (1050 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)
Antixerophthalmic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Anxiolytic
Calcium found in Leaf (15750 ppm)
Gaba found in Plant
Phosphorus found in Leaf (2740 ppm)
Apifuge
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Apoptotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Asthma-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Atherogenic
Sucrose found in Leaf (25000 ppm)
Beta-Blocker
Fiber found in Leaf (157500 ppm)
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
CNS-Depressant
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Eugenol-methyl-ether found in Leaf (6635 ppm)
CNS-Inhibitor
Gaba found in Plant
CNS-Paralytic
Oxalic-acid found in Leaf
COX-1-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
COX-2-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Calcium-Antagonist
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Estragole found in Leaf (6130 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Calcium-Channel-Blocker
Calcium found in Leaf (15750 ppm)
Cancer-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Estragole found in Leaf (6130 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Eugenol-methyl-ether found in Leaf (6635 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (157500 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)
Candidicide
Carvacrol found in Leaf (2350 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Carcinogenic
Estragole found in Leaf (6130 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)
Cardioprotective
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (157500 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Cardiovascular
Gaba found in Plant
Carminative
Carvacrol found in Leaf (2350 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Chelator
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)
Chemopreventive
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Choleretic
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Circulotonic
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Cold-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Collagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Collyrium
Sucrose found in Leaf (25000 ppm)
Colorant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Carvacrol found in Leaf (2350 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)
Cytochrome-P450-Inhibitor
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Cytotoxic
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
DNA-Binder
Estragole found in Leaf (6130 ppm)
Eugenol-methyl-ether found in Leaf (6635 ppm)
Demulcent
Sucrose found in Leaf (25000 ppm)
Dermatitigenic
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Detoxicant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Diuretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Asparagine found in Leaf
Calcium found in Leaf (15750 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (157500 ppm)
Gaba found in Plant
Emollient
Starch found in Leaf (31000 ppm)
Enterorelaxant
Carvacrol found in Leaf (2350 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Expectorant
Carvacrol found in Leaf (2350 ppm)
FLavor
Cadinene found in Leaf (3800 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Leaf (2350 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Estragole found in Leaf (6130 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
P-cymene found in Leaf (1050 ppm)
Fatal
Oxalic-acid found in Leaf
Fibrinolytic
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Fistula-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Flatugenic
Sucrose found in Leaf (25000 ppm)
Fungicide
Carvacrol found in Leaf (2350 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Chavicol found in Leaf (7000 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
P-cymene found in Leaf (1050 ppm)
Gastroprotective
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)
Hemostatic
Oxalic-acid found in Leaf
Hepatocarcinogenic
Estragole found in Leaf (6130 ppm)
Hepatoprotective
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)
Hepatotoxic
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Herbicide
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
P-cymene found in Leaf (1050 ppm)
Hypercholesterolemic
Sucrose found in Leaf (25000 ppm)
Hyperglycemic
Glucose found in Leaf (32000 ppm)
Hypoammonemic
Ornithine found in Leaf
Hypoarginanemic
Ornithine found in Leaf
Hypocholesterolemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (15750 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (157500 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Hypoglycemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Hypolipidemic
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Hypotensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (15750 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (157500 ppm)
Gaba found in Plant
Hypothermic
Estragole found in Leaf (6130 ppm)
Eugenol-methyl-ether found in Leaf (6635 ppm)
Hypouricemic
Fiber found in Leaf (157500 ppm)
Immunomodulator
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Immunostimulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (2740 ppm)
Immunosuppressant
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)
Insecticide
Estragole found in Leaf (6130 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Insectifuge
Carvacrol found in Leaf (2350 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Estragole found in Leaf (6130 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
P-cymene found in Leaf (1050 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (4.8 ppm)
Interferon-Synergist
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Interferonogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Irritant
Carvacrol found in Leaf (2350 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Oxalic-acid found in Leaf
P-cymene found in Leaf (1050 ppm)
Juvabional
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Larvicide
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Laxative
Calcium found in Leaf (15750 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (157500 ppm)
P-cymene found in Leaf (1050 ppm)
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)
Lithogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
MAO-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)
Memory-Enhancer
Glucose found in Leaf (32000 ppm)
Mosquitocide
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Motor-Depressant
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Mucogenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Mucolytic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Mutagenic
Estragole found in Leaf (6130 ppm)
Myorelaxant
Eugenol-methyl-ether found in Leaf (6635 ppm)
Nematicide
Carvacrol found in Leaf (2350 ppm)
Chavicol found in Leaf (7000 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Neuroinhibitor
Gaba found in Plant
Neuroprotective
Thiamin found in Leaf (4.8 ppm)
Neurotoxic
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Gaba found in Plant
Neurotransmitter
Gaba found in Plant
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)
Osteogenic
Phosphorus found in Leaf (2740 ppm)
Perfumery
Cadinene found in Leaf (3800 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Estragole found in Leaf (6130 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Pesticide
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Cadinene found in Leaf (3800 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Leaf (2350 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Chavicol found in Leaf (7000 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Oxalic-acid found in Leaf
P-cymene found in Leaf (1050 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (4.8 ppm)
Phagocytotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Poultice
Starch found in Leaf (31000 ppm)
Preservative
Sucrose found in Leaf (25000 ppm)
Prooxidant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Iron found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Prostaglandin-Inhibitor
Carvacrol found in Leaf (2350 ppm)
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Psychotropic
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)
Renotoxic
Oxalic-acid found in Leaf
Sedative
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Gaba found in Plant
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
P-cymene found in Leaf (1050 ppm)
Serotoninergic
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Sweetener
Sucrose found in Leaf (25000 ppm)
Termiticide
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Termitifuge
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (5000 ppm)
Thymoprotective
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Tracheorelaxant
Carvacrol found in Leaf (2350 ppm)
Tranquilizer
Calcium found in Leaf (15750 ppm)
Gaba found in Plant
Trichomonicide
Carvacrol found in Leaf (2350 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
P-cymene found in Leaf (1050 ppm)
Trichomonistat
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Triglycerigenic
Sucrose found in Leaf (25000 ppm)
Trypsin-Enhancer
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Ubiquiot
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Ulcerogenic
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Uricogenic
Sucrose found in Leaf (25000 ppm)
Uricosuric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Urinary-Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Varroacide
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Oxalic-acid found in Leaf
Vasodilator
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (15750 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (157500 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (48 ppm)
Vermifuge
Carvacrol found in Leaf (2350 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (17850 ppm)
Vulnerary
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (2130 ppm)
Sucrose found in Leaf (25000 ppm)
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Leaf (20500 ppm)

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
4-allyl-pyrocatechol Leaf
Allyl-catechol Leaf 50 2,600
Ascorbic-acid Leaf 43 2,130
Ash Leaf 23,000 157,500
Asparagine Leaf
Beta-carotene Leaf 19 175
Cadinene Leaf 50 3,800
Calcium Leaf 2,300 15,750
Carbohydrates Leaf 61,000 418,000
Carvacrol Leaf 45 2,350
Caryophyllene Leaf 60 5,000
Chavicol Leaf 100 7,000
Cineole Leaf 50 2,600
Diastase Leaf 8,000 18,000
Eo Leaf 2,000 42,000
Estragole Leaf 0 6,130
Eugenol Leaf 535 17,850
Eugenol-methyl-ether Leaf 80 6,635
Fat Leaf 8,000 135,000
Fiber Leaf 23,000 157,500
Gaba Plant
Glucose Leaf 14,000 32,000
Havibetol Leaf 0 4,000
Hydroxy-chavicol Leaf
Iron Leaf 35 240
Niacin Leaf 6 48
Ornithine Leaf
Oxalic-acid Leaf
P-cymene Leaf 25 1,050
Phosphorus Leaf 400 2,740
Potassium-nitrate Leaf 2,600 4,200
Protein Leaf 31,000 212,000
Pyrocatechin Plant
Riboflavin Leaf 0.2 2
Starch Leaf 10,000 31,000
Sucrose Leaf 6,000 25,000
Sugars Leaf 24,000 56,000
Tannin Leaf 10,000 20,500
Terpenene Leaf
Thiamin Leaf 0.1 4.8
Water Leaf 854,000
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]