Piper auritum Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
ear-leaf pepper Mexican pepperleaf sacred pepper Vera Cruz pepper

Hoja santa is an aromatic herb with a heart-shaped, velvety leaf which grows in tropic Mesoamerica. The name hoja santa means "sacred leaf" in Spanish. It is also known as yerba santa, hierba santa, Mexican pepperleaf, acuyo, tlanepa,anisillo, root beer plant, and sacred pepper.

Piper auritum

Medical use

Economic importance of Piper auritum

Food additives flavoring
Medicines folklore

Gallery

Piper auritum Piper auritum Piper auritum Piper auritum Piper auritum Piper auritum Piper auritum Piper auritum Piper auritum Piper auritum Piper auritum Piper auritum Piper auritum Piper auritum Piper auritum Piper auritum Piper auritum

Geografical distribution

  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Native
    • Mexico
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Native
    • Mesoamerica: Belize; Costa Rica; El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Nicaragua; Panama
    • Western South America: Colombia
    Naturalized
    • Caribbean: Cuba; Jamaica
    Cultivated
    • Caribbean: Cuba

Biological activities

ACE-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpinene found in Leaf
Gamma-terpinene found in Leaf
Myrcene found in Leaf
AChE-Inhibitor
Limonene found in Leaf
Abortifacient
Beta-bisabolene found in Leaf
Acaricide
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-terpinene found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Gamma-terpinene found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpinene found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf
Gamma-terpinene found in Leaf
Myrcene found in Leaf
Allelochemic
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf
Borneol found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf
Terpinolene found in Leaf
Allelopathic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Camphene found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf
Allergenic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Lignans found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Myrcene found in Leaf
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Amphetaminagenic
Myristicin found in Leaf
Analgesic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Borneol found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Myrcene found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm)
Androgenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Anesthetic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Myristicin found in Leaf
Safrole found in Leaf (4930 ppm)
Angiogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (124000 ppm)
Anorexic
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Anthelmintic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
AntiAGE
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
AntiCFS
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
AntiCTS
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
AntiLyme
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (13.5 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm)
AntiPMS
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (14440 ppm)
AntiTNF
Eugenol found in Leaf
Antiacetylcholine
Borneol found in Leaf
Antiacetylcholinesterase
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-terpinene found in Leaf
Gamma-terpinene found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Antiacne
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Camphor found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Leaf
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf
Antiacrodynic
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Antiadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf
Antiaggregant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf
Myristicin found in Leaf
Safrole found in Leaf (4930 ppm)
Antiaging
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Antiakathisic
Iron found in Leaf (315 ppm)
Antialcoholic
Thiamin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm)
Antiallergic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (14440 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Antialzheimeran
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm)
Antiamblyopic
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Antianaphylactic
Linalool found in Leaf
Antiandrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Antianemic
Iron found in Leaf (315 ppm)
Antianginal
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Antianorectic
Thiamin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm)
Antianxiety
Calcium found in Leaf (14440 ppm)
Antiarabiflavinotic
Riboflavin found in Leaf (13.5 ppm)
Antiarachidonate
Eugenol found in Leaf
Antiarrhythmic
Calcium found in Leaf (14440 ppm)
Antiarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (14440 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf
Antiatherosclerotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (14440 ppm)
Antibackache
Thiamin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm)
Antibacterial
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Borneol found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Leaf
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Myrcene found in Leaf
Sabinene found in Leaf
Safrole found in Leaf (4930 ppm)
Antiberiberi
Thiamin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm)
Antibronchitic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Borneol found in Leaf
Anticancer
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf
Anticanker
Iron found in Leaf (315 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm)
Anticarcinomic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Anticardiospasmic
Thiamin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm)
Anticariogenic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Leaf
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Anticarpal-Tunnel
Riboflavin found in Leaf (13.5 ppm)
Anticataract
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (13.5 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm)
Anticatarrh
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Anticephalagic
Riboflavin found in Leaf (13.5 ppm)
Anticervicaldysplasic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (13.5 ppm)
Anticheilitic
Iron found in Leaf (315 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (13.5 ppm)
Antichilblain
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Anticholinesterase
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Anticlimacteric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (14440 ppm)
Anticold
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Anticolic
Linalool found in Leaf
Anticolitic
Thiamin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm)
Anticonvulsant
Eugenol found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Myrcene found in Leaf
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Safrole found in Leaf (4930 ppm)
Anticoronary
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Antidecubitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (13.5 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm)
Antideliriant
Thiamin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm)
Antidementia
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm)
Antidepressant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (14440 ppm)
Myristicin found in Leaf
Antidermatitic
Caryophyllene found in Leaf
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Antidiabetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (124000 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Antidiarrheic
Camphor found in Leaf
Antidysenteric
Camphor found in Leaf
Antidyspeptic
Thiamin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm)
Antidysphagic
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Antieczemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Antiedemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Leaf
Caryophyllene-oxide found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Antiemetic
Camphor found in Leaf
Antiencephalitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Antiencephalopathic
Thiamin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm)
Antiendometriotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Antiepileptic
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Antiescherichic
Borneol found in Leaf
Antiesophagitic
Limonene found in Leaf
Antiestrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Lignans found in Leaf
Antifatigue
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm)
Antifeedant
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Borneol found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Leaf
Caryophyllene-oxide found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Gamma-terpinene found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf
Terpinolene found in Leaf
Antifertility
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Antifibrositic
Camphor found in Leaf
Antifibrotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Antiflu
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf
Antigallstone
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Antigastritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm)
Antigenotoxic
Eugenol found in Leaf
Antigingivitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Antiglaucomic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Antiglossitic
Riboflavin found in Leaf (13.5 ppm)
Antiglutamaergic
Linalool found in Leaf
Antigonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Antihalitosic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Antihangover
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm)
Antiheartburn
Thiamin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm)
Antihelicobacter
Sabinene found in Leaf
Antihemorrhagic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Antihepatitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Antihepatotoxic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Antiherpetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm)
Antihistaminic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Antihyperactivity
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Antihyperkeratotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Antihyperkinetic
Calcium found in Leaf (14440 ppm)
Antihyperlipoproteinaemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Antihypertensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (14440 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (124000 ppm)
Antiichythyotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Antiinfertility
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Antiinflammatory
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Leaf
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Borneol found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Leaf
Caryophyllene-oxide found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Myristicin found in Leaf
Antiinsomniac
Calcium found in Leaf (14440 ppm)
Antiinsomnic
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Antikeratitic
Riboflavin found in Leaf (13.5 ppm)
Antikeratotic
Eugenol found in Leaf
Antilaryngitic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Antileishmanic
Caryophyllene found in Leaf
Antilepric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Antileukemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Antileukoplakic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Antilipoperoxidant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Antilithic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf
Antilupus
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Antilymphomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Antimaculitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Antimalarial
Humulene found in Leaf
Antimange
Linalool found in Leaf
Antimastitic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Antimeasles
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Antimenopausal
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (14440 ppm)
Antimenorrhagic
Iron found in Leaf (315 ppm)
Antimigraine
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (13.5 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm)
Antimite
Linalool found in Leaf
Antimitotic
Eugenol found in Leaf
Antimutagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Lignans found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Myrcene found in Leaf
Antimycotic
Lignans found in Leaf
Antimyocarditic
Thiamin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm)
Antineuralgic
Camphor found in Leaf
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm)
Antineuramidase
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Antineurasthenic
Thiamin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm)
Antineuritic
Thiamin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm)
Antineuropathic
Thiamin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm)
Antinitrosaminic
Alpha-terpinene found in Leaf
Myrcene found in Leaf
Terpinolene found in Leaf
Antinitrosating
Eugenol found in Leaf
Antinitrosic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Antinociceptive
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Myrcene found in Leaf
Antiobesity
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (14440 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (124000 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf
Antionychyotic
Caryophyllene found in Leaf
Antiophidic
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Antiorchitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Antiosteoarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Antiosteoporotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (14440 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (2920 ppm)
Antiotitic
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Borneol found in Leaf
Antioxidant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Camphene found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Gamma-terpinene found in Leaf
Lignans found in Leaf
Myrcene found in Leaf
Myristicin found in Leaf
Riboflavin found in Leaf (13.5 ppm)
Terpinolene found in Leaf
Antiozenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Antipapillomic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Antiparkinsonian
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Antiparotitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Antipellagric
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (13.5 ppm)
Antiperiodontitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (14440 ppm)
Antipharyngitic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Antiphotophobic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (13.5 ppm)
Antipityriasic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Antiplaque
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Antiplasmodial
Humulene found in Leaf
Antipneumonic
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Antipodriac
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Antipoliomyelitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm)
Antiporphyric
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Antiprogestational
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Antiproliferant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf
Antiprostaglandin
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Antiprostatadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Antiprostatitic
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Antipruritic
Camphor found in Leaf
Antipsoriac
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Antipyretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Borneol found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Antiradicular
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf
Antiretinotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Antirheumatic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (14440 ppm)
Antirhinitic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Antirhinoviral
Beta-bisabolene found in Leaf
Antisalmonella
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Borneol found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Antiscorbutic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Antiscotomic
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Antiseptic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Beta-pinene found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Sabinene found in Leaf
Safrole found in Leaf (4930 ppm)
Antishingles
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Antishock
Linalool found in Leaf
Antisinusitic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Antispasmodic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf
Alpha-terpinene found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Leaf
Borneol found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Myrcene found in Leaf
Myristicin found in Leaf
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Antistaphylococcic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf
Borneol found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Antistreptococcic
Caryophyllene found in Leaf
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf
Antistress
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (14440 ppm)
Myristicin found in Leaf
Antisyndrome-X
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Antithromboxane
Eugenol found in Leaf
Antitic
Calcium found in Leaf (14440 ppm)
Antitumor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf
Caryophyllene-oxide found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Fiber found in Leaf (124000 ppm)
Lignans found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf
Antitussive
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Antiulcer
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Beta-bisabolene found in Leaf
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Fiber found in Leaf (124000 ppm)
Sabinene found in Leaf
Antivertigo
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Antiviral
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Beta-bisabolene found in Leaf
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Lignans found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Antixerophthalmic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Antiyeast
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Borneol found in Leaf
Anxiolytic
Calcium found in Leaf (14440 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (2920 ppm)
Apifuge
Eugenol found in Leaf
Apoptotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf
Artemicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Asthma-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Barbituate-Synergist
Linalool found in Leaf
Beta-Blocker
Fiber found in Leaf (124000 ppm)
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Bronchoprotectant
Limonene found in Leaf
Bronchorelaxant
Linalool found in Leaf
CNS-Depressant
Eugenol found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Safrole found in Leaf (4930 ppm)
CNS-Stimulant
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Borneol found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf
Safrole found in Leaf (4930 ppm)
CNS-Toxic
Borneol found in Leaf
COX-1-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf
COX-2-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf
Calcium-Antagonist
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Caryophyllene-oxide found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Myristicin found in Leaf
Safrole found in Leaf (4930 ppm)
Calcium-Channel-Blocker
Calcium found in Leaf (14440 ppm)
Cancer-Preventive
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Fiber found in Leaf (124000 ppm)
Lignans found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Myristicin found in Leaf
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (13.5 ppm)
Safrole found in Leaf (4930 ppm)
Candidicide
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Beta-pinene found in Leaf
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Borneol found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Candidistat
Limonene found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Carcinogenic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Safrole found in Leaf (4930 ppm)
Cardioprotective
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (124000 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Cardiovascular
Lignans found in Leaf
Carminative
Camphor found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Safrole found in Leaf (4930 ppm)
Caspase-8-Inducer
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Cathartic
Lignans found in Leaf
Chemopreventive
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf
Myrcene found in Leaf
Choleretic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Borneol found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Cholesterolytic
Limonene found in Leaf
Circulotonic
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Cold-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Coleoptophile
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf
Collagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Colorant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Controlled
Safrole found in Leaf (4930 ppm)
Convulsant
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf
Cosmetic
Camphor found in Leaf
Counterirritant
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf
Culicide
Linalool found in Leaf
Cytochrome-P450-Inducer
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf
Safrole found in Leaf (4930 ppm)
Cytochrome-P450-Inhibitor
Eugenol found in Leaf
Cytochrome-P488-Inducer
Safrole found in Leaf (4930 ppm)
Cytotoxic
Eugenol found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
DNA-Binder
Safrole found in Leaf (4930 ppm)
Decongestant
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf
Degranulant
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Deliriant
Camphor found in Leaf
Dentifrice
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Deodorant
Terpinolene found in Leaf
Dermal
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf
Dermatitigenic
Eugenol found in Leaf
Detoxicant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf
Diuretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (14440 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (124000 ppm)
Myristicin found in Leaf
Ecbolic
Camphor found in Leaf
Edemagenic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Emetic
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf
Enterocontractant
Limonene found in Leaf
Enterorelaxant
Eugenol found in Leaf
Epileptigenic
Camphor found in Leaf
Estrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Expectorant
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Beta-phellandrene found in Leaf
Camphene found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
FLavor
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf
Alpha-terpinene found in Leaf
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Beta-pinene found in Leaf
Borneol found in Leaf
Camphene found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Gamma-terpinene found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Myrcene found in Leaf
Myristicin found in Leaf
Terpinolene found in Leaf
Febrifuge
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Fibrinolytic
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Fistula-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Fungicide
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Beta-phellandrene found in Leaf
Borneol found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Leaf
Caryophyllene-oxide found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Myrcene found in Leaf
Myristicin found in Leaf
Terpinolene found in Leaf
Fungiphilic
Limonene found in Leaf
Fungistat
Limonene found in Leaf
GABA-nergic
Linalool found in Leaf
GST-Inducer
Limonene found in Leaf
Gastroprotective
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf
Gonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Hallucinogenic
Myristicin found in Leaf
Hepatocarcinogenic
Safrole found in Leaf (4930 ppm)
Hepatoprotective
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Borneol found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Hepatoregenerative
Safrole found in Leaf (4930 ppm)
Hepatotonic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Hepatotoxic
Myristicin found in Leaf
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Safrole found in Leaf (4930 ppm)
Herbicide
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf
Beta-pinene found in Leaf
Borneol found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf
Histaminic
Limonene found in Leaf
Hypnotic
Linalool found in Leaf
Myristicin found in Leaf
Hypocholesterolemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Calcium found in Leaf (14440 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (124000 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Hypoglycemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Hypolipidemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Hypotensive
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (14440 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (124000 ppm)
Myristicin found in Leaf
Hypothermic
Linalool found in Leaf
Myrcene found in Leaf
Safrole found in Leaf (4930 ppm)
Hypouricemic
Fiber found in Leaf (124000 ppm)
Immunomodulator
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf
Immunostimulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (2920 ppm)
Inflammatory
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Inhalant
Borneol found in Leaf
Insect-Repellent
Borneol found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf
Insecticide-Synergist
Myristicin found in Leaf
Insecticide
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf
Alpha-terpinene found in Leaf
Caryophyllene-oxide found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Myristicin found in Leaf
Insectifuge
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf
Alpha-terpinene found in Leaf
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Beta-pinene found in Leaf
Borneol found in Leaf
Camphene found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Gamma-terpinene found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Myrcene found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm)
Insectiphile
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf
Interferon-Synergist
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Interferonogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Interleukin-6-Inhibitor
Limonene found in Leaf
Irritant
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf
Beta-pinene found in Leaf
Borneol found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Gamma-terpinene found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Myrcene found in Leaf
Safrole found in Leaf (4930 ppm)
Juvabional
Eugenol found in Leaf
Larvicide
Caryophyllene found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Myristicin found in Leaf
Laxative
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf
Calcium found in Leaf (14440 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (124000 ppm)
Lipolytic
Limonene found in Leaf
Lithogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
MAO-Inhibitor
Myristicin found in Leaf
Mosquitocide
Caryophyllene found in Leaf
Mosquitofuge
Linalool found in Leaf
Motor-Depressant
Eugenol found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Mucogenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Mucolytic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Mutagenic
Safrole found in Leaf (4930 ppm)
Myorelaxant
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Borneol found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf
Myrcene found in Leaf
NO-Genic
Limonene found in Leaf
Nematicide
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Borneol found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Safrole found in Leaf (4930 ppm)
Neuroprotective
Thiamin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm)
Neurotoxic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Myristicin found in Leaf
Safrole found in Leaf (4930 ppm)
Occuloirritant
Camphor found in Leaf
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Limonene found in Leaf
Osteogenic
Phosphorus found in Leaf (2920 ppm)
Oxytocic
Myristicin found in Leaf
Ozone-Scavenger
Limonene found in Leaf
P450-2B1-Inhibitor
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf
Alpha-terpinene found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf
Myrcene found in Leaf
P450-Inducer
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf
Paralytic
Myristicin found in Leaf
Pediculicide
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Safrole found in Leaf (4930 ppm)
Perfume
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Perfumery
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf
Alpha-terpinene found in Leaf
Beta-bisabolene found in Leaf
Beta-phellandrene found in Leaf
Beta-pinene found in Leaf
Borneol found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Gamma-terpinene found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Myrcene found in Leaf
Sabinene found in Leaf
Safrole found in Leaf (4930 ppm)
Terpinolene found in Leaf
Peristaltic
Limonene found in Leaf
Pesticide
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf
Alpha-terpinene found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Beta-pinene found in Leaf
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Borneol found in Leaf
Camphene found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Leaf
Caryophyllene-oxide found in Leaf
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Gamma-terpinene found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Myrcene found in Leaf
Myristicin found in Leaf
Safrole found in Leaf (4930 ppm)
Terpinolene found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Leaf (6.7 ppm)
Phagocytotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Photosensitizer
Limonene found in Leaf
Phytoalexin
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Prooxidant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Iron found in Leaf (315 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Eugenol found in Leaf
Psychoactive
Myristicin found in Leaf
Safrole found in Leaf (4930 ppm)
Respirainhibitor
Camphor found in Leaf
Respirastimulant
Camphor found in Leaf
Rubefacient
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf
Secretogogue
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Sedative
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf
Borneol found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Myristicin found in Leaf
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Serotoninergic
Myristicin found in Leaf
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Spasmogenic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf
Alpha-terpinene found in Leaf
Beta-pinene found in Leaf
Camphene found in Leaf
Spermicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Stimulant
Camphor found in Leaf
Stomachic
Beta-bisabolene found in Leaf
Surfactant
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Tachycardic
Myristicin found in Leaf
Termiticide
Eugenol found in Leaf
Termitifuge
Caryophyllene found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Testosterone-Hydroxylase-Inducer
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Testosterone-Inducer
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf
Thymoprotective
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Tranquilizer
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf
Borneol found in Leaf
Calcium found in Leaf (14440 ppm)
Transdermal
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf
Beta-pinene found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf
Tremorigenic
Safrole found in Leaf (4930 ppm)
Trichomonicide
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf
Trichomonistat
Eugenol found in Leaf
Trypsin-Enhancer
Eugenol found in Leaf
Tumor-Promoter
Linalool found in Leaf
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Ubiquiot
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (193 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Ulcerogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Leaf
Uricosuric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Urinary-Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Uterotonic
Myristicin found in Leaf
Varroacide
Eugenol found in Leaf
Vasodilator
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (14440 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf
Fiber found in Leaf (124000 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Vermifuge
Eugenol found in Leaf
Verrucolytic
Camphor found in Leaf
Vibriocide
Camphor found in Leaf
Vulnerary
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3370 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
1,8-cineole Leaf
Acadine-1,4-diene Leaf
Alpha-caryophyllene Leaf
Alpha-copaene Leaf
Alpha-cubebene Leaf
Alpha-phellandrene Leaf
Alpha-pinene Leaf
Alpha-terpinene Leaf
Alpha-thujene Leaf
Aporphines Plant
Ascorbic-acid Leaf 490 3,370
Ash Leaf 24,000 135,000
Aurantiamide-i Leaf
Aurantiamide-ii Leaf
Benzoic-acid Leaf
Beta-bisabolene Leaf
Beta-bourbonine Leaf
Beta-carotene Leaf 34 193
Beta-phellandrene Leaf
Beta-pinene Leaf
Beta-sitosterol Leaf
Borneol Leaf
Borneol-acetate Leaf
Calcium Leaf 2,570 14,440
Camphene Leaf
Camphor Leaf
Carbohydrates Leaf 82,500 567,000
Caryophyllene Leaf
Caryophyllene-oxide Leaf
Cepharadione-a Plant
Cepharadione-b Plant
Delta-cadinene Leaf
Delta-elemene Leaf
Elemicine Leaf
Eo Leaf 4,700 5,800
Eugenol Leaf
Fat Leaf 14,000 79,000
Fiber Leaf 22,000 124,000
Gamma-muurolene Leaf
Gamma-terpinene Leaf
Humulene Leaf
Iron Leaf 48 315
Kilocalories Leaf 570 3,200
Lignans Leaf
Limonene Leaf
Linalool Leaf
Muurolene Leaf
Myrcene Leaf
Myristicin Leaf
N-hexadecane Leaf
Niacin Leaf 9 100
Nonan-2-one Leaf
Paracimenene Leaf
Paracimenol-8 Leaf
Phosphorus Leaf 490 2,920
Piperocromanoic-acid Leaf
Piperocromenoic-acid Leaf
Piperoic-acid Leaf
Protein Leaf 39,000 219,000
Riboflavin Leaf 2.4 13.5
Sabinene Leaf
Safrole Leaf 3,290 4,930
Spathulenol Leaf
Terpinolene Leaf
Thiamin Leaf 1.2 6.7
Water Leaf 804,000 822,000
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]