Pinus sylvestris Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
Scotch pine Scots pine
Pinus sylvestris

Medical use

Economic importance of Pinus sylvestris

Food additives flavoring
Environmental agroforestry ornamental
Materials gum/resin lipids tanin/dyestuf wod
Medicines folklore
Social religious/secular

Gallery

Pinus sylvestris Pinus sylvestris Pinus sylvestris Pinus sylvestris Pinus sylvestris Pinus sylvestris Pinus sylvestris Pinus sylvestris Pinus sylvestris Pinus sylvestris Pinus sylvestris Pinus sylvestris Pinus sylvestris Pinus sylvestris Pinus sylvestris Pinus sylvestris

Geografical distribution

  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Western Asia: Turkey
    • Caucasus: Armenia; Georgia; Russian Federation - Checheno-Ingushetia, Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, North Ossetia
    • Siberia: Russian Federation - Altay, Buryatia, Chita, Gorno-Altay, Irkutsk, Kemerovo, Khanty-Mansi, Krasnoyarsk, Kurgan, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Tomsk, Tuva, Tyumen, Yakutia-Sakha, Yamal Nenets
    • Middle Asia: Kazakhstan
    • Mongolia: Mongolia
    • Russian Far East: Russian Federation - Amur, Khabarovsk, Magadan, Primorye
    • China: China - Heilongjiang, Jilin, Nei Monggol
  • EUROPE
    Native
    • Northern Europe: Finland; Norway; Sweden; United Kingdom - Scotland
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Czech Republic; Germany; Hungary ; Poland; Slovakia; Switzerland
    • East Europe: Belarus; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Russian Federation - European part; Ukraine
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Greece; Italy ; Macedonia; Montenegro; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia
    • Southwestern Europe: France; Spain

Biological activities

11B-HSD-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Palmitic-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
(-)-epicatechin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
AChE-Inhibitor
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
ATPase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Acaricide
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-cadinol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (19000 ppm);found in Leaf
Alpha-terpinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (34500 ppm);found in Root ;found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Citronellal found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Gamma-terpinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (5000 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Essential Oil
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Acarifuge
Sulfur found in Leaf
Acetylcholinergic
Glucose found in Bark ;found in Leaf (22000 ppm)
Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Aggregant
Sucrose found in Bark ;found in Leaf (17000 ppm)
Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (34500 ppm);found in Root ;found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (167000 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (22300 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Essential Oil
Gamma-terpinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (5000 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Essential Oil
Linarin found in Leaf
Myrcene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (34500 ppm);found in Twig ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Flower
P-coumaric-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
Pectolinarin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Quercimeritrin found in Leaf
Taxifolin found in Leaf
Vanillic-acid found in Bark
Allelochemic
(-)-epicatechin found in Plant
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (312000 ppm);found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Borneol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (62000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Indole-3-acetic-acid found in Shoot ;found in Sprout Seedling
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Terpinolene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (26000 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Flower
Allelopathic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (167000 ppm)
Camphene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (35000 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Essential Oil
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
P-coumaric-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Essential Oil
Vanillic-acid found in Bark
Allergenic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Acetyl-choline found in Sprout Seedling
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (312000 ppm);found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Anethole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Beta-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (65000 ppm);found in Essential Oil ;found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Leaf (1500 ppm);found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Citral found in Leaf
Citronellal found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Dehydroabietic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (70000 ppm);found in Shoot
Dipentene found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Myrcene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (34500 ppm);found in Twig ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Flower
Protocatechuic-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Alpha-Glucosidase-Inhibitor
Protocatechuic-acid found in Bark
Anabolic
Testosterone found in Pollen Or Spore
Analgesic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Borneol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (62000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Caryophyllene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Leaf
Chamazulene found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Myrcene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (34500 ppm);found in Twig ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Flower
P-cymene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (1600 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Phenol found in Wood
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Shikimic-acid found in Bark
Terpineol found in Root
Androgenic
Androstenedione found in Pollen Or Spore
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
Testosterone found in Pollen Or Spore
Anesthetic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Phenol found in Wood
Pinocembrin found in Wood
Terpineol found in Root
Angiogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Anorexic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
Anthelmintic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Tannin found in Bark (169000 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Bark
AntiAGE
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
AntiCFS
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
AntiCTS
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
AntiEBV
(-)-epicatechin found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
AntiGTF
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
AntiLegionella
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Protocatechuic-acid found in Bark
AntiLyme
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
AntiMS
Phenol found in Wood
AntiNF-kB
Anethole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
AntiPMS
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
AntiTNF
Anethole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Antiacetylcholine
Borneol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (62000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Antiacetylcholinesterase
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-terpinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (34500 ppm);found in Root ;found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
D-limonene found in Leaf
Gamma-terpinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (5000 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Essential Oil
L-limonene found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
P-cymene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (1600 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Essential Oil
Antiacne
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (312000 ppm);found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (167000 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Caryophyllene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Leaf
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (22300 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Essential Oil
Sulfur found in Leaf
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Essential Oil
Antiadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Antiadenoviral
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Antiaflatoxin
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antiaging
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antialcoholic
Fructose found in Bark ;found in Leaf (25000 ppm)
Antiallergenic
Citral found in Leaf
Terpineol found in Root
Antiallergic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Chamazulene found in Leaf
Citral found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Essential Oil
Antialopecic
Palmitic-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
Antialzheimeran
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Choline found in Flower (3400 ppm)
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antiamblyopic
Acetyl-choline found in Sprout Seedling
Antianaphylactic
(-)-epicatechin found in Plant
Citral found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antiandrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
Palmitic-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
Antianemic
Adenine found in Flower
Testosterone found in Pollen Or Spore
Antiangiogenic
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antiarrhythmic
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Protocatechuic-acid found in Bark
Antiarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Glucosamine found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Sulfur found in Leaf
Antiasthmatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Protocatechuic-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Essential Oil
Terpineol found in Root
Antiatherogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Antiatherosclerotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Lutein found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antibacillary
P-cymene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (1600 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antibacterial
(-)-epicatechin found in Plant
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Leaf
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (312000 ppm);found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (167000 ppm)
Anethole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
Borneol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (62000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Bornyl-acetate found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Citral found in Leaf
Citronellal found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Cuminaldehyde found in Leaf
Dehydroabietane found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Wood
Delta-3-carene found in Root Essent. Oil (500000 ppm);found in Resin Essent. Oil (360000 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (22300 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Essential Oil
Dipentene found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Ginnol found in Pollen Or Spore
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Myrcene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (34500 ppm);found in Twig ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Flower
P-coumaric-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
P-cymene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (1600 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Bark
P-hydroxyacetophenone found in Leaf
Phenol found in Wood
Pinocembrin found in Wood
Pinosylvin found in Shoot ;found in Wood (8000 ppm)
Protocatechuic-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Sabinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (4500 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Tannin found in Bark (169000 ppm)
Taxifolin found in Leaf
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Essential Oil
Terpineol found in Root
Vanillic-acid found in Bark
Antibiotic
Prodelphinidin found in Leaf
Antibronchitic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Borneol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (62000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Anticancer
Alpha-carotene found in Leaf
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (167000 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Butyric-acid found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Citral found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Shikimic-acid found in Bark
Tannin found in Bark (169000 ppm)
Terpineol found in Root
Vanillic-acid found in Bark
Anticarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Anticarcinomic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Anticariogenic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (167000 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Leaf
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (22300 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Essential Oil
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Tannin found in Bark (169000 ppm)
Anticataract
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Anticatarrh
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Anticervicaldysplasic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Anticholinesterase
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Fenchone found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Antichoreic
Choline found in Flower (3400 ppm)
Anticirrhotic
Choline found in Flower (3400 ppm)
Anticlastogen
P-coumaric-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
Protocatechuic-acid found in Bark
Anticlimacteric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Testosterone found in Pollen Or Spore
Anticold
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Anticolitic
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Anticonvulsant
Myrcene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (34500 ppm);found in Twig ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Flower
Shikimic-acid found in Bark
Anticoronary
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Anticystinuric
Choline found in Flower (3400 ppm)
Anticystitic
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antidandruff
Sulfur found in Leaf
Antidecubitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Antidementia
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Choline found in Flower (3400 ppm)
Antidepressant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antidermatitic
Caryophyllene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antidiabetic
(-)-epicatechin found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Choline found in Flower (3400 ppm)
Fructose found in Bark ;found in Leaf (25000 ppm)
Maltose found in Plant
Pinitol found in Bark ;found in Leaf (20000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Xylose found in Leaf (200 ppm)
Antidiarrheic
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Tannin found in Bark (169000 ppm)
Antidiuretic
Acetyl-choline found in Sprout Seedling
Antidysenteric
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Tannin found in Bark (169000 ppm)
Antidyskinetic
Choline found in Flower (3400 ppm)
Antidysmenorrheic
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Antieczemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Antiedemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Leaf
Glucose found in Bark ;found in Leaf (22000 ppm)
Antielastase
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antiemetic
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Antiencephalitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antiendometriotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Antiescherichic
Borneol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (62000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antiesophagitic
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Antiestrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antifatigue
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Bark
Antifeedant
Abietic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (180000 ppm);found in Shoot
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (312000 ppm);found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
Borneol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (62000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Bornyl-acetate found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Caryophyllene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Dehydroabietic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (70000 ppm);found in Shoot
Gamma-terpinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (5000 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Essential Oil
Isopimaric-acid found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Neoabietic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (180000 ppm);found in Shoot
Pinitol found in Bark ;found in Leaf (20000 ppm)
Pinosylvin found in Shoot ;found in Wood (8000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Terpinolene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (26000 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Flower
Antifertility
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
Antifibrinolytic
Palmitic-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
Antifibrosarcomic
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antifibrositic
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Antifibrotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Antiflu
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (312000 ppm);found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
P-cymene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (1600 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antigallstone
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Antigastric
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antigastritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Antigenotoxic
Anethole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Antigingivitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Antiglaucomic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Antigliomic
Beta-elemene found in Essential Oil
Antigonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
Antigonadotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antigranulocytopenic
Adenine found in Flower
Antigrey
Sulfur found in Leaf
Antihalitosic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Antihangover
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Fructose found in Bark ;found in Leaf (25000 ppm)
Antihelicobacter
Citral found in Leaf
Sabinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (4500 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Antihemolytic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Antihemophilic
Testosterone found in Pollen Or Spore
Antihemorrhagic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Pectolinarin found in Leaf
Antihemorrhoidal
Phenol found in Wood
Antihepatitic
(-)-epicatechin found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Antihepatoadenomic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Antihepatotic
Anethole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Antihepatotoxic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Glucose found in Bark ;found in Leaf (22000 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
Protocatechuic-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Stigmasterol found in Plant
Tannin found in Bark (169000 ppm)
Taxifolin found in Leaf
Antiherpetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Citral found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Protocatechuic-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Quercimeritrin found in Leaf
Taxifolin found in Leaf
Antihiccup
Sucrose found in Bark ;found in Leaf (17000 ppm)
Antihistaminic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Citral found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antihomocysteine
Choline found in Flower (3400 ppm)
Antihydrocoele
Phenol found in Wood
Antihydrophobic
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antihypercholesterolemic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Antihyperglycemic
(-)-epicatechin found in Plant
Antihyperkeratotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Antihyperlipoproteinaemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
Antihypertensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Tannin found in Bark (169000 ppm)
Antihyperthyroid
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Antihypogonadic
Testosterone found in Pollen Or Spore
Antihysteric
Valeric-acid found in Leaf
Antiichythyotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Antiileus
Acetyl-choline found in Sprout Seedling
Antiincontinence
Phenol found in Wood
Antiinfertility
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Antiinsomniac
Valeric-acid found in Leaf
Antiischemic
Protocatechuic-acid found in Bark
Antiketotic
Fructose found in Bark ;found in Leaf (25000 ppm)
Glucose found in Bark ;found in Leaf (22000 ppm)
Antilaryngitic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Antileishmanic
Caryophyllene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Leaf
Citral found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antilepric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Antileukemic
(-)-epicatechin found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
P-coumaric-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
Pinocembrin found in Wood
Protocatechuic-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Vanillic-acid found in Bark
Antileukoplakic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Antileukotriene
(-)-epicatechin found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Chamazulene found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antilipolytic
Tannin found in Bark (169000 ppm)
Antilipoperoxidant
(-)-epicatechin found in Plant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antilithic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Antilupus
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Antilymphomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Antimaculitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Lutein found in Leaf
Antimalarial
Beta-selinene found in Wood
Humulene found in Essential Oil
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antimanic
Choline found in Flower (3400 ppm)
Antimastitic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Antimeasles
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Antimelanogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Protocatechuic-acid found in Bark
Antimelanomic
D-limonene found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antimenopausal
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Antimetastatic
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antimigraine
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Antimite
Alpha-cadinol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (19000 ppm);found in Leaf
Antimitotic
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Antimyocarditic
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antinauseant
Fructose found in Bark ;found in Leaf (25000 ppm)
Antineoplastic
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Antinephritic
Tannin found in Bark (169000 ppm)
Antineuralgic
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Antineuramidase
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Antinitrosaminic
Alpha-terpinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (34500 ppm);found in Root ;found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Myrcene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (34500 ppm);found in Twig ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Flower
P-coumaric-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Terpinolene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (26000 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Flower
Antinitrosic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Antinyctalopic
Lutein found in Leaf
Antiobesity
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Antionychogryphotic
Phenol found in Wood
Antionychyotic
Caryophyllene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Leaf
Antiophidic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Protocatechuic-acid found in Bark
Stigmasterol found in Plant
Tannin found in Bark (169000 ppm)
Antiophthalmic
Sucrose found in Bark ;found in Leaf (17000 ppm)
Antiorchitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Antiosteoarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Sulfur found in Leaf
Antiosteoporotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Testosterone found in Pollen Or Spore
Antiotitic
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Borneol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (62000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Phenol found in Wood
Antiozenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Antipancreatitic
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antipapillomic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Antiparkinsonian
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Antiparotitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Antiperiodontal
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antiperiodontitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Antiperistaltic
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antipermeability
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antipharyngitic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antiphotophobic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Antipityriasic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Antiplaque
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antiplasmodial
Beta-selinene found in Wood
Humulene found in Essential Oil
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antipneumonic
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (312000 ppm);found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Antipodriac
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antipolio
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antipoliomyelitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Antiporphyric
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Antiprogestational
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
Antiproliferant
Alpha-carotene found in Leaf
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (167000 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Beta-elemene found in Essential Oil
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Leaf
Lutein found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Terpineol found in Root
Antiprostanoid
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antiprostatadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
Antiprostatitic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
Phenol found in Wood
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antipruritic
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Antipsoriac
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antipyretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
Borneol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (62000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Chamazulene found in Leaf
P-methoxy-cinnamic-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
Antipyruvetic
Phenol found in Wood
Antirenitic
Tannin found in Bark (169000 ppm)
Antiretinotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Antirheumatalgic
P-cymene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (1600 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antirheumatic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Antirhinitic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Antisalmonella
Anethole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Borneol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (62000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Antiscorbutic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Antiseborrheic
Sulfur found in Leaf
Antiseptic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (312000 ppm);found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (167000 ppm)
Anethole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Beta-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (65000 ppm);found in Essential Oil ;found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Leaf (1500 ppm);found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Chamazulene found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Citral found in Leaf
Citronellal found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Furfural found in Root
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
P-coumaric-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
Phenol found in Wood
Pinocembrin found in Wood
Protocatechuic-acid found in Bark
Sabinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (4500 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Sulfur found in Leaf
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Essential Oil
Terpineol found in Root
Vanillic-acid found in Bark
Antiserotonin
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Antishingles
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Antishock
Citral found in Leaf
Antisickling
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Bark
Vanillic-acid found in Bark
Antisinusitic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Phenol found in Wood
Antispasmodic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (312000 ppm);found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Alpha-terpinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (34500 ppm);found in Root ;found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Anethole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (65000 ppm);found in Essential Oil ;found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Leaf (1500 ppm);found in Flower
Borneol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (62000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Bornyl-acetate found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Caryophyllene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Leaf
Chamazulene found in Leaf
Citral found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Myrcene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (34500 ppm);found in Twig ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Flower
P-coumaric-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
Protocatechuic-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Shikimic-acid found in Bark
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Essential Oil
Terpineol found in Root
Valeric-acid found in Leaf
Antispastic
Phenol found in Wood
Antistaphylococcic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Leaf
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (312000 ppm);found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Borneol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (62000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Leaf
Citronellal found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Antisteatotic
Choline found in Flower (3400 ppm)
Antistomatitic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Antistreptococcic
Caryophyllene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Leaf
Citronellal found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (22300 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Essential Oil
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antistress
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Antisunburn
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Antisyndrome-X
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Antitachycardic
Acetyl-choline found in Sprout Seedling
Antithiamin
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Dihydroquercetin found in Bark
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antithrombic
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antithyroid
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Antitrypanosomic
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antitubercular
Ginnol found in Pollen Or Spore
Antitumor-Promoter
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
D-limonene found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Shikimic-acid found in Bark
Tannin found in Bark (169000 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Bark
Antitumor
Alpha-humulene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (4600 ppm)
Anethole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Butyric-acid found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Citral found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
P-coumaric-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Shikimic-acid found in Bark
Tannin found in Bark (169000 ppm)
Taxifolin found in Leaf
Vanillic-acid found in Bark
Antitussive
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Protocatechuic-acid found in Bark
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Essential Oil
Terpineol found in Root
Antiulcerogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Antivaccinia
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Antivaricose
Glucose found in Bark ;found in Leaf (22000 ppm)
Antiviral
(-)-epicatechin found in Plant
Adenine found in Flower
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (312000 ppm);found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
Bornyl-acetate found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Citral found in Leaf
Dipentene found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
P-cymene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (1600 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Phenol found in Wood
Protocatechuic-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Quercimeritrin found in Leaf
Stigmasterol found in Plant
Tannin found in Bark (169000 ppm)
Taxifolin found in Leaf
Antiwrinkle
Phenol found in Wood
Antixerophthalmic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Antiyeast
Anethole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Borneol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (62000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Anxiolytic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Aphrodisiac
Testosterone found in Pollen Or Spore
Apoptotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Beta-elemene found in Essential Oil
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
Butyric-acid found in Leaf
Citral found in Leaf
D-limonene found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Protocatechuic-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Artemicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
Pinocembrin found in Wood
Stigmasterol found in Plant
Arteriodilator
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Ascaricide
Vanillic-acid found in Bark
Asthma-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Atherogenic
Sucrose found in Bark ;found in Leaf (17000 ppm)
Autotoxic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Bacteriostatic
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Essential Oil
Bacteristat
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Barbituate-Synergist
Citral found in Leaf
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Bradycardiac
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Bronchoprotectant
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Bronchorelaxant
Citral found in Leaf
Bruchifuge
Butyric-acid found in Leaf
Shikimic-acid found in Bark
CNS-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
CNS-Depressant
Eugenol-methyl-ether found in Plant
Phenol found in Wood
CNS-Stimulant
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Adenine found in Flower
Borneol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (62000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
CNS-Toxic
Borneol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (62000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
COMP-Inhibitor
(-)-epicatechin found in Plant
COMT-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Calcium-Antagonist
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Citral found in Leaf
Estragole found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (106670 ppm);found in Plant
Calcium-Sparing
Testosterone found in Pollen Or Spore
Calmodulin-Antagonist
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Candidicide
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Anethole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Beta-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (65000 ppm);found in Essential Oil ;found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Leaf (1500 ppm);found in Flower
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
Borneol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (62000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Caryophyllene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Leaf
Citronellal found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Pinocembrin found in Wood
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Candidistat
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Capillariprotective
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Carcinogenic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Citral found in Leaf
Estragole found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (106670 ppm);found in Plant
Phenol found in Wood
Protocatechuic-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Shikimic-acid found in Bark
Tannin found in Bark (169000 ppm)
Testosterone found in Pollen Or Spore
Cardiac
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Cardiodepressant
Acetyl-choline found in Sprout Seedling
Choline found in Flower (3400 ppm)
Cardioprotective
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Protocatechuic-acid found in Bark
Carminative
Anethole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Copaene found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Caspase-3-Inducer
Citral found in Leaf
Caspase-8-Inducer
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
Catabolic
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Cerebrostimulant
Acetyl-choline found in Sprout Seedling
Cerebrotonic
Choline found in Flower (3400 ppm)
Chelator
Tannin found in Bark (169000 ppm)
Chemopreventive
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Citral found in Leaf
D-limonene found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Myrcene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (34500 ppm);found in Twig ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Flower
P-coumaric-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
Protocatechuic-acid found in Bark
Cholagogue
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Terpineol found in Root
Choleretic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Borneol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (62000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
P-coumaric-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
P-hydroxyacetophenone found in Leaf
Quinic-acid found in Bark
Vanillic-acid found in Bark
Cholesterolytic
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Choline-Sparing
(-)-epicatechin found in Plant
Cholinergic
Choline found in Flower (3400 ppm)
Cicatrizant
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (167000 ppm)
Clastogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Co-carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Cold-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Coleoptophile
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (312000 ppm);found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Collagen-Sparing
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Collagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Collyrium
Sucrose found in Bark ;found in Leaf (17000 ppm)
Colorant
Alpha-carotene found in Leaf
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Gamma-carotene found in Leaf
Lutein found in Leaf
Neoxanthin found in Leaf
Rhodoxanthin found in Leaf
Violaxanthin found in Leaf
Comedogenic
Sulfur found in Leaf
Convulsant
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Copper-Chelator
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Cosmetic
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Counterirritant
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Fenchone found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Culicide
Terpineol found in Root
Cytochrome-P450-1A2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Cytochrome-P450-Inducer
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (22300 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Essential Oil
Cytoprotective
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Cytostatic
Dehydroabietane found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Wood
DNA-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
DNA-Binder
Estragole found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (106670 ppm);found in Plant
Eugenol-methyl-ether found in Plant
DNA-Protective
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Decongestant
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Degranulant
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Deliriant
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Demulcent
Sucrose found in Bark ;found in Leaf (17000 ppm)
Dentifrice
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Deodorant
Terpinolene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (26000 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Flower
Dermal
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Leaf
Detoxicant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Diagnostic
Xylose found in Leaf (200 ppm)
Differentiator
D-limonene found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Digestive
Anethole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Diuretic
Adenine found in Flower
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Essential Oil
Dye
Xylose found in Leaf (200 ppm)
Ecbolic
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Edemagenic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Embryotoxic
Citronellal found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Emetic
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Phenol found in Wood
Enterocontractant
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Epileptigenic
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Estrogenic
Anethole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
Citral found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Stigmasterol found in Plant
Expectorant
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (312000 ppm);found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Anethole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Beta-phellandrene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (13000 ppm);found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Bornyl-acetate found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Camphene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (35000 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Essential Oil
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Citral found in Leaf
Dipentene found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Pinitol found in Bark ;found in Leaf (20000 ppm)
Terpineol found in Root
FLavor
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Leaf
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (312000 ppm);found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Alpha-terpinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (34500 ppm);found in Root ;found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (167000 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Beta-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (65000 ppm);found in Essential Oil ;found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Leaf (1500 ppm);found in Flower
Borneol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (62000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Bornyl-acetate found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Camphene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (35000 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Essential Oil
Caryophyllene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Leaf
Citral found in Leaf
Citronellal found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Cuminaldehyde found in Leaf
D-limonene found in Leaf
Delta-3-carene found in Root Essent. Oil (500000 ppm);found in Resin Essent. Oil (360000 ppm)
Estragole found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (106670 ppm);found in Plant
Fenchone found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Furfural found in Root
Gamma-terpinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (5000 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Essential Oil
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Myrcene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (34500 ppm);found in Twig ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Flower
P-cymene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (1600 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Palmitic-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
Propionaldehyde found in Root
Terpinolene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (26000 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Flower
Valeric-acid found in Leaf
Febrifuge
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
Fistula-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Flatugenic
Raffinose found in Bark ;found in Leaf (8000 ppm)
Stachyose found in Plant
Sucrose found in Bark ;found in Leaf (17000 ppm)
Fungicide
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Leaf
Anethole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Anisaldehyde found in Leaf
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Beta-phellandrene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (13000 ppm);found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Borneol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (62000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Capric-acid found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Citral found in Leaf
Citronellal found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Cuminaldehyde found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Furfural found in Root
Myrcene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (34500 ppm);found in Twig ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Flower
P-coumaric-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
P-cymene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (1600 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
P-methoxy-cinnamic-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
Phenol found in Wood
Pinocembrin found in Wood
Pinosylvin found in Shoot ;found in Wood (8000 ppm)
Protocatechuic-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Taxifolin found in Leaf
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Essential Oil
Terpinolene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (26000 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Flower
Vanillic-acid found in Bark
Fungiphilic
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Fungistat
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Bark
GST-Inducer
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Gastroprotective
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Leaf
Gastrostimulant
Anethole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Glaucomagenic
Citral found in Leaf
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Tannin found in Bark (169000 ppm)
Glutathione-Depleting
Protocatechuic-acid found in Bark
Glutathionigenic
Citral found in Leaf
Gonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
HIV-RT-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Hemolytic
P-methoxy-cinnamic-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
Palmitic-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
Phenol found in Wood
Hepatocarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Estragole found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (106670 ppm);found in Plant
Hepatomagenic
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Hepatotonic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Hepatotoxic
Anethole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Protocatechuic-acid found in Bark
Hepatotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Herbicide
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (312000 ppm);found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Beta-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (65000 ppm);found in Essential Oil ;found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Leaf (1500 ppm);found in Flower
Borneol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (62000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Citral found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Indole-3-acetic-acid found in Shoot ;found in Sprout Seedling
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
P-cymene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (1600 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Essential Oil
Histamine-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Histaminic
Acetyl-choline found in Sprout Seedling
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Hydrocholerectic
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Hypercholesterolemic
Palmitic-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
Sucrose found in Bark ;found in Leaf (17000 ppm)
Hyperglycemic
Glucose found in Bark ;found in Leaf (22000 ppm)
Hyperuricemic
Adenine found in Flower
Hypocholesterolemic
(-)-epicatechin found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
Campesterol found in Bark ;found in Plant
D-limonene found in Leaf
Stigmasterol found in Plant
Hypoglycemic
(-)-epicatechin found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Indole-3-acetic-acid found in Shoot ;found in Sprout Seedling
P-methoxy-cinnamic-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Hypolipidemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Hypotensive
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Acetyl-choline found in Sprout Seedling
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Choline found in Flower (3400 ppm)
Valeric-acid found in Leaf
Hypothermic
Estragole found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (106670 ppm);found in Plant
Eugenol-methyl-ether found in Plant
Myrcene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (34500 ppm);found in Twig ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Flower
Ileorelaxant
Choline found in Flower (3400 ppm)
Shikimic-acid found in Bark
Immunomodulator
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Immunosuppressant
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Bark
Tannin found in Bark (169000 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Bark
Inflammatory
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Inhalant
Borneol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (62000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Inotropic
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Insect-Repellent
Borneol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (62000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Insecticide
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (312000 ppm);found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Alpha-terpinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (34500 ppm);found in Root ;found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (167000 ppm)
Anethole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Anisaldehyde found in Leaf
D-limonene found in Leaf
Estragole found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (106670 ppm);found in Plant
Furfural found in Root
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Terpineol found in Root
Insectifuge
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Adenine found in Flower
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (312000 ppm);found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Alpha-terpinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (34500 ppm);found in Root ;found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Beta-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (65000 ppm);found in Essential Oil ;found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Leaf (1500 ppm);found in Flower
Beta-terpineol found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Borneol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (62000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Bornyl-acetate found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Camphene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (35000 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Essential Oil
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Caryophyllene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Citronellal found in Leaf Essent. Oil
D-limonene found in Leaf
Delta-3-carene found in Root Essent. Oil (500000 ppm);found in Resin Essent. Oil (360000 ppm)
Estragole found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (106670 ppm);found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Gamma-terpinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (5000 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Essential Oil
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Myrcene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (34500 ppm);found in Twig ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Flower
P-cymene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (1600 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Pinitol found in Bark ;found in Leaf (20000 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Essential Oil
Terpineol found in Root
Insectiphile
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Leaf
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (312000 ppm);found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Quercimeritrin found in Leaf
Insulinase-Inhibitor
Indole-3-acetic-acid found in Shoot ;found in Sprout Seedling
Insulinogenic
(-)-epicatechin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Insulinotonic
Indole-3-acetic-acid found in Shoot ;found in Sprout Seedling
Interferon-Synergist
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Interferonogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Interleukin-6-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (167000 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Irritant
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Leaf
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (312000 ppm);found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Anethole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Beta-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (65000 ppm);found in Essential Oil ;found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Leaf (1500 ppm);found in Flower
Borneol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (62000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Capric-acid found in Leaf
Caproic-acid found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Leaf
Citronellal found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Cuminaldehyde found in Leaf
Delta-3-carene found in Root Essent. Oil (500000 ppm);found in Resin Essent. Oil (360000 ppm)
Dipentene found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Furfural found in Root
Gamma-terpinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (5000 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Essential Oil
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Malonic-acid found in Bark
Myrcene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (34500 ppm);found in Twig ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Flower
P-cymene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (1600 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Essential Oil
Juvabional
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Keratolytic
Sulfur found in Leaf
Lactagogue
Anethole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Larvicide
Caryophyllene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Leaf
Cuminaldehyde found in Leaf
Terpineol found in Root
Larvistat
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Laxative
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Leaf
Fructose found in Bark ;found in Leaf (25000 ppm)
P-cymene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (1600 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Sulfur found in Leaf
Vanillic-acid found in Bark
Leucocytogenic
Anethole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Leukotriene-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Lipolytic
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Lipotropic
Choline found in Flower (3400 ppm)
Lipoxygenase-1-Inhibitor
(-)-epicatechin found in Plant
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
(-)-epicatechin found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
P-coumaric-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Tannin found in Bark (169000 ppm)
Taxifolin found in Leaf
Lithogenic
Adenine found in Flower
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Litholytic
D-limonene found in Leaf
Lubricant
Palmitic-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
Lyase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
MAO-A-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
MAO-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Bark (169000 ppm)
MMP-9-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Mast-Cell-Stabilizer
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Memorigenic
Choline found in Flower (3400 ppm)
Memory-Enhancer
Glucose found in Bark ;found in Leaf (22000 ppm)
Metal-Chelator
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Miotic
Acetyl-choline found in Sprout Seedling
Mosquitocide
Caryophyllene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Leaf
Mosquitofuge
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (167000 ppm)
Motor-Depressant
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (167000 ppm)
Citronellal found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Mucogenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Mucolytic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Mutagenic
Anethole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Estragole found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (106670 ppm);found in Plant
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Shikimic-acid found in Bark
Myocardiotonic
Adenine found in Flower
Myocontractant
Acetyl-choline found in Sprout Seedling
Myopic
Acetyl-choline found in Sprout Seedling
Myorelaxant
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Borneol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (62000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Bornyl-acetate found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf
Eugenol-methyl-ether found in Plant
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Myrcene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (34500 ppm);found in Twig ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Flower
Valeric-acid found in Leaf
Myotonic
Acetyl-choline found in Sprout Seedling
NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
NEP-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Citral found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
NO-Genic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
NO-Synthase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Nematicide
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (167000 ppm)
Borneol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (62000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Citral found in Leaf
Citronellal found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Palmitic-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Essential Oil
Nematistat
Butyric-acid found in Leaf
Neoplastic
Fructose found in Bark ;found in Leaf (25000 ppm)
Nephroprotective
Anethole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Nephrotoxic
D-limonene found in Leaf
Protocatechuic-acid found in Bark
Neurotoxic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Neurotransmitter
Acetyl-choline found in Sprout Seedling
Occuloirritant
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Tannin found in Bark (169000 ppm)
Oviposition-Stimulant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Ovulant
Stigmasterol found in Plant
Oxidase-Inhibitor
Taxifolin found in Leaf
Ozone-Scavenger
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
P450-2B1-Inhibitor
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (312000 ppm);found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Alpha-terpinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (34500 ppm);found in Root ;found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Citral found in Leaf
Citronellal found in Leaf Essent. Oil
D-limonene found in Leaf
Myrcene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (34500 ppm);found in Twig ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Flower
P450-Inducer
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (22300 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Essential Oil
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
P450-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
PGE2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
PTK-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Pancreatogenic
(-)-epicatechin found in Plant
Parasiticide
Sulfur found in Leaf
Parasympathomimetic
Acetyl-choline found in Sprout Seedling
Choline found in Flower (3400 ppm)
Pediculicide
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Perfume
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Perfumery
Alpha-humulene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (4600 ppm)
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Leaf
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (312000 ppm);found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Alpha-terpinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (34500 ppm);found in Root ;found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (167000 ppm)
Beta-myrcene found in Leaf ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Beta-phellandrene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (13000 ppm);found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Beta-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (65000 ppm);found in Essential Oil ;found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Leaf (1500 ppm);found in Flower
Beta-selinene found in Wood
Beta-terpineol found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Borneol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (62000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Caryophyllene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Leaf
Citral found in Leaf
Citronellal found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Cuminaldehyde found in Leaf
Estragole found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (106670 ppm);found in Plant
Fenchone found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Gamma-terpinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (5000 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Essential Oil
Myrcene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (34500 ppm);found in Twig ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Flower
Propionaldehyde found in Root
Sabinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (4500 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Terpineol found in Root
Terpinolene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (26000 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Flower
Valeric-acid found in Leaf
Ylangene found in Essential Oil
Peristaltic
Acetyl-choline found in Sprout Seedling
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Pesticide
(-)-epicatechin found in Plant
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Adenine found in Flower
Alpha-cadinol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (19000 ppm);found in Leaf
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Leaf
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (312000 ppm);found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Alpha-terpinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (34500 ppm);found in Root ;found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (167000 ppm)
Anethole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Anisaldehyde found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Beta-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (65000 ppm);found in Essential Oil ;found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Leaf (1500 ppm);found in Flower
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
Beta-terpineol found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Borneol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (62000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Bornyl-acetate found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Butyric-acid found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Camphene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (35000 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Essential Oil
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Capric-acid found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Leaf
Chamazulene found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Citral found in Leaf
Citronellal found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Cuminaldehyde found in Leaf
D-limonene found in Leaf
Dehydroabietane found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Wood
Dehydroabietic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (70000 ppm);found in Shoot
Delta-3-carene found in Root Essent. Oil (500000 ppm);found in Resin Essent. Oil (360000 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (22300 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Essential Oil
Dipentene found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Furfural found in Root
Gamma-terpinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (5000 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Essential Oil
Ginnol found in Pollen Or Spore
Indole-3-acetic-acid found in Shoot ;found in Sprout Seedling
Isopimaric-acid found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Myrcene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (34500 ppm);found in Twig ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Flower
Neoabietic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (180000 ppm);found in Shoot
P-coumaric-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
P-cymene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (1600 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Bark
P-hydroxyacetophenone found in Leaf
P-methoxy-cinnamic-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
Palmitic-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
Phenol found in Wood
Pinitol found in Bark ;found in Leaf (20000 ppm)
Pinocembrin found in Wood
Pinosylvin found in Shoot ;found in Wood (8000 ppm)
Protocatechuic-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Quercimeritrin found in Leaf
Shikimic-acid found in Bark
Sulfur found in Leaf
Tannin found in Bark (169000 ppm)
Taxifolin found in Leaf
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Essential Oil
Terpineol found in Root
Terpinolene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (26000 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Essential Oil ;found in Flower
Vanillic-acid found in Bark
Phospholipase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Photosensitizer
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Phytoalexin
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Bark
Pinosylvin found in Shoot ;found in Wood (8000 ppm)
Plasmodicide
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Preservative
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Sucrose found in Bark ;found in Leaf (17000 ppm)
Previtamin-A
Alpha-carotene found in Leaf
Gamma-carotene found in Leaf
Proliferant
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Prooxidant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Lutein found in Leaf
Propecic
Palmitic-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
Prostaglandigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
P-coumaric-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Bark
Protocatechuic-acid found in Bark
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
P-coumaric-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Prostatitigenic
Citral found in Leaf
Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Protisticide
Abietic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (180000 ppm);found in Shoot
Dehydroabietic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (70000 ppm);found in Shoot
Neoabietic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (180000 ppm);found in Shoot
Psychotropic
Tannin found in Bark (169000 ppm)
Quinone-Reductase-Inducer
Lutein found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
RNA-genic
Taxifolin found in Leaf
Renoirritant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Essential Oil
Respirainhibitor
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Respirastimulant
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Reverse-Transcriptase-Inhibitor
(-)-epicatechin found in Plant
Rodenticide
Phenol found in Wood
Rubefacient
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Scabicide
Sulfur found in Leaf
Schistosomicide
Abietic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (180000 ppm);found in Shoot
Dehydroabietic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (70000 ppm);found in Shoot
Neoabietic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (180000 ppm);found in Shoot
Secretogogue
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Anethole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Bark
Protocatechuic-acid found in Bark
Secretolytic
Anethole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Fenchone found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Sedative
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (312000 ppm);found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (167000 ppm)
Borneol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (62000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Bornyl-acetate found in Leaf (175 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Leaf
Citral found in Leaf
Citronellal found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Cuminaldehyde found in Leaf
Dipentene found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
P-cymene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (1600 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Stigmasterol found in Plant
Valeric-acid found in Leaf
Sialogogue
Acetyl-choline found in Sprout Seedling
Soap
Palmitic-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
Spasmogenic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Acetyl-choline found in Sprout Seedling
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (312000 ppm);found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Alpha-terpinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (34500 ppm);found in Root ;found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Beta-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (65000 ppm);found in Essential Oil ;found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Leaf (1500 ppm);found in Flower
Camphene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (35000 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Essential Oil
Spermicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Essential Oil
Stimulant
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Sunscreen
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
Surfactant
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Sweetener
Anethole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Fructose found in Bark ;found in Leaf (25000 ppm)
Galactose found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Maltose found in Plant
Sucrose found in Bark ;found in Leaf (17000 ppm)
Sympathomimetic
Anethole found in Leaf Essent. Oil
TNF-alpha-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Teratogenic
Citral found in Leaf
Citronellal found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Teratologic
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Termiticide
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (167000 ppm)
Delta-cadinol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (9100 ppm)
Termitifuge
Caryophyllene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Leaf
Testosterone-Hydroxylase-Inducer
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Testosterone-Inducer
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (22300 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Essential Oil
Thymoprotective
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Tranquilizer
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (312000 ppm);found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Borneol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (62000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Essential Oil
Valeric-acid found in Leaf
Transdermal
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (312000 ppm);found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (167000 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (65000 ppm);found in Essential Oil ;found in Root Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Twig ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Leaf (1500 ppm);found in Flower
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Limonene found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Shoot ;found in Resin, Exudate, Sap ;found in Flower ;found in Essential Oil
Trichomonicide
1,8-cineole found in Leaf
Citral found in Leaf
P-cymene found in Leaf Essent. Oil (1600 ppm);found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Triglycerigenic
Sucrose found in Bark ;found in Leaf (17000 ppm)
Trypanocide
Citral found in Leaf
Tumorigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
Anisaldehyde found in Leaf
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Citral found in Leaf
Cuminaldehyde found in Leaf
P-coumaric-acid found in Pollen Or Spore
Protocatechuic-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Ubiquiot
Beta-carotene found in Leaf
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
Lutein found in Leaf
Neoxanthin found in Leaf
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Bark
Protocatechuic-acid found in Bark
Vanillic-acid found in Bark
Violaxanthin found in Leaf
Ulcerogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark ;found in Shoot ;found in Pollen Or Spore ;found in Plant
Cuminaldehyde found in Leaf
Uricogenic
Sucrose found in Bark ;found in Leaf (17000 ppm)
Uricosuric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Urinary-Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Uterosedative
Ferulic-acid found in Bark
VEGF-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Vasodilator
(-)-epicatechin found in Plant
Acetyl-choline found in Sprout Seedling
Adenine found in Flower
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Phenol found in Wood
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Verrucolytic
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Vibriocide
Camphor found in Leaf Essent. Oil
Vulnerary
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf Essent. Oil (167000 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3000 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf
Chamazulene found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Sucrose found in Bark ;found in Leaf (17000 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf Essent. Oil ;found in Essential Oil
iNOS-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark ;found in Leaf

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
(+)-1,2-dehydropinidinol Plant
(+)-alpha-pinene Leaf
(+)-beta-pinene Leaf
(+)-camphene Leaf
(+)-car-3-ene Leaf Essent. Oil
(+)-catechin Bark
Leaf
Plant
(+)-gallocatechin Leaf
(+)-limonene Leaf
(+)-pinifolic-acid Plant
(-)-alpha-cadinol Stem Essent. Oil
(-)-alpha-pinene Leaf
(-)-beta-pinene Leaf
(-)-camphene Leaf
(-)-epicatechin Plant
(-)-limonene Leaf
(-)-t-muurolol Stem Essent. Oil
1,2-dehydropinidinone Plant
1,8-cineole Leaf
1-4-cineol Leaf Essent. Oil
10,16-dihydroxy-hexadecanoic-acid Pollen Or Spore
12-hydroxyabietic-acid Shoot
12-hydroxyabietic-acid-methyl-ester Shoot
12-oxoabietic-acid Shoot
13-oxopodocarp-8-enoic-acid Leaf
18-acetoxy-anticopalic-acid Leaf
Shoot
18-nordehydroabiet-4(19)-ene Resin, Exudate, Sap
18-nordehydroabietan-4-alpha-ol Plant
18-nordehydroyabiet-4-alpha-ol Resin, Exudate, Sap
18-norpimara-8,15-dien-4-alpha-ol Resin, Exudate, Sap
19-norisopimara-8,14,15-dien-3-one Plant
19-norpimara-8(14),15-dien-3-one Plant
2-(4-glucosyl-oxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-7-hydroxy-3-hydroxy-methyl-5-(3-hydroxy-propyl)-benzofuran Leaf
2-(4-rhamnosyl-oxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-7-hydroxy-3-hydroxy-methyl-5-(3-hydroxy-propyl)-benzofuran Leaf
3,7,7-trimethyl-cyclohepta-1,3,5-trien Resin, Exudate, Sap 7,000
3-glucosyl-oxy-2-(2-hydroxy-4-(3-hydroxy-4-(3-hydroxy-propyl)-phenoxy)-3-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-propanol Leaf
3-hydroxy-1(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-propanone Bark
3-hydroxy-2-(2-hydroxy-4-(3-hydroxy-propyl)-phenoxy)-3-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-propanol Leaf
3-hydroxy-2-(2-hydroxy-4-(3-hydroxy-propyl)-phenoxy)-3-(3-methoxy-4-xylosyl-oxy-phenyl)-propanol Leaf
3-hydroxy-2-(2-hydroxy-4-(3-rhamnosyl-oxy-propyl)-phenoxy)-3-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-propanol Leaf
4-chloroindole-3-acetic-acid Seed
6''-di-o-p-coumaroyl-trifolin Leaf 13
8,13-epoxy-labd-14-en-19-oic-acid Leaf
8,16-dihydroxy-hexadecanoic-acid Pollen Or Spore
8,9-isopimaric-acid Plant
8-hydroxy-12-oxoabiet-13(14)-enoic-acid Leaf 100
9,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic-acid Pollen Or Spore
Abieta-7,13,15-trien-18-oic-acid-methyl-ester Resin, Exudate, Sap
Abieta-8,11,13-triene-15,18-diol Plant
Abietadiene Wood
Abietic-acid Resin, Exudate, Sap 180,000
Shoot
Abietic-acid-methyl-ester Shoot
Abietinal Resin, Exudate, Sap
Abietinol Resin, Exudate, Sap
Acetyl-choline Sprout Seedling
Adenine Flower
Alpha-cadinene Leaf Essent. Oil
Wood
Alpha-cadinol Leaf Essent. Oil 19,000
Leaf
Alpha-calacorene Wood
Alpha-carotene Leaf
Alpha-copaene Leaf Essent. Oil 500
Wood
Essential Oil
Alpha-fenchene Leaf Essent. Oil
Alpha-fenchol Essential Oil
Alpha-humulene Leaf Essent. Oil 4,600
Alpha-longipinene Resin, Exudate, Sap
Alpha-muurolene Leaf Essent. Oil 9,900 93,000
Wood
Stem
Essential Oil
Alpha-phellandrene Leaf Essent. Oil
Essential Oil
Leaf
Alpha-pinene Leaf Essent. Oil 312,000
Root Essent. Oil 175,000 200,000
Leaf 600 2,500
Plant
Twig
Resin, Exudate, Sap
Flower
Essential Oil
Alpha-terpinene Leaf Essent. Oil 34,500
Root
Leaf
Essential Oil
Alpha-terpineol Leaf Essent. Oil 6,500 167,000
Alpha-terpineol acetate Leaf Essent. Oil
Alpha-thujene Leaf Essent. Oil
Alpha-ylangene Leaf Essent. Oil 500
Androstenedione Pollen Or Spore
Anethole Leaf Essent. Oil
Anisaldehyde Leaf
Arabinose Leaf 600
Ascorbic-acid Leaf 3,000
Benzoic-acid Leaf
Beta-carotene Leaf
Beta-caryophyllene Leaf Essent. Oil 13,900
Essential Oil
Beta-copaene Leaf Essent. Oil
Stem
Beta-elemene Essential Oil
Beta-farnesene Leaf Essent. Oil 600
Beta-fenchene Leaf Essent. Oil
Beta-guaiene Leaf Essent. Oil 4,100
Beta-myrcene Leaf
Resin, Exudate, Sap
Beta-phellandrene Leaf Essent. Oil 13,000
Twig
Resin, Exudate, Sap
Flower
Essential Oil
Beta-pinene Leaf Essent. Oil 65,000
Essential Oil
Root Essent. Oil 175,000 200,000
Twig
Resin, Exudate, Sap
Leaf 200 1,500
Flower
Beta-selinene Wood
Beta-sitosterol Bark
Shoot
Pollen Or Spore
Plant
Beta-terpineol Leaf Essent. Oil
Beta-ylangene Leaf
Borneol Leaf Essent. Oil 6,500 62,000
Leaf
Essential Oil
Borneol-acetate Leaf Essent. Oil 9,600
Essential Oil
Bornyl-acetate Leaf 60 175
Butyric-acid Leaf
Caffeic-acid Leaf
Calacorene Leaf Essent. Oil
Essential Oil
Calamenene Leaf Essent. Oil
Essential Oil
Campesterol Bark
Plant
Camphene Leaf Essent. Oil 35,000
Resin, Exudate, Sap
Essential Oil
Camphor Leaf Essent. Oil
Capric-acid Leaf
Caproic-acid Leaf
Capronaldehyde Leaf
Car-2-ene Essential Oil
Car-3(10)-ene Essential Oil
Car-3-ene Leaf Essent. Oil 252,000
Essential Oil
Flower
Plant
Shoot
Resin, Exudate, Sap
Carotenes Leaf 170
Caryophyllene Leaf Essent. Oil
Leaf
Cerotic-acid Flower
Chamazulene Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid Leaf
Choline Flower 3,400
Cis-beta-ocimene Leaf
Citral Leaf
Citronellal Leaf Essent. Oil
Copaborneol Stem
Copaene Resin, Exudate, Sap
Cryptone Leaf
Cuminaldehyde Leaf
D-delta-4-carene Root
D-inositol Bark
D-limonene Leaf
D-myrcene Resin, Exudate, Sap
D-pimaric-acid Resin, Exudate, Sap 80,000
Dehydroabietane Resin, Exudate, Sap
Wood
Dehydroabietic-acid Resin, Exudate, Sap 70,000
Shoot
Dehydroabietinal Resin, Exudate, Sap
Dehydroabietinol Shoot
Dehydropinifolic-acid Leaf
Delta-3-carene Root Essent. Oil 400,000 500,000
Resin Essent. Oil 13,000 360,000
Delta-cadinene Leaf Essent. Oil 22,300
Resin, Exudate, Sap
Essential Oil
Delta-cadinol Leaf Essent. Oil 9,100
Delta-elemene Leaf Essent. Oil 500
Di-p-coumaroyl-trifolin Leaf
Dihydro-beta-sitosterol Bark
Dihydro-p-coumaric-alcohol Bark
Dihydroconiferyl-alcohol Bark
Dihydroquercetin Bark
Dipentene Resin, Exudate, Sap
Dl-limonene Resin, Exudate, Sap
Dl-t-cadinol Stem Essent. Oil
Eo Leaf 2,000 5,000
Root
Epimanoiloxide Resin, Exudate, Sap
Epitestosterone Pollen Or Spore
Epsilon-muurolene Leaf Essent. Oil
Essential Oil
Stem
Eriodictyol-3'-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside Leaf
Esters Leaf 64 122
Estragole Leaf Essent. Oil
Resin, Exudate, Sap 106,670
Plant
Eugenol-methyl-ether Plant
Fenchol Leaf Essent. Oil
Fenchone Leaf Essent. Oil
Ferulic-acid Bark
Fructose Bark
Leaf 25,000
Furfural Root
Galactose Leaf 30
Gamma-cadinene Leaf Essent. Oil 2,500
Wood
Resin, Exudate, Sap
Essential Oil
Gamma-carotene Leaf
Gamma-muurolene Leaf Essent. Oil 4,000
Wood
Stem
Essential Oil
Gamma-patchoulene Leaf Essent. Oil
Gamma-terpinene Leaf Essent. Oil 5,000
Resin, Exudate, Sap
Essential Oil
Geranylgeraniol-acetate Shoot
Ginnol Pollen Or Spore
Glucosamine Shoot
Glucose Bark
Leaf 22,000
Guaiacyl-glycerin-beta-d-glucoside Leaf
Guanosine Flower
Hexan-1-ol Flower
Homoprotocatechuic-acid Leaf
Humulene Essential Oil
Indole-3-acetic-acid Shoot
Sprout Seedling
Indole-3-aldehyde Seed
Indole-3-methanol Sprout Seedling
Isoabienol Leaf 8,000
Isocaproic-acid Leaf
Isodextropimaric-acid Resin, Exudate, Sap 80,000
Isopimara-7,15-dien-18-al Plant
Isopimara-7,15-diene Plant
Isopimaradiene Wood
Isopimaric-acid Plant
Shoot
Isopimarinal Resin, Exudate, Sap
Isopimarinol Shoot
Juniperic-acid Leaf
L-histidine Flower
L-limonene Leaf
L-pimaric-acid Resin, Exudate, Sap 180,000
Shoot
Limonene Leaf Essent. Oil
Shoot
Resin, Exudate, Sap
Flower
Essential Oil
Linarin Leaf
Longicyclene Resin, Exudate, Sap
Longifolene Leaf Essent. Oil 2,600
Resin, Exudate, Sap
Wood
Lutein Leaf
Lutein-epoxide Leaf
M-coumaric-acid Pollen Or Spore
M-menth-6-en-8-ol Resin, Exudate, Sap
M-mentha-1,3(8)-diene Resin, Exudate, Sap
M-mentha-6,8-diene Resin, Exudate, Sap
Malonic-acid Bark
Maltose Plant
Manoyl-oxide-acid Leaf 3,100
Melibiose Leaf 3,000
Plant
Meso-inositol Leaf 3,000
Methyl-dehydroabietane Resin, Exudate, Sap
Monoterpenes Leaf 1,000 4,850
Muurolene Resin, Exudate, Sap
Myo-inositol Bark
Myrcene Leaf Essent. Oil 34,500
Twig
Essential Oil
Flower
N-(3-indole-acetyl)-aspartic-acid Shoot 60
N-nonacosane Bark
Neoabietic-acid Resin, Exudate, Sap 180,000
Shoot
Neoxanthin Leaf
Octadecadienoic-acid Pollen Or Spore
Octadecenoic-acid Pollen Or Spore
P-coumaric-acid Pollen Or Spore
P-cymene Leaf Essent. Oil 1,600
Resin, Exudate, Sap
P-cymol Leaf Essent. Oil
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid Bark
P-hydroxyacetophenone Leaf
P-menthanol-4 Root
P-methoxy-cinnamic-acid Pollen Or Spore
Palmitic-acid Pollen Or Spore
Palustric-acid Resin, Exudate, Sap 100,000
Shoot
Pectolinarin Leaf
Phenol Wood
Pimar-15-en-4,8-diol Resin, Exudate, Sap
Pimaradiene Resin, Exudate, Sap
Pimaric-acid Shoot
Pimarinal Resin, Exudate, Sap
Pimarinol Resin, Exudate, Sap
Shoot
Pinicorretin Bark
Pinifolic-acid Leaf
Shoot
Pinifolic-acid-monomethyl-ester Leaf
Pinipicrin Leaf
Pinitol Bark
Leaf 20,000
Pinobanksin Stem
Pinocarveol Leaf Essent. Oil
Pinocembrin Wood
Pinosylvin Shoot
Wood 2,500 8,000
Pinosylvinmonomethylether Wood 3,000
Procyanidin-b-1 Leaf
Procyanidin-b-3 Leaf
Procyanidin-b-6 Leaf
Procyanidin-c-2 Leaf
Prodelphinidin Leaf
Propionaldehyde Root
Protocatechuic-acid Bark
Quercetin Bark
Leaf
Quercetin-3-(6''-o-acetyl-beta-d-glucoside) Leaf 34.5
Quercetin-3-o-beta-d-glucoside Leaf
Quercetin-7-beta-glucoside Leaf
Quercimeritrin Leaf
Quinic-acid Bark
Raffinose Bark
Leaf 8,000
Rheosmin-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside Leaf 306
Rhodoxanthin Leaf
Roseoside Leaf 280
Sabinene Leaf Essent. Oil 4,500
Leaf
Essential Oil
Sabinic-acid Leaf
Salicylic-acid-methyl-ester Flower
Scoparol Leaf
Sequoyitol Bark
Shikimic-acid Bark
Stachyose Plant
Stigmasterol Plant
Sucrose Bark
Leaf 17,000
Sulfur Leaf
Sylpin Leaf 3
Sylvestrene Resin, Exudate, Sap
T-cadinol Leaf Essent. Oil 2,000
Leaf
T-muurolol Leaf Essent. Oil 1.14
Leaf
Tannin Bark 169,000
Taxifolin Leaf
Taxifolin-3'-o-beta-d-glucoside Leaf
Terpinen-4-ol Leaf Essent. Oil
Essential Oil
Terpinenol Root
Terpineol Root
Terpinolene Leaf Essent. Oil 26,000
Resin, Exudate, Sap
Essential Oil
Flower
Testosterone Pollen Or Spore
Tetracosanol-(1) Bark
Trans-beta-ocimene Leaf Essent. Oil 14,000
Tricyclene Leaf Essent. Oil 4,400
Essential Oil
Resin, Exudate, Sap
Valeric-acid Leaf
Vanillic-acid Bark
Violaxanthin Leaf
Vit-e Leaf 280
Xylose Leaf 200
Ylangene Essential Oil
Zingerone-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside Leaf 336
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]