Pimenta racemosa Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
bay-rum-tree West Indian bay

Pimenta racemosa is a species of plant in the myrtle family that is native to the Caribbean region. Common names include West Indian bay tree, bay rum tree, and ciliment. It is used in cooking and an essential oil is distilled to produce a fragrant cologne called bay rum; although bay rum is essentially rum, the concentrated essential oil is toxic and renders the product undrinkable. The tree is 4-12 m tall and the white flowers, about 10mm wide, become black, oval fruits measuring 7-12 mm. The plants are now grown widely in other tropical areas, including Oceania. The ideal conditions for P. racemosa are regular irrigation and bright sunshine.

Pimenta racemosa

Medical use

Economic importance of Pimenta racemosa

Medicines folklore

Gallery

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Biological activities

ACE-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf (415 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (16 ppm)
Myrcene found in Leaf (23800 ppm)
AChE-Inhibitor
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Abortifacient
Thujone found in Leaf (16 ppm)
Acaricide
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Alpha-cadinol found in Leaf (36 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (16 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf (415 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf (145 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (16 ppm)
Myrcene found in Leaf (23800 ppm)
Allelochemic
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Allelopathic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf (415 ppm)
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf (215 ppm)
Allergenic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Leaf (35 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Geraniol found in Leaf (560 ppm)
Geranyl-acetate found in Leaf (270 ppm)
Isoeugenol found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Myrcene found in Leaf (23800 ppm)
Analgesic
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Myrcene found in Leaf (23800 ppm)
P-cymene found in Leaf (750 ppm)
Anesthetic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Leaf (16770 ppm)
Anthelmintic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Geraniol found in Leaf (560 ppm)
Thujone found in Leaf (16 ppm)
AntiEBV
Geranial found in Leaf (18090 ppm)
AntiTNF
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Isoeugenol found in Leaf
Antiacetylcholinesterase
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (16 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
P-cymene found in Leaf (750 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf (215 ppm)
Antiacne
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf (415 ppm)
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf (145 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf (215 ppm)
Antiadenomic
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Antiaflatoxin
Geranial found in Leaf (18090 ppm)
Antiaggregant
Estragole found in Leaf (10745 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Isoeugenol found in Leaf
Antiallergenic
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Antiallergic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf (215 ppm)
Antianaphylactic
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Antiarachidonate
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf (215 ppm)
Antibacillary
P-cymene found in Leaf (750 ppm)
Antibacterial
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf (415 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf (145 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Geranial found in Leaf (18090 ppm)
Geraniol found in Leaf (560 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Leaf (16770 ppm)
Myrcene found in Leaf (23800 ppm)
Neral found in Leaf (11080 ppm)
Nerol found in Leaf (110 ppm)
P-cymene found in Leaf (750 ppm)
Sabinene found in Plant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf (215 ppm)
Thujone found in Leaf (16 ppm)
Antibronchitic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Anticancer
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf (415 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Anticariogenic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf (415 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf (145 ppm)
Geraniol found in Leaf (560 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Anticatarrh
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Anticholinesterase
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Anticolic
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Anticonvulsant
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Leaf (16770 ppm)
Myrcene found in Leaf (23800 ppm)
Antidermatitic
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Antidiarrheic
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Antidysenteric
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Antiedemic
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Caryophyllene-oxide found in Leaf (18 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Antiemetic
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Antiesophagitic
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Antiestrogenic
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Antifatigue
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Antifeedant
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Caryophyllene-oxide found in Leaf (18 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (16 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Leaf (16770 ppm)
Antifibrositic
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Antiflu
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Neryl-acetate found in Leaf
P-cymene found in Leaf (750 ppm)
Antigenotoxic
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Antiglutamaergic
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Antihalitosic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Antihelicobacter
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Nerol found in Leaf (110 ppm)
Sabinene found in Plant
Antiherpetic
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Antihistaminic
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Antiinflammatory
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf (415 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Leaf (35 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Caryophyllene-oxide found in Leaf (18 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Isoeugenol found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Antikeratotic
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Antilaryngitic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Antileishmanic
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Antileukemic
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Antilithic
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Antilymphomic
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Antimange
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Antimelanomic
Geraniol found in Leaf (560 ppm)
Antimite
Alpha-cadinol found in Leaf (36 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Antimitotic
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Antimutagenic
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Myrcene found in Leaf (23800 ppm)
Antineuralgic
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Antinitrosaminic
Myrcene found in Leaf (23800 ppm)
Antinitrosating
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Antinociceptive
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Myrcene found in Leaf (23800 ppm)
Antiobesity
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Antionychyotic
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Antioxidant
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (16 ppm)
Isoeugenol found in Leaf
Methyl-eugenol found in Leaf (16770 ppm)
Myrcene found in Leaf (23800 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf (215 ppm)
Antipharyngitic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Antiplaque
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Antipneumonic
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Antiproliferant
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf (415 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Antiprostaglandin
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Antipruritic
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Antipyretic
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Antiradicular
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Leaf (16770 ppm)
Antirheumatalgic
P-cymene found in Leaf (750 ppm)
Antirheumatic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Antirhinitic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Antisalmonella
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Geraniol found in Leaf (560 ppm)
Antiseptic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf (415 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Leaf (35 ppm)
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Geraniol found in Leaf (560 ppm)
Hexanol found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Leaf (16770 ppm)
Nerol found in Leaf (110 ppm)
Sabinene found in Plant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf (215 ppm)
Thujone found in Leaf (16 ppm)
Antishock
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Antisinusitic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Antispasmodic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Leaf (35 ppm)
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Geraniol found in Leaf (560 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Myrcene found in Leaf (23800 ppm)
Neral found in Leaf (11080 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf (215 ppm)
Thujone found in Leaf (16 ppm)
Antistaphylococcic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Antistreptococcic
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf (145 ppm)
Antithromboxane
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Antitubercular
Geraniol found in Leaf (560 ppm)
Antitumor
Alpha-humulene found in Leaf (36 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Caryophyllene-oxide found in Leaf (18 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Geraniol found in Leaf (560 ppm)
Isoeugenol found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Antitussive
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf (215 ppm)
Antiulcer
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Nerol found in Leaf (110 ppm)
Sabinene found in Plant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf (215 ppm)
Antiviral
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Geranial found in Leaf (18090 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Neryl-acetate found in Leaf
P-cymene found in Leaf (750 ppm)
Antiyeast
Geranial found in Leaf (18090 ppm)
Apifuge
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Apoptotic
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Ascaricide
Geraniol found in Leaf (560 ppm)
Bacteriostatic
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf (215 ppm)
Bacteristat
Isoeugenol found in Leaf
Barbituate-Synergist
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Bronchoprotectant
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Bronchorelaxant
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
CNS-Depressant
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Eugenol-methyl-ether found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
CNS-Stimulant
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Geraniol found in Leaf (560 ppm)
COX-1-Inhibitor
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
COX-2-Inhibitor
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Calcium-Antagonist
Caryophyllene-oxide found in Leaf (18 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Estragole found in Leaf (10745 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Methyl-chavicol found in Leaf (12480 ppm)
Cancer-Preventive
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Beta-myrcene found in Leaf
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Estragole found in Leaf (10745 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Eugenol-methyl-ether found in Leaf
Geraniol found in Leaf (560 ppm)
Isoeugenol found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Leaf (16770 ppm)
Candidicide
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Leaf (35 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Geraniol found in Leaf (560 ppm)
Candidistat
Isoeugenol found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Carcinogenic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Estragole found in Leaf (10745 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Leaf (16770 ppm)
Carminative
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Copaene found in Leaf (70 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Caspase-3-Inducer
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Cerebrodepressant
Thujone found in Leaf (16 ppm)
Chemopreventive
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Geranial found in Leaf (18090 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Myrcene found in Leaf (23800 ppm)
Choleretic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Cholesterolytic
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Cicatrizant
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf (415 ppm)
Coleoptophile
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Convulsant
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Thujone found in Leaf (16 ppm)
Cosmetic
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Counterirritant
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Thujone found in Leaf (16 ppm)
Culicide
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Cytochrome-P450-Inducer
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf (145 ppm)
Cytochrome-P450-Inhibitor
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Cytotoxic
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Isoeugenol found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
DNA-Binder
Estragole found in Leaf (10745 ppm)
Eugenol-methyl-ether found in Leaf
Methyl-chavicol found in Leaf (12480 ppm)
Decongestant
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Degranulant
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Deliriant
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Dentifrice
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Chrysanthenone found in Leaf (255 ppm)
Dermal
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Dermatitigenic
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Detoxicant
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Diuretic
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf (215 ppm)
Ecbolic
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Edemagenic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Embryotoxic
Geraniol found in Leaf (560 ppm)
Emetic
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Geraniol found in Leaf (560 ppm)
Emmenagogue
Thujone found in Leaf (16 ppm)
Enterocontractant
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Enterorelaxant
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Epileptigenic
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Thujone found in Leaf (16 ppm)
Estrogenic
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Geranial found in Leaf (18090 ppm)
Nerol found in Leaf (110 ppm)
Expectorant
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Beta-phellandrene found in Leaf (780 ppm)
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Geraniol found in Leaf (560 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
FLavor
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
3-octanol found in Leaf (540 ppm)
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf (415 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Leaf (35 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Cis-3-hexenol found in Leaf
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Estragole found in Leaf (10745 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (16 ppm)
Geraniol found in Leaf (560 ppm)
Geranyl-acetate found in Leaf (270 ppm)
Hexanol found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Leaf (16770 ppm)
Myrcene found in Leaf (23800 ppm)
Nerol found in Leaf (110 ppm)
Neryl-acetate found in Leaf
P-cymene found in Leaf (750 ppm)
Fungicide
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Beta-phellandrene found in Leaf (780 ppm)
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Caryophyllene-oxide found in Leaf (18 ppm)
Chavicol found in Leaf (8580 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Geranial found in Leaf (18090 ppm)
Geraniol found in Leaf (560 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Leaf (16770 ppm)
Myrcene found in Leaf (23800 ppm)
P-cymene found in Leaf (750 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf (215 ppm)
Fungiphilic
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Fungistat
Isoeugenol found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Leaf (16770 ppm)
GABA-nergic
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
GST-Inducer
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Gastroprotective
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Glaucomagenic
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Glutathionigenic
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Geranial found in Leaf (18090 ppm)
Hallucinogenic
Thujone found in Leaf (16 ppm)
Hepatocarcinogenic
Estragole found in Leaf (10745 ppm)
Methyl-chavicol found in Leaf (12480 ppm)
Hepatoprotective
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Hepatotonic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Herbicide
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Leaf (35 ppm)
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Geraniol found in Leaf (560 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
P-cymene found in Leaf (750 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf (215 ppm)
Thujone found in Leaf (16 ppm)
Histaminic
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Hypnotic
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Hypotensive
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Hypothermic
Estragole found in Leaf (10745 ppm)
Eugenol-methyl-ether found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Methyl-chavicol found in Leaf (12480 ppm)
Myrcene found in Leaf (23800 ppm)
Immunomodulator
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Inflammatory
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Insect-Repellent
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Insecticide
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf (415 ppm)
Caryophyllene-oxide found in Leaf (18 ppm)
Estragole found in Leaf (10745 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Methyl-chavicol found in Leaf (12480 ppm)
Ocimene found in Leaf (340 ppm)
Insectifuge
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Leaf (35 ppm)
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Estragole found in Leaf (10745 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (16 ppm)
Geraniol found in Leaf (560 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Leaf (16770 ppm)
Myrcene found in Leaf (23800 ppm)
P-cymene found in Leaf (750 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf (215 ppm)
Insectiphile
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Geraniol found in Leaf (560 ppm)
Geranyl-acetate found in Leaf (270 ppm)
Interleukin-6-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf (415 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Irritant
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Leaf (35 ppm)
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (16 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Myrcene found in Leaf (23800 ppm)
P-cymene found in Leaf (750 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf (215 ppm)
Juvabional
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Larvicide
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Laxative
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
P-cymene found in Leaf (750 ppm)
Lipolytic
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Mosquitocide
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Mosquitofuge
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf (415 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Motor-Depressant
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf (415 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Isoeugenol found in Leaf
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Motor-Stimulant
Isoeugenol found in Leaf
Mutagenic
Estragole found in Leaf (10745 ppm)
Mycobactericide
Geraniol found in Leaf (560 ppm)
Myorelaxant
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Eugenol-methyl-ether found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Leaf (16770 ppm)
Myrcene found in Leaf (23800 ppm)
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
NO-Genic
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
NO-Inhibitor
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Narcotic
Methyl-eugenol found in Leaf (16770 ppm)
Nematicide
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf (415 ppm)
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Chavicol found in Leaf (8580 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Geraniol found in Leaf (560 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Leaf (16770 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf (215 ppm)
Neurotoxic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Thujone found in Leaf (16 ppm)
Occuloirritant
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Ozone-Scavenger
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
P450-2B1-Inhibitor
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Myrcene found in Leaf (23800 ppm)
P450-Inducer
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf (145 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Pediculicide
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Perfume
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Perfumery
3-octanol found in Leaf (540 ppm)
Alpha-humulene found in Leaf (36 ppm)
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf (415 ppm)
Beta-myrcene found in Leaf
Beta-phellandrene found in Leaf (780 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Leaf (35 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Estragole found in Leaf (10745 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (16 ppm)
Geraniol found in Leaf (560 ppm)
Geranyl-acetate found in Leaf (270 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Leaf (16770 ppm)
Myrcene found in Leaf (23800 ppm)
Nerol found in Leaf (110 ppm)
Neryl-acetate found in Leaf
Ocimene found in Leaf (340 ppm)
Sabinene found in Plant
Thujone found in Leaf (16 ppm)
Peristaltic
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Pesticide
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Alpha-cadinol found in Leaf (36 ppm)
Alpha-phellandrene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf (415 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Leaf (35 ppm)
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Caryophyllene-oxide found in Leaf (18 ppm)
Chavicol found in Leaf (8580 ppm)
Chrysanthenone found in Leaf (255 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf (145 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (16 ppm)
Geranial found in Leaf (18090 ppm)
Geraniol found in Leaf (560 ppm)
Germacrene-d found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Hexanol found in Leaf
Isoeugenol found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Methyl-chavicol found in Leaf (12480 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Leaf (16770 ppm)
Myrcene found in Leaf (23800 ppm)
Neral found in Leaf (11080 ppm)
Nerol found in Leaf (110 ppm)
Neryl-acetate found in Leaf
P-cymene found in Leaf (750 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf (215 ppm)
Thujone found in Leaf (16 ppm)
Pheromone
Germacrene-d found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Photosensitizer
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Prooxidant
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Prostatitigenic
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Renoirritant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf (215 ppm)
Respirainhibitor
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Thujone found in Leaf (16 ppm)
Respirastimulant
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Rubefacient
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Secretogogue
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Sedative
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf (415 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Geraniol found in Leaf (560 ppm)
Geranyl-acetate found in Leaf (270 ppm)
Isoeugenol found in Leaf
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Leaf (16770 ppm)
Nerol found in Leaf (110 ppm)
P-cymene found in Leaf (750 ppm)
Spasmogenic
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Leaf (35 ppm)
Spasmolytic
Geranial found in Leaf (18090 ppm)
Spermicide
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf (215 ppm)
Stimulant
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Surfactant
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Teratogenic
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Termiticide
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf (415 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Neral found in Leaf (11080 ppm)
Termitifuge
Caryophyllene found in Leaf (305 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Testosterone-Hydroxylase-Inducer
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Testosterone-Inducer
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf (145 ppm)
Toxic
Thujone found in Leaf (16 ppm)
Tranquilizer
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Transdermal
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Leaf (950 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf (415 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Leaf (35 ppm)
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Limonene found in Leaf (6870 ppm)
Trichomonicide
1,8-cineole found in Leaf (680 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Geraniol found in Leaf (560 ppm)
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Nerol found in Leaf (110 ppm)
P-cymene found in Leaf (750 ppm)
Trichomonistat
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Isoeugenol found in Leaf
Trypanocide
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Trypsin-Enhancer
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Tumor-Promoter
Linalool found in Leaf (1080 ppm)
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
Citral found in Leaf (31200 ppm)
Ulcerogenic
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Varroacide
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Vasodilator
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Vermifuge
Eugenol found in Leaf (21840 ppm)
Verrucolytic
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Vibriocide
Camphor found in Leaf (240 ppm)
Vulnerary
Alpha-terpineol found in Leaf (415 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Leaf (215 ppm)

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
(e)-anethole Leaf 0 32
(e)-ocimene Leaf 0 65
(e,e)-alpha-farnesene Leaf 0 36
(z)-ocimene Leaf 0 16
1,8-cineole Leaf 0 680
1-octen-3-ol Leaf 100 440
1-octen-3-yl-acetate Leaf
2,3-dehydro-1,8-cineole Leaf 0 16
3-octanol Leaf 30 540
3-octanone Leaf 0 340
6-methyl-hept-5-en-2-one Leaf 0 48
Alpha-amorphene Leaf 10 35
Alpha-cadinene Leaf
Alpha-cadinol Leaf 0 36
Alpha-copaene Leaf 0 70
Alpha-cubebene Leaf
Alpha-cyclocitral Leaf 0 32
Alpha-gurjunene Leaf
Alpha-humulene Leaf 0 36
Alpha-muurolene Leaf
Alpha-p-dimethyl-styrene Leaf
Alpha-phellandrene Leaf 0 950
Alpha-pinene Leaf 0 950
Alpha-terpineol Leaf 0 415
Alpha-thujene Plant
Alpha-ylangene Leaf
Beta-caryophyllene Leaf 0 110
Beta-cedrene Leaf
Beta-copaene Leaf
Beta-myrcene Leaf
Beta-phellandrene Leaf 230 780
Beta-pinene Leaf 1 35
Calacorene Leaf
Calamenene Leaf 0 36
Camphor Leaf 0 240
Caryophyllene Leaf 90 305
Caryophyllene-oxide Leaf 0 18
Chavicol Leaf 0 8,580
Chrysanthenone Leaf 0 255
Cis-3-hexenol Leaf
Cis-alpha-farnesene Leaf
Citral Leaf 8,000 31,200
Copaene Leaf 20 70
Delta-cadinene Leaf 0 145
Delta-elemene Leaf
Docosane Leaf
Eicosane Leaf
Eo Leaf 7,500 39,000
Estragole Leaf 18 10,745
Eugenol Leaf 16 21,840
Eugenol-methyl-ether Leaf
Furfurol Leaf
Gamma-cadinene Leaf
Gamma-terpinene Plant 0 16
Geranial Leaf 0 18,090
Geranic-acid Leaf 0 160
Geraniol Leaf 0 560
Geranyl-acetate Leaf 80 270
Germacrene-d Leaf 0 55
Heneicosane Leaf
Heptadecane Leaf
Hexacosane Leaf
Hexadecane Leaf
Hexanol Leaf
Isoeugenol Leaf
Ledene Leaf
Limonene Leaf 140 6,870
Linalool Leaf 130 1,080
Methyl-chavicol Leaf 30 12,480
Methyl-eugenol Leaf 130 16,770
Methyl-heptenone Leaf 10 35
Monoterpenes Leaf 2,570 8,740
Myrcene Leaf 735 23,800
Neral Leaf 0 11,080
Neric-acid Leaf 0 32
Nerol Leaf 0 110
Neryl-acetate Leaf
Nonadecane Leaf
Ocimene Leaf 100 340
Octadecane Leaf
P-cymen-8-ol Leaf 0 18
P-cymene Leaf 16 750
Pentacosane Leaf
Pentadecane Leaf
Sabinene Plant
Terpinen-4-ol Leaf 0 215
Terpinen-4-yl-acetate Leaf
Terpinoline Leaf 0 100
Tetracosane Leaf
Tetradecane Leaf
Thujone Leaf 0 16
Trans-3-hexenol Leaf
Trans-linalool-oxide Leaf 0 18
Trans-ocimene Leaf 210 715
Tricosane Leaf
Tridecane Leaf
Verbenol Leaf 0 16
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]