Phragmites australis Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
common reed ditch reed giant reed phragmites reed grass
Phragmites australis

Medical use

Economic importance of Phragmites australis

Environmental erosion control
Medicines folklore
Weed potential sed contaminant

Gallery

Phragmites australis Phragmites australis Phragmites australis Phragmites australis Phragmites australis Phragmites australis Phragmites australis Phragmites australis Phragmites australis Phragmites australis Phragmites australis Phragmites australis Phragmites australis Phragmites australis Phragmites australis Phragmites australis Phragmites australis

Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Native
    • Macaronesia: Cape Verde; Portugal - Madeira Islands; Spain - Canary Islands
    • Northern Africa: Algeria; Egypt; Libya; Morocco; Tunisia
    • Northeast Tropical Africa: Chad; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Somalia; Sudan
    • East Tropical Africa: Kenya
    • West-Central Tropical Africa: Cameroon
    • West Tropical Africa: Gambia; Niger; Nigeria; Senegal
    • South Tropical Africa: Mozambique; Zambia; Zimbabwe
    • Southern Africa: Botswana; Lesotho; Namibia; South Africa - Cape Province, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Transvaal; Swaziland
    • Western Indian Ocean: Madagascar
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Arabian Peninsula: Bahrain; Kuwait; Yemen
    • Western Asia: Afghanistan; Cyprus; Iran; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey
    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Russian Federation - Checheno-Ingushetia, Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia, Krasnodar, North Ossetia, Stavropol
    • Siberia: Russian Federation - Altay, Buryatia, Chita, Gorno-Altay, Irkutsk, Kemerovo, Krasnoyarsk, Kurgan, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Tomsk, Tuva, Tyumen, Yakutia-Sakha
    • Middle Asia: Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
    • Mongolia: Mongolia
    • Russian Far East: Russian Federation - Amur, Kamchatka, Khabarovsk, Primorye, Sakhalin
    • China: China
    • Eastern Asia: Japan; Korea
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Native
    • Indian Subcontinent: Pakistan
  • AUSTRALASIA
    Native
    • Australia: Australia - New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia
    Naturalized
    • New Zealand: New Zealand
  • EUROPE
    Native
    • Northern Europe: Denmark; Finland; Ireland; Norway; Sweden; United Kingdom
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czech Republic; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Slovakia; Switzerland
    • East Europe: Belarus; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Russian Federation - European part, Rostov, Volgograd; Ukraine
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Greece ; Italy ; Macedonia; Montenegro; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia
    • Southwestern Europe: France ; Portugal; Spain
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Native
    • Subarctic America: Canada - Northwest Territory
    • Eastern Canada: Canada - New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Quebec
    • Western Canada: Canada - Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Saskatchewan
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wisconsin
    • Northwestern U.S.A.: United States - Colorado, Idaho, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Alabama, Arkansas , Delaware, Florida, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina
    • South-Central U.S.A.: United States - New Mexico, Texas
    • Southwestern U.S.A.: United States - Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah
    • Northern Mexico: Mexico - Baja Norte, Baja Sur, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas
    • Southern Mexico: Mexico - Campeche, Chiapas, Colima, Guanajuato, Jalisco, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Puebla, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Yucatan
    Naturalized
    • United States
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Native
    • Caribbean: Bahamas; Dominican Republic; Guadeloupe; Haiti; Jamaica; Martinique; Puerto Rico; St. Lucia
    • Mesoamerica: Belize; Costa Rica; El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Nicaragua; Panama
    • Northern South America: French Guiana; Guyana; Suriname; Venezuela
    • Western South America: Bolivia; Colombia; Ecuador; Peru
    • Southern South America: Argentina; Chile; Uruguay

Biological activities

Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Aggregant
Sucrose found in Rhizome (51000 ppm)
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Allergenic
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Analgesic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Beta-amyrin found in Shoot
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Fiber found in Rhizome (320000 ppm);found in Shoot (310500 ppm)
AntiAGE
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
AntiCFS
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
AntiCTS
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
AntiLyme
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
AntiPMS
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Calcium found in Shoot (9400 ppm)
Antiacne
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Antiaggregant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antiaging
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Antiallergic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Calcium found in Shoot (9400 ppm)
Antialzheimeran
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antianxiety
Calcium found in Shoot (9400 ppm)
Antiarrhythmic
Calcium found in Shoot (9400 ppm)
Antiarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Calcium found in Shoot (9400 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Antiatherosclerotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Calcium found in Shoot (9400 ppm)
Antibacterial
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Anticancer
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Anticarcinomic
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Anticataract
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Anticervicaldysplasic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Anticlimacteric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Calcium found in Shoot (9400 ppm)
Anticold
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Anticoronary
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Antidecubitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antidementia
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antidepressant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Calcium found in Shoot (9400 ppm)
Antidiabetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Fiber found in Rhizome (320000 ppm);found in Shoot (310500 ppm)
Antieczemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antiedemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Beta-amyrin found in Shoot
Antiencephalitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antiendometriotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antifatigue
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antifibrotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antigallstone
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antigastritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antigingivitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antiglaucomic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antihangover
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antihemorrhagic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antihepatitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antihepatotoxic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antiherpetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antihiccup
Sucrose found in Rhizome (51000 ppm)
Antihistaminic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antihyperkeratotic
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Antihyperkinetic
Calcium found in Shoot (9400 ppm)
Antihypertensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Calcium found in Shoot (9400 ppm)
Fiber found in Rhizome (320000 ppm);found in Shoot (310500 ppm)
Antiichythyotic
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Antiinfertility
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antiinflammatory
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Beta-amyrin found in Shoot
Antiinsomniac
Calcium found in Shoot (9400 ppm)
Antilepric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antileukoplakic
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Antilipoperoxidant
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Antilithic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antilupus
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Antimaculitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Antimastitic
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Antimeasles
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antimenopausal
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Calcium found in Shoot (9400 ppm)
Antimigraine
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antimutagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Antineuramidase
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antinitrosic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antinociceptive
Beta-amyrin found in Shoot
Antiobesity
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Calcium found in Shoot (9400 ppm)
Fiber found in Rhizome (320000 ppm);found in Shoot (310500 ppm)
Antiophthalmic
Sucrose found in Rhizome (51000 ppm)
Antiorchitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antiosteoarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antiosteoporotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Calcium found in Shoot (9400 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Shoot (3900 ppm)
Antioxidant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Sucrose found in Rhizome (51000 ppm)
Antiozenic
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Antipapillomic
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Antiparkinsonian
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antiparotitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antiperiodontitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Calcium found in Shoot (9400 ppm)
Antiphotophobic
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Antipityriasic
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Antipneumonic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antipodriac
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antipoliomyelitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antiporphyric
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Antiproliferant
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Antipsoriac
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Antipyretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antiradicular
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Antiretinotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antirheumatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Calcium found in Shoot (9400 ppm)
Antirhinitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antiscorbutic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antisecretory
Taraxerol found in Shoot
Antiseptic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Furfural found in Rhizome (130000 ppm);found in Stem (66000 ppm)
Antishingles
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antisickling
Asparagine found in Rhizome (1000 ppm)
Antispasmodic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antistress
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Calcium found in Shoot (9400 ppm)
Antisyndrome-X
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antitic
Calcium found in Shoot (9400 ppm)
Antitumor
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Fiber found in Rhizome (320000 ppm);found in Shoot (310500 ppm)
Antiulcer
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Beta-amyrin found in Shoot
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Fiber found in Rhizome (320000 ppm);found in Shoot (310500 ppm)
Taraxerol found in Shoot
Antiviral
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Antixerophthalmic
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Anxiolytic
Calcium found in Shoot (9400 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Shoot (3900 ppm)
Apoptotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Asthma-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Atherogenic
Sucrose found in Rhizome (51000 ppm)
Beta-Blocker
Fiber found in Rhizome (320000 ppm);found in Shoot (310500 ppm)
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
COX-1-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
COX-2-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Calcium-Antagonist
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Calcium-Channel-Blocker
Calcium found in Shoot (9400 ppm)
Cancer-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Fiber found in Rhizome (320000 ppm);found in Shoot (310500 ppm)
Cardioprotective
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Fiber found in Rhizome (320000 ppm);found in Shoot (310500 ppm)
Chemopreventive
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Cold-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Collagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Collyrium
Sucrose found in Rhizome (51000 ppm)
Colorant
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Demulcent
Sucrose found in Rhizome (51000 ppm)
Detoxicant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Diuretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Asparagine found in Rhizome (1000 ppm)
Calcium found in Shoot (9400 ppm)
Fiber found in Rhizome (320000 ppm);found in Shoot (310500 ppm)
FLavor
Furfural found in Rhizome (130000 ppm);found in Stem (66000 ppm)
Fistula-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Flatugenic
Sucrose found in Rhizome (51000 ppm)
Fungicide
Furfural found in Rhizome (130000 ppm);found in Stem (66000 ppm)
Gastroprotective
Beta-amyrin found in Shoot
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Hepatoprotective
Beta-amyrin found in Shoot
Hypercholesterolemic
Sucrose found in Rhizome (51000 ppm)
Hypocholesterolemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Calcium found in Shoot (9400 ppm)
Fiber found in Rhizome (320000 ppm);found in Shoot (310500 ppm)
Hypoglycemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Hypotensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Calcium found in Shoot (9400 ppm)
Fiber found in Rhizome (320000 ppm);found in Shoot (310500 ppm)
Hypouricemic
Fiber found in Rhizome (320000 ppm);found in Shoot (310500 ppm)
Immunomodulator
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Immunostimulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Shoot (3900 ppm)
Insecticide
Furfural found in Rhizome (130000 ppm);found in Stem (66000 ppm)
Interferon-Synergist
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Interferonogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Irritant
Furfural found in Rhizome (130000 ppm);found in Stem (66000 ppm)
Larvicide
Beta-amyrin found in Shoot
Laxative
Calcium found in Shoot (9400 ppm)
Fiber found in Rhizome (320000 ppm);found in Shoot (310500 ppm)
Lithogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Mosquitocide
Beta-amyrin found in Shoot
Mucogenic
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Mucolytic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Osteogenic
Phosphorus found in Shoot (3900 ppm)
Pesticide
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Furfural found in Rhizome (130000 ppm);found in Stem (66000 ppm)
Phagocytotic
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Preservative
Sucrose found in Rhizome (51000 ppm)
Prooxidant
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Sweetener
Sucrose found in Rhizome (51000 ppm)
Thymoprotective
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Tranquilizer
Calcium found in Shoot (9400 ppm)
Triglycerigenic
Sucrose found in Rhizome (51000 ppm)
Ubiquiot
Beta-carotene found in Shoot (50 ppm)
Uricogenic
Sucrose found in Rhizome (51000 ppm)
Uricosuric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Urinary-Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Vasodilator
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Calcium found in Shoot (9400 ppm)
Fiber found in Rhizome (320000 ppm);found in Shoot (310500 ppm)
Vulnerary
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9100 ppm)
Sucrose found in Rhizome (51000 ppm)

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
Ascorbic-acid Leaf 2,000 9,100
Ash Rhizome 58,000
Shoot 108,000
Asparagine Rhizome 1,000
Beta-amyrin Shoot
Beta-carotene Shoot 50
Calcium Shoot 9,400
Carbohydrates Rhizome 508,000
Shoot 431,000
Fat Rhizome 9,000
Shoot 23,000
Fiber Rhizome 320,000
Shoot 310,500
Furfural Rhizome 130,000
Stem 66,000
Phosphorus Shoot 3,900
Protein Rhizome 52,000
Shoot 114,000
Saponin Shoot
Silicic-acid Rhizome 44,600
Shoot 83,100
Sucrose Rhizome 51,000
Taraxerol Shoot
Taraxerone Shoot
Water Rhizome 53,000
Wax Shoot
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]