Peganum harmala Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
African-rue Syrian-rue wild rue

Peganum harmala, commonly called Esfand, wild rue, Syrian rue, African rue, harmel, or aspand is a plant of the family Nitrariaceae. It is native from the eastern Iranian region west to India. Its common English-language name came about because of a resemblance to rue. The plant's seeds are especially noteworthy because they have seen continual use for thousands of years in the rites of many cultures. The plant has remained a popular tool in both folk medicine and spiritual practices for so long that some historians believe the plant may be the ancient "soma". It is a perennial plant which can grow to about 0.8 m tall, but normally it is about 0.3 m tall. The roots of the plant can reach a depth of up to 6.1 m, if the soil where it is growing is very dry. It blossoms between June and August in the Northern Hemisphere. The flowers are white and are about 2.5–3.8 cm in diameter. The round seed capsules measure about 1–1.5 cm in diameter, have three chambers and carry more than 50 seeds.

Peganum harmala

Medical use

Economic importance of Peganum harmala

Materials tanin/dyestuf
Medicines folklore
Vertebrate poisons mamals
Weed potential sed contaminant

Gallery

Peganum harmala Peganum harmala Peganum harmala Peganum harmala Peganum harmala Peganum harmala Peganum harmala Peganum harmala Peganum harmala Peganum harmala Peganum harmala

Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Native
    • Northern Africa: Algeria; Egypt; Libya; Morocco; Tunisia
    • West Tropical Africa: Mauritania
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Arabian Peninsula: Kuwait; Saudi Arabia
    • Western Asia: Afghanistan; Cyprus; Egypt - Sinai; Iran; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey
    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation - Ciscaucasia, Dagestan
    • Middle Asia: Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
    • Mongolia: Mongolia
    • China: China - Xinjiang
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Native
    • Indian Subcontinent: Pakistan
  • EUROPE
    Native
    • East Europe: Moldova; Russian Federation - European part ; Ukraine
    • Southeastern Europe: Bulgaria; Greece; Italy ; Romania; Serbia
    • Southwestern Europe: Spain

Biological activities

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Fiber found in Plant (176475 ppm)
Anthelmintic
Harmaline found in Seed
Harmine found in Seed
Vasicinone found in Seed
AntiPMS
Calcium found in Plant (5600 ppm)
Antiallergic
Calcium found in Plant (5600 ppm)
Vasicinone found in Seed
Antianaphylactic
Vasicinone found in Seed
Antianemic
Copper found in Plant (9 ppm)
Antianxiety
Calcium found in Plant (5600 ppm)
Antiarrhythmic
Calcium found in Plant (5600 ppm)
Antiarthritic
Calcium found in Plant (5600 ppm)
Copper found in Plant (9 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Vasicinone found in Seed
Antiatherosclerotic
Calcium found in Plant (5600 ppm)
Antibacterial
Harmaline found in Seed
Harmalol found in Seed
Anticlimacteric
Calcium found in Plant (5600 ppm)
Antidepressant
Calcium found in Plant (5600 ppm)
Antidiabetic
Copper found in Plant (9 ppm)
Fiber found in Plant (176475 ppm)
Antifatigue
Copper found in Plant (9 ppm)
Antifeedant
Vasicinone found in Seed
Antifertility
Vasicinone found in Seed
Antiganglionic
Harmine found in Seed
Antihistaminic
Vasicinone found in Seed
Antihyperkinetic
Calcium found in Plant (5600 ppm)
Antihypertensive
Calcium found in Plant (5600 ppm)
Fiber found in Plant (176475 ppm)
Antiinflammatory
Copper found in Plant (9 ppm)
Antiinsomniac
Calcium found in Plant (5600 ppm)
Antileishmanic
Harmaline found in Seed
Antimalarial
Harmaline found in Seed
Harmine found in Seed
Antimenopausal
Calcium found in Plant (5600 ppm)
Antimitotic
Harmalol found in Seed
Antinociceptive
Copper found in Plant (9 ppm)
Antiobesity
Calcium found in Plant (5600 ppm)
Fiber found in Plant (176475 ppm)
Antiosteoporotic
Calcium found in Plant (5600 ppm)
Copper found in Plant (9 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Plant (600 ppm)
Antiparkinsonian
Harmaline found in Seed
Harmine found in Seed
Antiperiodontitic
Calcium found in Plant (5600 ppm)
Antirheumatic
Calcium found in Plant (5600 ppm)
Antiseptic
Harmine found in Seed
Antistress
Calcium found in Plant (5600 ppm)
Antitic
Calcium found in Plant (5600 ppm)
Antitrypanosomic
Harmaline found in Seed
Harmine found in Seed
Antitumor
Fiber found in Plant (176475 ppm)
Antiulcer
Fiber found in Plant (176475 ppm)
Antiviral
Harmine found in Seed
Anxiolytic
Calcium found in Plant (5600 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Plant (600 ppm)
Aphrodisiac
Harmaline found in Seed
Harmalol found in Seed
Harmine found in Seed
Beta-Blocker
Fiber found in Plant (176475 ppm)
Bradycardic
Harmaline found in Seed
Harmine found in Seed
Bronchoconstrictor
Vasicinone found in Seed
Bronchodilator
Vasicinone found in Seed
CNS-Sedative
Harmine found in Seed
CNS-Stimulant
Harmaline found in Seed
Harmalol found in Seed
Harmine found in Seed
Calcium-Channel-Blocker
Calcium found in Plant (5600 ppm)
Cancer-Preventive
Fiber found in Plant (176475 ppm)
Cardioprotective
Copper found in Plant (9 ppm)
Fiber found in Plant (176475 ppm)
Cardiovascular
Harmaline found in Seed
Harmine found in Seed
Cholinergic
Deoxypeganine found in Plant
Deoxyvasicinone found in Seed
Contraceptive
Copper found in Plant (9 ppm)
Convulsant
Harmaline found in Seed
Harman found in Seed
Harmine found in Seed
Cytotoxic
Harmaline found in Seed
Harmalol found in Seed
Harman found in Seed
Harmine found in Seed
Desmutagenic
Harmaline found in Seed
Harmalol found in Seed
Harmine found in Seed
Diuretic
Calcium found in Plant (5600 ppm)
Fiber found in Plant (176475 ppm)
Euphoriant
Harmine found in Seed
Hallucinogenic
Harmaline found in Seed
Harmine found in Seed
Herbicide
Harman found in Seed
Hypocholesterolemic
Calcium found in Plant (5600 ppm)
Copper found in Plant (9 ppm)
Fiber found in Plant (176475 ppm)
Hypotensive
Calcium found in Plant (5600 ppm)
Fiber found in Plant (176475 ppm)
Vasicinone found in Seed
Hypouricemic
Fiber found in Plant (176475 ppm)
Immunomodulator
Copper found in Plant (9 ppm)
Immunostimulant
Phosphorus found in Plant (600 ppm)
Immunosuppressant
Harmine found in Seed
Laxative
Calcium found in Plant (5600 ppm)
Fiber found in Plant (176475 ppm)
MAO-Inhibitor
Harmaline found in Seed
Harman found in Seed
Harmine found in Seed
Neurotoxic
Harmine found in Seed
Osteogenic
Phosphorus found in Plant (600 ppm)
Pesticide
Harmaline found in Seed
Harmalol found in Seed
Harmine found in Seed
Vasicinone found in Seed
Photoactive
Harmine found in Seed
Phototoxic
Harmaline found in Seed
Protisticide
Harmaline found in Seed
Psychotropic
Harmaline found in Seed
Respirastimulant
Vasicinone found in Seed
Schizophrenigenic
Copper found in Plant (9 ppm)
Spinodepressant
Harmaline found in Seed
Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor
Harman found in Seed
Tranquilizer
Calcium found in Plant (5600 ppm)
Harman found in Seed
Tremorigenic
Harmaline found in Seed
Harman found in Seed
Harmine found in Seed
Uteroactive
Harmaline found in Seed
Uterotonic
Harmaline found in Seed
Vasodilator
Calcium found in Plant (5600 ppm)
Fiber found in Plant (176475 ppm)

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
9,14-dihydroxyoctadecanoic-acid Plant
Ash Plant 34,000 105,250
Calcium Plant 5,600
Copper Plant 9
Deoxypeganine Plant
Deoxyvasicinone Seed
Dipegene Seed
Fat Plant 15,000 46,450
Seed 135,000 175,000
Fiber Plant 57,000 176,475
Harmaline Seed
Harmalol Seed
Harman Seed
Harmine Seed
Isopeganine Seed
Pegamine Plant
Peganine Plant
Peganol Plant
Peganones Plant
Phosphorus Plant 600
Protein Plant 57,000 17,650
Seed 294,000 352,000
Ruine Plant
Vascinones Plant
Vasicinone Seed
Water Plant 677,000
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]