Ocimum gratissimum Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
African basil clove basil East Indian basil Russian basil shrubby basil tree basil

Ocimum gratissimum, also known as Clove Basil, African Basil, and in Hawaii as Wild Basil, is a species of Ocimum. It is native to Africa, Madagascar, southern Asia, and the Bismarck Archipelago, and naturalized in Polynesia, Hawaii, Mexico, Panama, West Indies, Brazil, and Bolivia.

Ocimum gratissimum

Medical use

Economic importance of Ocimum gratissimum

Materials esential oils
Medicines folklore

Gallery

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Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Native
    • Northeast Tropical Africa: Djibouti; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Somalia
    • East Tropical Africa: Kenya; Tanzania; Uganda
    • West-Central Tropical Africa: Burundi; Cameroon; Gabon; Rwanda; Zaire
    • West Tropical Africa: Cote D'Ivoire; Ghana; Guinea; Nigeria; Togo
    • South Tropical Africa: Angola; Malawi; Mozambique; Zambia
    • Southern Africa: Botswana; Namibia; South Africa - Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West; Swaziland
    • Western Indian Ocean: Comoros; Madagascar; Mauritius; Seychelles - Aldabra
    Naturalized
    • Macaronesia: Cape Verde
    • West Tropical Africa: Benin; Guinea-Bissau
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Arabian Peninsula: Yemen
    Cultivated
    • China: China
    • Eastern Asia: Taiwan
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Native
    • Indian Subcontinent: Bangladesh; India; Nepal; Sri Lanka
    • Indo-China: Cambodia; Laos; Thailand; Vietnam
    • Malesia: Indonesia - Java, Sumatra; Malaysia
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Naturalized
    • Southern Mexico: Mexico - Veracruz
  • PACIFIC
    Naturalized
    • Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Naturalized
    • Caribbean: Antigua and Barbuda; Aruba; Barbados; Cuba; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Martinique; Montserrat; Netherlands Antilles; St. Lucia; St. Vincent and Grenadines
    • Mesoamerica: Panama
    • Brazil: Brazil - Bahia
    • Western South America: Bolivia

Biological activities

ACE-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (370 ppm);found in Shoot (29 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (145 ppm);found in Shoot (65 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Shoot (15 ppm)
Myrcene found in Flower (10 ppm);found in Plant (480 ppm);found in Shoot (75 ppm);found in Leaf (47 ppm)
AChE-Inhibitor
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Acaricide
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (370 ppm);found in Shoot (29 ppm)
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Formic-acid found in Plant
Gamma-terpinene found in Shoot (15 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Acidulant
Acetic-acid found in Plant
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (370 ppm);found in Shoot (29 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (145 ppm);found in Shoot (65 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (125 ppm);found in Shoot (1155 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Shoot (15 ppm)
Myrcene found in Flower (10 ppm);found in Plant (480 ppm);found in Shoot (75 ppm);found in Leaf (47 ppm)
Allelochemic
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (88 ppm);found in Shoot (55 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Plant (155 ppm)
Borneol found in Plant (9 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Terpinolene found in Shoot (23 ppm)
Allelopathic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (145 ppm);found in Shoot (65 ppm)
Camphene found in Plant (240 ppm);found in Shoot (29 ppm)
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Plant (50 ppm);found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Allergenic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (88 ppm);found in Shoot (55 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Plant (155 ppm)
Benzaldehyde found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Beta-pinene found in Flower (37 ppm);found in Shoot (90 ppm);found in Plant (35 ppm);found in Leaf (41 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (190 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (125 ppm);found in Shoot (1155 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Geraniol found in Flower (14245 ppm);found in Leaf (13455 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Myrcene found in Flower (10 ppm);found in Plant (480 ppm);found in Shoot (75 ppm);found in Leaf (47 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Analgesic
Borneol found in Plant (9 ppm)
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (125 ppm);found in Shoot (1155 ppm)
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Myrcene found in Flower (10 ppm);found in Plant (480 ppm);found in Shoot (75 ppm);found in Leaf (47 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (1945 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Ancylostomicide
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Androgenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Anesthetic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Benzaldehyde found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (190 ppm)
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Plant (100 ppm);found in Shoot (9835 ppm)
Methyl-isoeugenol found in Plant
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Angiogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Ankylostomacide
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Anorexic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Anthelmintic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (190 ppm)
Geraniol found in Flower (14245 ppm);found in Leaf (13455 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
AntiTNF
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Antiacetylcholine
Borneol found in Plant (9 ppm)
Antiacetylcholinesterase
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (370 ppm);found in Shoot (29 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Shoot (15 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (1945 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Plant (50 ppm);found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Antiacne
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (88 ppm);found in Shoot (55 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Plant (155 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (145 ppm);found in Shoot (65 ppm)
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (125 ppm);found in Shoot (1155 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Plant (50 ppm);found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Antiadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Antiaggregant
Estragole found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Methyl-isoeugenol found in Plant
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Antiallergenic
Citral found in Plant
Antiallergic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Plant (50 ppm);found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Antianaphylactic
Citral found in Plant
Antiandrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Antiarachidonate
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Antiarthritic
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Caryophyllene found in Plant (125 ppm);found in Shoot (1155 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Plant (50 ppm);found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Antiatherosclerotic
Carvacrol found in Plant (190 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Antibacillary
P-cymene found in Plant (1945 ppm)
Antibacterial
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Acetic-acid found in Plant
Alpha-phellandrene found in Plant (125 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (88 ppm);found in Shoot (55 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Plant (155 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (145 ppm);found in Shoot (65 ppm)
Benzaldehyde found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Borneol found in Plant (9 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (190 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (125 ppm);found in Shoot (1155 ppm)
Cis-ocimene found in Plant (12 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Delta-3-carene found in Plant (245 ppm)
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Geraniol found in Flower (14245 ppm);found in Leaf (13455 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Plant (100 ppm);found in Shoot (9835 ppm)
Methyl-isoeugenol found in Plant
Myrcene found in Flower (10 ppm);found in Plant (480 ppm);found in Shoot (75 ppm);found in Leaf (47 ppm)
Neral found in Flower (695 ppm);found in Leaf (210 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (1945 ppm)
Sabinene found in Plant (60 ppm);found in Shoot (17 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Plant (50 ppm);found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Antibronchitic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Borneol found in Plant (9 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Anticancer
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (145 ppm);found in Shoot (65 ppm)
Benzaldehyde found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Butyric-acid found in Plant
Citral found in Plant
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Anticariogenic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (145 ppm);found in Shoot (65 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (125 ppm);found in Shoot (1155 ppm)
Geraniol found in Flower (14245 ppm);found in Leaf (13455 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Anticatarrh
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Anticholinesterase
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Anticonvulsant
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Plant (100 ppm);found in Shoot (9835 ppm)
Myrcene found in Flower (10 ppm);found in Plant (480 ppm);found in Shoot (75 ppm);found in Leaf (47 ppm)
Antidermatitic
Caryophyllene found in Plant (125 ppm);found in Shoot (1155 ppm)
Antidiarrheic
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Antidiuretic
Carvacrol found in Plant (190 ppm)
Antidysenteric
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Antiedemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Caryophyllene found in Plant (125 ppm);found in Shoot (1155 ppm)
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Antiemetic
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Antiescherichic
Borneol found in Plant (9 ppm)
Antiesophagitic
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Antiestrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Antifatigue
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Antifeedant
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (88 ppm);found in Shoot (55 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Plant (155 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Borneol found in Plant (9 ppm)
Cadinene found in Plant (600 ppm)
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (125 ppm);found in Shoot (1155 ppm)
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Shoot (15 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Plant (100 ppm);found in Shoot (9835 ppm)
Terpinolene found in Shoot (23 ppm)
Antifertility
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Antifibrositic
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Antiflu
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (88 ppm);found in Shoot (55 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Plant (155 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (1945 ppm)
Antigenotoxic
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Antigliomic
Beta-elemene found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (425 ppm)
Antigonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Antihalitosic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Antihelicobacter
Citral found in Plant
Sabinene found in Plant (60 ppm);found in Shoot (17 ppm)
Antiherpetic
Citral found in Plant
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Antihistaminic
Citral found in Plant
Methyl-isoeugenol found in Plant
Antihyperlipoproteinaemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Antihysteric
Valeric-acid found in Plant
Antiinflammatory
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (88 ppm);found in Shoot (55 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Plant (155 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (145 ppm);found in Shoot (65 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Flower (37 ppm);found in Shoot (90 ppm);found in Plant (35 ppm);found in Leaf (41 ppm)
Beta-santalene found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Borneol found in Plant (9 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (190 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (125 ppm);found in Shoot (1155 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Delta-3-carene found in Plant (245 ppm)
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Antiinsomniac
Valeric-acid found in Plant
Antikeratotic
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Antilaryngitic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Antileishmanic
Caryophyllene found in Plant (125 ppm);found in Shoot (1155 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Antilepric
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Antileukemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Antilithic
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Antilymphomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Antimalarial
Beta-selinene found in Plant (240 ppm)
Humulene found in Plant (30 ppm);found in Shoot (300 ppm)
Antimelanomic
Carvacrol found in Plant (190 ppm)
Geraniol found in Flower (14245 ppm);found in Leaf (13455 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Antimitotic
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Antimutagenic
Benzaldehyde found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Myrcene found in Flower (10 ppm);found in Plant (480 ppm);found in Shoot (75 ppm);found in Leaf (47 ppm)
Antineuralgic
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Antineuritic
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Antinitrosaminic
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (370 ppm);found in Shoot (29 ppm)
Myrcene found in Flower (10 ppm);found in Plant (480 ppm);found in Shoot (75 ppm);found in Leaf (47 ppm)
Terpinolene found in Shoot (23 ppm)
Antinitrosating
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Antinociceptive
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Myrcene found in Flower (10 ppm);found in Plant (480 ppm);found in Shoot (75 ppm);found in Leaf (47 ppm)
Antiobesity
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Antionychyotic
Caryophyllene found in Plant (125 ppm);found in Shoot (1155 ppm)
Antiophidic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Antiotitic
Acetic-acid found in Plant
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Borneol found in Plant (9 ppm)
Antioxidant
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Camphene found in Plant (240 ppm);found in Shoot (29 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (190 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Shoot (15 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Plant (100 ppm);found in Shoot (9835 ppm)
Myrcene found in Flower (10 ppm);found in Plant (480 ppm);found in Shoot (75 ppm);found in Leaf (47 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Plant (50 ppm);found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Terpinolene found in Shoot (23 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Antipeptic
Benzaldehyde found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Antiperiodontic
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Antipharyngitic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Antiplaque
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (190 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Antiplasmodial
Beta-selinene found in Plant (240 ppm)
Humulene found in Plant (30 ppm);found in Shoot (300 ppm)
Antipneumonic
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (88 ppm);found in Shoot (55 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Plant (155 ppm)
Antiprogestational
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Antiproliferant
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (145 ppm);found in Shoot (65 ppm)
Beta-elemene found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (425 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (125 ppm);found in Shoot (1155 ppm)
Antiprostaglandin
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Carvacrol found in Plant (190 ppm)
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Antiprostatadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Antiprostatitic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Antipruritic
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Antipyretic
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Borneol found in Plant (9 ppm)
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Antiradicular
Carvacrol found in Plant (190 ppm)
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Plant (100 ppm);found in Shoot (9835 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Antirheumatalgic
P-cymene found in Plant (1945 ppm)
Antirheumatic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Antirhinitic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Antisalmonella
Acetic-acid found in Plant
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Borneol found in Plant (9 ppm)
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Geraniol found in Flower (14245 ppm);found in Leaf (13455 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Antiseptic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (88 ppm);found in Shoot (55 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Plant (155 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (145 ppm);found in Shoot (65 ppm)
Benzaldehyde found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Beta-pinene found in Flower (37 ppm);found in Shoot (90 ppm);found in Plant (35 ppm);found in Leaf (41 ppm)
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (190 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Formic-acid found in Plant
Geraniol found in Flower (14245 ppm);found in Leaf (13455 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Plant (100 ppm);found in Shoot (9835 ppm)
Sabinene found in Plant (60 ppm);found in Shoot (17 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Plant (50 ppm);found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Antishock
Citral found in Plant
Antisinusitic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Antispasmodic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (88 ppm);found in Shoot (55 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Plant (155 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (370 ppm);found in Shoot (29 ppm)
Benzaldehyde found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Flower (37 ppm);found in Shoot (90 ppm);found in Plant (35 ppm);found in Leaf (41 ppm)
Borneol found in Plant (9 ppm)
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (190 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (125 ppm);found in Shoot (1155 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Geraniol found in Flower (14245 ppm);found in Leaf (13455 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Methyl-isoeugenol found in Plant
Myrcene found in Flower (10 ppm);found in Plant (480 ppm);found in Shoot (75 ppm);found in Leaf (47 ppm)
Neral found in Flower (695 ppm);found in Leaf (210 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Plant (50 ppm);found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Valeric-acid found in Plant
Antistaphylococcic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Alpha-phellandrene found in Plant (125 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (88 ppm);found in Shoot (55 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Plant (155 ppm)
Borneol found in Plant (9 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (190 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (125 ppm);found in Shoot (1155 ppm)
Cis-ocimene found in Plant (12 ppm)
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Antistreptococcic
Carvacrol found in Plant (190 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (125 ppm);found in Shoot (1155 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Antisyncopic
Formic-acid found in Plant
Antithromboxane
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Antitrichinosic
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Antitubercular
Geraniol found in Flower (14245 ppm);found in Leaf (13455 ppm)
Antitumor
Alpha-humulene found in Plant (9 ppm)
Benzaldehyde found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Butyric-acid found in Plant
Caryophyllene found in Plant (125 ppm);found in Shoot (1155 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Geraniol found in Flower (14245 ppm);found in Leaf (13455 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Antitussive
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (190 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Plant (50 ppm);found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Antiulcer
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (125 ppm);found in Shoot (1155 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Sabinene found in Plant (60 ppm);found in Shoot (17 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Plant (50 ppm);found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Antivaginitic
Acetic-acid found in Plant
Antiviral
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (88 ppm);found in Shoot (55 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Plant (155 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Citral found in Plant
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (1945 ppm)
Antiyeast
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Borneol found in Plant (9 ppm)
Apifuge
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Apoptotic
Beta-elemene found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (425 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Butyric-acid found in Plant
Citral found in Plant
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Artemicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Ascaricide
Geraniol found in Flower (14245 ppm);found in Leaf (13455 ppm)
Astringent
Formic-acid found in Plant
Ataxigenic
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Bacteriostatic
Terpinen-4-ol found in Plant (50 ppm);found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Barbituate-Synergist
Citral found in Plant
Bronchoprotectant
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Bronchorelaxant
Citral found in Plant
Bruchifuge
Butyric-acid found in Plant
CNS-Depressant
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
CNS-Stimulant
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Borneol found in Plant (9 ppm)
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Geraniol found in Flower (14245 ppm);found in Leaf (13455 ppm)
CNS-Toxic
Borneol found in Plant (9 ppm)
COX-1-Inhibitor
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
COX-2-Inhibitor
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Calcium-Antagonist
Citral found in Plant
Estragole found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Methyl-chavicol found in Trichome
Cancer-Preventive
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (88 ppm);found in Shoot (55 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Plant (155 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Estragole found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Geraniol found in Flower (14245 ppm);found in Leaf (13455 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Plant (100 ppm);found in Shoot (9835 ppm)
Methyl-isoeugenol found in Plant
Candidicide
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Benzaldehyde found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Flower (37 ppm);found in Shoot (90 ppm);found in Plant (35 ppm);found in Leaf (41 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Borneol found in Plant (9 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (190 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (125 ppm);found in Shoot (1155 ppm)
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Geraniol found in Flower (14245 ppm);found in Leaf (13455 ppm)
Methyl-isoeugenol found in Plant
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Candidistat
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Carcinogenic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Estragole found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Plant (100 ppm);found in Shoot (9835 ppm)
Carminative
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (190 ppm)
Copaene found in Plant (65 ppm)
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Caspase-3-Inducer
Citral found in Plant
Caspase-8-Inducer
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Chemopreventive
Citral found in Plant
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Myrcene found in Flower (10 ppm);found in Plant (480 ppm);found in Shoot (75 ppm);found in Leaf (47 ppm)
Choleretic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Borneol found in Plant (9 ppm)
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Cholesterolytic
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Cicatrizant
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (145 ppm);found in Shoot (65 ppm)
Coleoptophile
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (88 ppm);found in Shoot (55 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Plant (155 ppm)
Convulsant
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Corrosive
Formic-acid found in Plant
Cosmetic
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Counterirritant
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Formic-acid found in Plant
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Culicide
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Carvacrol found in Plant (190 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Cytochrome-P450-Inducer
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Cytochrome-P450-Inhibitor
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Cytotoxic
Citral found in Plant
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
DNA-Binder
Estragole found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Methyl-chavicol found in Trichome
Decongestant
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Degranulant
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Deliriant
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Dentifrice
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Deodorant
Terpinolene found in Shoot (23 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Dermal
Alpha-phellandrene found in Plant (125 ppm)
Dermatitigenic
Delta-3-carene found in Plant (245 ppm)
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Detoxicant
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Diuretic
Terpinen-4-ol found in Plant (50 ppm);found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Ecbolic
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Edemagenic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Embryotoxic
Geraniol found in Flower (14245 ppm);found in Leaf (13455 ppm)
Emetic
Alpha-phellandrene found in Plant (125 ppm)
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Geraniol found in Flower (14245 ppm);found in Leaf (13455 ppm)
Enterocontractant
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Enterorelaxant
Carvacrol found in Plant (190 ppm)
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Enterotoxic
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Epileptigenic
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Estrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Citral found in Plant
Expectorant
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Acetic-acid found in Plant
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (88 ppm);found in Shoot (55 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Plant (155 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Beta-phellandrene found in Plant (30 ppm)
Camphene found in Plant (240 ppm);found in Shoot (29 ppm)
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (190 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Geraniol found in Flower (14245 ppm);found in Leaf (13455 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Methyl-isoeugenol found in Plant
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
FLavor
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Alpha-phellandrene found in Plant (125 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (88 ppm);found in Shoot (55 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Plant (155 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (370 ppm);found in Shoot (29 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (145 ppm);found in Shoot (65 ppm)
Benzaldehyde found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Beta-pinene found in Flower (37 ppm);found in Shoot (90 ppm);found in Plant (35 ppm);found in Leaf (41 ppm)
Borneol found in Plant (9 ppm)
Cadinene found in Plant (600 ppm)
Camphene found in Plant (240 ppm);found in Shoot (29 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (190 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (125 ppm);found in Shoot (1155 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Delta-3-carene found in Plant (245 ppm)
Estragole found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Ethyl-cinnamate found in Plant
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Formic-acid found in Plant
Gamma-terpinene found in Shoot (15 ppm)
Geraniol found in Flower (14245 ppm);found in Leaf (13455 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Methyl-cinnamate found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Plant (100 ppm);found in Shoot (9835 ppm)
Methyl-isoeugenol found in Plant
Myrcene found in Flower (10 ppm);found in Plant (480 ppm);found in Shoot (75 ppm);found in Leaf (47 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (1945 ppm)
Propionic-acid found in Plant
Terpinolene found in Shoot (23 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Valeric-acid found in Plant
Febrifuge
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Fungicide
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Acetic-acid found in Plant
Alpha-phellandrene found in Plant (125 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Beta-phellandrene found in Plant (30 ppm)
Borneol found in Plant (9 ppm)
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (190 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (125 ppm);found in Shoot (1155 ppm)
Cis-ocimene found in Plant (12 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Geraniol found in Flower (14245 ppm);found in Leaf (13455 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Plant (100 ppm);found in Shoot (9835 ppm)
Myrcene found in Flower (10 ppm);found in Plant (480 ppm);found in Shoot (75 ppm);found in Leaf (47 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (1945 ppm)
Propionic-acid found in Plant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Plant (50 ppm);found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Terpinolene found in Shoot (23 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Fungiphilic
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Fungistat
Formic-acid found in Plant
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Plant (100 ppm);found in Shoot (9835 ppm)
Fungitoxic
Formic-acid found in Plant
GST-Inducer
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Gastroirritant
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Gastroprotective
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (125 ppm);found in Shoot (1155 ppm)
Glaucomagenic
Citral found in Plant
Glutathionigenic
Citral found in Plant
Gonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Hepatocarcinogenic
Estragole found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Methyl-chavicol found in Trichome
Hepatoprotective
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Borneol found in Plant (9 ppm)
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Hepatotonic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Herbicide
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (88 ppm);found in Shoot (55 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Plant (155 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Flower (37 ppm);found in Shoot (90 ppm);found in Plant (35 ppm);found in Leaf (41 ppm)
Borneol found in Plant (9 ppm)
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Geraniol found in Flower (14245 ppm);found in Leaf (13455 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Methyl-isoeugenol found in Plant
P-cymene found in Plant (1945 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Plant (50 ppm);found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Histaminic
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Hypocholesterolemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Hypoglycemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Hypolipidemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Hypotensive
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Valeric-acid found in Plant
Hypothermic
Estragole found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Methyl-chavicol found in Trichome
Myrcene found in Flower (10 ppm);found in Plant (480 ppm);found in Shoot (75 ppm);found in Leaf (47 ppm)
Immunomodulator
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Immunostimulant
Benzaldehyde found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Inflammatory
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Inhalant
Borneol found in Plant (9 ppm)
Insect-Repellent
Borneol found in Plant (9 ppm)
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Insect-attractant
Methyl-isoeugenol found in Plant
Insecticide
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (88 ppm);found in Shoot (55 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Plant (155 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (370 ppm);found in Shoot (29 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (145 ppm);found in Shoot (65 ppm)
Benzaldehyde found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Estragole found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Methyl-chavicol found in Trichome
Methyl-cinnamate found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Ocimene found in Plant (720 ppm);found in Seed (400 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Insectifuge
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (88 ppm);found in Shoot (55 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Plant (155 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (370 ppm);found in Shoot (29 ppm)
Benzaldehyde found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Beta-pinene found in Flower (37 ppm);found in Shoot (90 ppm);found in Plant (35 ppm);found in Leaf (41 ppm)
Borneol found in Plant (9 ppm)
Camphene found in Plant (240 ppm);found in Shoot (29 ppm)
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (190 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (125 ppm);found in Shoot (1155 ppm)
Delta-3-carene found in Plant (245 ppm)
Estragole found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Shoot (15 ppm)
Geraniol found in Flower (14245 ppm);found in Leaf (13455 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Plant (100 ppm);found in Shoot (9835 ppm)
Myrcene found in Flower (10 ppm);found in Plant (480 ppm);found in Shoot (75 ppm);found in Leaf (47 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (1945 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Plant (50 ppm);found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Insectiphile
Alpha-phellandrene found in Plant (125 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (88 ppm);found in Shoot (55 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Plant (155 ppm)
Geraniol found in Flower (14245 ppm);found in Leaf (13455 ppm)
Interleukin-6-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (145 ppm);found in Shoot (65 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Irritant
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Alpha-phellandrene found in Plant (125 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (88 ppm);found in Shoot (55 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Plant (155 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Flower (37 ppm);found in Shoot (90 ppm);found in Plant (35 ppm);found in Leaf (41 ppm)
Borneol found in Plant (9 ppm)
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Caproic-acid found in Plant
Carvacrol found in Plant (190 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (125 ppm);found in Shoot (1155 ppm)
Delta-3-carene found in Plant (245 ppm)
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Formic-acid found in Plant
Gamma-terpinene found in Shoot (15 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Myrcene found in Flower (10 ppm);found in Plant (480 ppm);found in Shoot (75 ppm);found in Leaf (47 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (1945 ppm)
Propionic-acid found in Plant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Plant (50 ppm);found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Juvabional
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Keratitigenic
Acetic-acid found in Plant
Larvicide
Caryophyllene found in Plant (125 ppm);found in Shoot (1155 ppm)
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Laxative
Alpha-phellandrene found in Plant (125 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (1945 ppm)
Lipolytic
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Molluscicide
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Mosquitocide
Caryophyllene found in Plant (125 ppm);found in Shoot (1155 ppm)
Mosquitofuge
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (145 ppm);found in Shoot (65 ppm)
Motor-Depressant
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (145 ppm);found in Shoot (65 ppm)
Benzaldehyde found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Mucolytic
Acetic-acid found in Plant
Mutagenic
Estragole found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Mycobactericide
Geraniol found in Flower (14245 ppm);found in Leaf (13455 ppm)
Myorelaxant
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Borneol found in Plant (9 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Plant (100 ppm);found in Shoot (9835 ppm)
Myrcene found in Flower (10 ppm);found in Plant (480 ppm);found in Shoot (75 ppm);found in Leaf (47 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Valeric-acid found in Plant
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Citral found in Plant
NO-Genic
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
NO-Inhibitor
Citral found in Plant
Narcotic
Benzaldehyde found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Plant (100 ppm);found in Shoot (9835 ppm)
Nematicide
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (145 ppm);found in Shoot (65 ppm)
Benzaldehyde found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Borneol found in Plant (9 ppm)
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (190 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Ethyl-cinnamate found in Plant
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Geraniol found in Flower (14245 ppm);found in Leaf (13455 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Methyl-cinnamate found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Plant (100 ppm);found in Shoot (9835 ppm)
Methyl-isoeugenol found in Plant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Plant (50 ppm);found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Nematistat
Butyric-acid found in Plant
Neurotoxic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Occuloirritant
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Osteolytic
Acetic-acid found in Plant
Ozone-Scavenger
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
P450-2B1-Inhibitor
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (88 ppm);found in Shoot (55 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Plant (155 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (370 ppm);found in Shoot (29 ppm)
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Myrcene found in Flower (10 ppm);found in Plant (480 ppm);found in Shoot (75 ppm);found in Leaf (47 ppm)
P450-Inducer
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Pediculicide
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Perfume
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Perfumery
Acetic-acid found in Plant
Alpha-humulene found in Plant (9 ppm)
Alpha-phellandrene found in Plant (125 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (88 ppm);found in Shoot (55 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Plant (155 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (370 ppm);found in Shoot (29 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (145 ppm);found in Shoot (65 ppm)
Beta-phellandrene found in Plant (30 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Flower (37 ppm);found in Shoot (90 ppm);found in Plant (35 ppm);found in Leaf (41 ppm)
Beta-santalene found in Plant
Beta-selinene found in Plant (240 ppm)
Borneol found in Plant (9 ppm)
Cadinene found in Plant (600 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (125 ppm);found in Shoot (1155 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Estragole found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Shoot (15 ppm)
Geraniol found in Flower (14245 ppm);found in Leaf (13455 ppm)
Methyl-cinnamate found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Plant (100 ppm);found in Shoot (9835 ppm)
Methyl-isoeugenol found in Plant
Myrcene found in Flower (10 ppm);found in Plant (480 ppm);found in Shoot (75 ppm);found in Leaf (47 ppm)
Ocimene found in Plant (720 ppm);found in Seed (400 ppm)
Propionic-acid found in Plant
Sabinene found in Plant (60 ppm);found in Shoot (17 ppm)
Terpinolene found in Shoot (23 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Valeric-acid found in Plant
Peristaltic
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Pesticide
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Acetic-acid found in Plant
Alpha-phellandrene found in Plant (125 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (88 ppm);found in Shoot (55 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Plant (155 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (370 ppm);found in Shoot (29 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (145 ppm);found in Shoot (65 ppm)
Benzaldehyde found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Beta-pinene found in Flower (37 ppm);found in Shoot (90 ppm);found in Plant (35 ppm);found in Leaf (41 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Borneol found in Plant (9 ppm)
Butyric-acid found in Plant
Cadinene found in Plant (600 ppm)
Camphene found in Plant (240 ppm);found in Shoot (29 ppm)
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (190 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (125 ppm);found in Shoot (1155 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Delta-3-carene found in Plant (245 ppm)
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Formic-acid found in Plant
Gamma-terpinene found in Shoot (15 ppm)
Geraniol found in Flower (14245 ppm);found in Leaf (13455 ppm)
Germacrene-d found in Shoot (210 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Methyl-chavicol found in Trichome
Methyl-cinnamate found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Plant (100 ppm);found in Shoot (9835 ppm)
Methyl-isoeugenol found in Plant
Myrcene found in Flower (10 ppm);found in Plant (480 ppm);found in Shoot (75 ppm);found in Leaf (47 ppm)
Neral found in Flower (695 ppm);found in Leaf (210 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (1945 ppm)
Propionic-acid found in Plant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Plant (50 ppm);found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Terpinolene found in Shoot (23 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Pheromone
Germacrene-d found in Shoot (210 ppm)
Photosensitizer
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Phytoalexin
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Preservative
Formic-acid found in Plant
Prostaglandin-Inhibitor
Carvacrol found in Plant (190 ppm)
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Prostatitigenic
Citral found in Plant
Protisticide
Acetic-acid found in Plant
Renoirritant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Plant (50 ppm);found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Respirainhibitor
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Respirastimulant
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Rubefacient
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Propionic-acid found in Plant
Secretogogue
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Sedative
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (88 ppm);found in Shoot (55 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Plant (155 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (145 ppm);found in Shoot (65 ppm)
Benzaldehyde found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Borneol found in Plant (9 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (125 ppm);found in Shoot (1155 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Geraniol found in Flower (14245 ppm);found in Leaf (13455 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Plant (100 ppm);found in Shoot (9835 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (1945 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Valeric-acid found in Plant
Spasmogenic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (88 ppm);found in Shoot (55 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Plant (155 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (370 ppm);found in Shoot (29 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Flower (37 ppm);found in Shoot (90 ppm);found in Plant (35 ppm);found in Leaf (41 ppm)
Camphene found in Plant (240 ppm);found in Shoot (29 ppm)
Spermicide
Acetic-acid found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Terpinen-4-ol found in Plant (50 ppm);found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Sprout-Inhibitor
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Stimulant
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Surfactant
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Sweetener
Galactose found in Root
Teratogenic
Citral found in Plant
Termiticide
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (145 ppm);found in Shoot (65 ppm)
Benzaldehyde found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Neral found in Flower (695 ppm);found in Leaf (210 ppm)
Termitifuge
Caryophyllene found in Plant (125 ppm);found in Shoot (1155 ppm)
Testosterone-Hydroxylase-Inducer
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Toxic
Formic-acid found in Plant
Methyl-isoeugenol found in Plant
Tracheorelaxant
Carvacrol found in Plant (190 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Tranquilizer
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (88 ppm);found in Shoot (55 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Plant (155 ppm)
Borneol found in Plant (9 ppm)
Valeric-acid found in Plant
Transdermal
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (88 ppm);found in Shoot (55 ppm);found in Leaf (43 ppm);found in Plant (155 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (145 ppm);found in Shoot (65 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Flower (37 ppm);found in Shoot (90 ppm);found in Plant (35 ppm);found in Leaf (41 ppm)
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (220 ppm);found in Shoot (42 ppm);found in Plant (105 ppm);found in Leaf (335 ppm)
Trichomonicide
1,8-cineole found in Plant (65 ppm);found in Shoot (690 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (190 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Geraniol found in Flower (14245 ppm);found in Leaf (13455 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (1945 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Trichomonistat
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Trypanocide
Citral found in Plant
Trypsin-Enhancer
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
Benzaldehyde found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Citral found in Plant
Ubiquiot
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Ulcerogenic
Acetic-acid found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Uricosuric
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Urinary-Antiseptic
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Varroacide
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Vasodilator
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Vermicide
Thymol found in Leaf (0 ppm);found in Plant (2850 ppm)
Vermifuge
Carvacrol found in Plant (190 ppm)
Eugenol found in Plant (5340 ppm);found in Shoot (4045 ppm);found in Seed (1670 ppm)
Verrucolytic
Acetic-acid found in Plant
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Vibriocide
Camphor found in Plant (35 ppm)
Vulnerary
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (145 ppm);found in Shoot (65 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Plant (50 ppm);found in Shoot (0.1 ppm)

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
(e)-ocimene Shoot 70
(z)-alpha-trans-bergamotene Flower 95 165
Leaf 30 90
(z)-beta-farnesene Flower 0
Leaf 0
(z)-ocimene Shoot 765
1,8-cineole Plant 10 65
Shoot 690
1-octen-3-ol Shoot 32
2,5-dimethoxybenzoic-acid Plant
Acetic-acid Plant
Allo-aromadendrene Plant 1 5
Shoot 295
Alpha-caryophyllene Plant
Alpha-copaene Flower 100 170
Leaf 50 95
Alpha-cubebene Plant 5 60
Alpha-fenchene Plant
Alpha-humulene Plant 1 9
Alpha-p-dimethyl-styrene Plant 15 125
Alpha-phellandrene Plant 10 125
Alpha-pinene Flower 47 88
Shoot 55
Leaf 23 43
Plant 15 155
Alpha-santalene Plant
Alpha-terpinene Plant 60 370
Shoot 29
Alpha-terpineol Plant 15 145
Shoot 65
Alpha-thujene Plant 50 445
Amy-alcohol Trichome
Arabinose Root
Benzaldehyde Shoot 0.1
Benzoic-acid Plant
Beta-bourbonene Flower 95 145
Leaf 40 70
Beta-caryophyllene Flower 145 220
Leaf 115 215
Plant
Beta-cubebene Flower 0
Leaf 0
Beta-elemene Plant 5 65
Shoot 425
Beta-phellandrene Plant 5 30
Beta-pinene Flower 10 37
Shoot 90
Plant 3 35
Leaf 19 41
Beta-santalene Plant
Beta-selinene Plant 15 240
Beta-sitosterol Root
Borneol Plant 1 9
Butyric-acid Plant
Cadinene Plant 20 600
Camphene Plant 1 240
Shoot 29
Camphor Plant 2 35
Caproic-acid Plant
Carvacrol Plant 5 190
Caryophyllene Plant 5 125
Shoot 1,155
Cis-ocimene Plant 0 12
Citral Plant
Clovene Plant
Copaene Plant 1 65
Delta-3-carene Plant 10 245
Delta-elemene Shoot 36
Eo Flower 13,400 16,700
Stem 1,400
Shoot 21,000
Seed 2,700
Plant 1,000 6,000
Leaf 12,000 14,700
Estragole Shoot 0.1
Ethyl-cinnamate Plant
Eugenol Plant 0 5,340
Shoot 4,045
Seed 1,670
Formic-acid Plant
Galactose Root
Gamma-muurolene Flower 190 290
Leaf 240 420
Gamma-terpinene Shoot 15
Geraniol Flower 11,010 14,245
Leaf 10,335 13,455
Germacrene-d Shoot 210
Gratisimene Plant
Gratissimin Plant
Humulene Plant 5 30
Shoot 300
L-linalol Plant 15 115
Limonene Flower 158 220
Shoot 42
Plant 10 105
Leaf 185 335
Linalol Flower 46 140
Leaf 25 45
Shoot 275
Plant 2 12
Longifolene Plant 30 180
Methyl-chavicol Trichome
Methyl-cinnamate Shoot 0.1
Methyl-eugenol Plant 15 100
Shoot 9,835
Methyl-isoeugenol Plant
Myrcene Flower 8 10
Plant 15 480
Shoot 75
Leaf 24 47
Myrcenol Shoot 40
Neral Flower 466 695
Leaf 150 210
Ocimene Plant 120 720
Seed 400
Ocimic-acid Root
Ocimol Root
Octan-3-ol Shoot 17
P-cymene Plant 160 1,945
Phenols Plant 230 3,300
Propionic-acid Plant
Sabinene Plant 10 60
Shoot 17
Sesquiterpenes Plant 150 900
Spathulenol Flower 112 150
Leaf 15 105
Terpenes Plant 160 960
Terpinen-4-ol Plant 5 50
Shoot 0.1
Terpinolene Shoot 23
Thujene Shoot 0.1
Thymol Leaf 0
Plant 300 2,850
Thymol-methyl-ether Plant 4 130
Trans-sabinene-hydrate Plant 5 60
Tricyclene Shoot 0.1
Valeric-acid Plant
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]