Monarda fistulosa Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
beebalm horse-mint purple beebalm wild bergamot wild bergamot beebalm

Wild bergamot or bee balm is a wildflower in the mint family widespread and abundant as a native plant in much of North America. This plant, with showy summer-blooming white flowers, is often used as a honey plant, medicinal plant, and garden ornamental. The species is quite variable, and several subspecies or varieties have been recognized within it.

Monarda fistulosa

Medical use

Economic importance of Monarda fistulosa

Environmental ornamental
Medicines folklore

Gallery

Monarda fistulosa Monarda fistulosa Monarda fistulosa Monarda fistulosa Monarda fistulosa Monarda fistulosa Monarda fistulosa Monarda fistulosa Monarda fistulosa Monarda fistulosa Monarda fistulosa

Geografical distribution

  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Native
    • Eastern Canada: Canada - Ontario , Quebec
    • Western Canada: Canada - Alberta, British Columbia , Manitoba , Saskatchewan
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wisconsin
    • Northwestern U.S.A.: United States - Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia
    • South-Central U.S.A.: United States - New Mexico, Texas
    • Southwestern U.S.A.: United States - Arizona, Utah
    • Northern Mexico: Mexico - Coahuila

Biological activities

ABeta-Inhibitor
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
ACE-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (3193 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (3314 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (11377 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (1860 ppm)
AChE-Inhibitor
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Pulegone found in Plant (257 ppm)
Acaricide
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (3193 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (11377 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Acidulant
Acetic-acid found in Essential Oil
Adenylate-Cyclase-Inhibitor
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (3193 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (3314 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (11377 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (1860 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Allelochemic
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (1823 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Allelopathic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (3314 ppm)
Camphene found in Plant (856 ppm)
Allergenic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (1823 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (93 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (19902 ppm)
Formaldehyde found in Essential Oil
Geraniol found in Plant (29450 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (1860 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Analgesic
Myrcene found in Plant (1860 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (15810 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Ancylostomicide
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Anesthetic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (19902 ppm)
Formaldehyde found in Essential Oil
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Ankylostomacide
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Anthelmintic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (19902 ppm)
Geraniol found in Plant (29450 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
AntiEBV
Geranial found in Plant (837 ppm)
AntiHIV
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Antiacetylcholinesterase
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (3193 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (11377 ppm)
Isomenthone found in Plant (146 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (15810 ppm)
Pulegone found in Plant (257 ppm)
Antiacne
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (1823 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (3314 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Antiadenomic
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Antiaflatoxin
Geranial found in Plant (837 ppm)
Antiaggregant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Antiallergic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Antialzheimeran
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Antianaphylactic
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Antiarthritic
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Thymoquinone found in Essential Oil
Antiasthmatic
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Thymoquinone found in Essential Oil
Antiatherosclerotic
Carvacrol found in Plant (19902 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Antibacillary
P-cymene found in Plant (15810 ppm)
Antibacterial
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Acetic-acid found in Essential Oil
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (1823 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (3314 ppm)
Bornyl-acetate found in Plant (1085 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (19902 ppm)
Cuminaldehyde found in Plant (62 ppm)
Delta-3-carene found in Plant (93 ppm)
Geranial found in Plant (837 ppm)
Geraniol found in Plant (29450 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (1860 ppm)
Neral found in Plant (589 ppm)
Nerol found in Plant (310 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (15810 ppm)
Perillyl-alcohol found in Essential Oil
Pulegone found in Plant (257 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Sabinene found in Plant (93 ppm)
Thymohydroquinone found in Essential Oil
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Thymoquinone found in Essential Oil
Antibronchitic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Thymoquinone found in Essential Oil
Anticancer
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (3314 ppm)
Butyric-acid found in Essential Oil
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Anticariogenic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (3314 ppm)
Geraniol found in Plant (29450 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Anticatarrh
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Anticholinesterase
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Pulegone found in Plant (257 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Anticoagulant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Anticomplementary
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Anticonvulsant
Myrcene found in Plant (1860 ppm)
Anticystitic
Formaldehyde found in Essential Oil
Antidepressant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Antidiuretic
Carvacrol found in Plant (19902 ppm)
Antiedemic
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Antieicosanoid
Thymoquinone found in Essential Oil
Antiesophagitic
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Antifatigue
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Antifeedant
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (1823 ppm)
Bornyl-acetate found in Plant (1085 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (11377 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Antiflu
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (1823 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (15810 ppm)
Antigonadotropic
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Antihalitosic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Antihelicobacter
Nerol found in Plant (310 ppm)
Sabinene found in Plant (93 ppm)
Antihemolytic
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Antihepatotoxic
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Antiherpetic
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Antihistaminic
Pulegone found in Plant (257 ppm)
Thymoquinone found in Essential Oil
Antihyperthyroid
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Antihysteric
Valeric-acid found in Essential Oil
Antiinflammatory
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (1823 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (3314 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (93 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (19902 ppm)
Delta-3-carene found in Plant (93 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Antiinsomniac
Valeric-acid found in Essential Oil
Antiintegrase
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Antilaryngitic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Antilepric
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Antileukotriene
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Antilipoperoxidant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Antilithic
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Antilymphomic
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Antimelanomic
Carvacrol found in Plant (19902 ppm)
Geraniol found in Plant (29450 ppm)
Perillyl-alcohol found in Essential Oil
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Antimutagenic
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (1860 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Antinephritic
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Antineuritic
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Antinitrosaminic
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (3193 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (1860 ppm)
Antinociceptive
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (1860 ppm)
Antiobesity
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Antiotitic
Acetic-acid found in Essential Oil
Antioxidant
Camphene found in Plant (856 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (19902 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (11377 ppm)
Isomenthone found in Plant (146 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (1860 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Thymoquinone found in Essential Oil
Antiperiodontic
Thymohydroquinone found in Essential Oil
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Antipharyngitic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Antiplantar
Formaldehyde found in Essential Oil
Antiplaque
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (19902 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Antipneumonic
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (1823 ppm)
Antiproliferant
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (3314 ppm)
Perillyl-alcohol found in Essential Oil
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Antiprostaglandin
Carvacrol found in Plant (19902 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Antiproteolytic
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Antipulmonotic
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Antipyretic
Pulegone found in Plant (257 ppm)
Antiradicular
Carvacrol found in Plant (19902 ppm)
Isomenthone found in Plant (146 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Antirheumatalgic
P-cymene found in Plant (15810 ppm)
Antirheumatic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Thymoquinone found in Essential Oil
Antirhinitic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Antisalmonella
Acetic-acid found in Essential Oil
Geraniol found in Plant (29450 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Antiseptic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (1823 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (3314 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (93 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (19902 ppm)
Formaldehyde found in Essential Oil
Geraniol found in Plant (29450 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Nerol found in Plant (310 ppm)
Sabinene found in Plant (93 ppm)
Thymohydroquinone found in Essential Oil
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Antishock
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Antisinusitic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Antispasmodic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (1823 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (3193 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (93 ppm)
Bornyl-acetate found in Plant (1085 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (19902 ppm)
Geraniol found in Plant (29450 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (1860 ppm)
Neral found in Plant (589 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Thymoquinone found in Essential Oil
Valeric-acid found in Essential Oil
Antistaphylococcic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (1823 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (19902 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Antistreptococcic
Carvacrol found in Plant (19902 ppm)
Thymohydroquinone found in Essential Oil
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Antithyreotropic
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Antithyroid
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Antitrichinosic
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Antitubercular
Geraniol found in Plant (29450 ppm)
Antitumor
Butyric-acid found in Essential Oil
Geraniol found in Plant (29450 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Antitussive
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (19902 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Antiulcer
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Nerol found in Plant (310 ppm)
Sabinene found in Plant (93 ppm)
Antiuremic
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Antivaginitic
Acetic-acid found in Essential Oil
Antiviral
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (1823 ppm)
Bornyl-acetate found in Plant (1085 ppm)
Formaldehyde found in Essential Oil
Geranial found in Plant (837 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (15810 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Antiyeast
Geranial found in Plant (837 ppm)
Anxiolytic
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Apoptotic
Butyric-acid found in Essential Oil
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Perillyl-alcohol found in Essential Oil
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Ascaricide
Geraniol found in Plant (29450 ppm)
Ataxigenic
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Avifuge
Pulegone found in Plant (257 ppm)
Bronchoprotectant
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Bruchifuge
Butyric-acid found in Essential Oil
CNS-Stimulant
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Geraniol found in Plant (29450 ppm)
COX-1-Inhibitor
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
COX-2-Inhibitor
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Calcium-Antagonist
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Cancer-Preventive
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (1823 ppm)
Geraniol found in Plant (29450 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Pulegone found in Plant (257 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Candidicide
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (93 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (19902 ppm)
Geraniol found in Plant (29450 ppm)
Perillyl-alcohol found in Essential Oil
Pulegone found in Plant (257 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Candidistat
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Carcinogenic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Thymoquinone found in Essential Oil
Carminative
Carvacrol found in Plant (19902 ppm)
Copaene found in Plant (124 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Cerebrotoxic
Pulegone found in Plant (257 ppm)
Chemopreventive
Geranial found in Plant (837 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (1860 ppm)
Perillyl-alcohol found in Essential Oil
Choleretic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Thymoquinone found in Essential Oil
Cholesterolytic
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Cicatrizant
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (3314 ppm)
Coleoptophile
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (1823 ppm)
Convulsant
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Counterirritant
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Culicide
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Carvacrol found in Plant (19902 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Thymoquinone found in Essential Oil
Cytochrome-P450-Inducer
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Cytotoxic
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Decongestant
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Degranulant
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Dentifrice
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Deodorant
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Dermatitigenic
Delta-3-carene found in Plant (93 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Detoxicant
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Edemagenic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Embryotoxic
Geraniol found in Plant (29450 ppm)
Emetic
Geraniol found in Plant (29450 ppm)
Encephalopathic
Pulegone found in Plant (257 ppm)
Enterocontractant
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Enterorelaxant
Carvacrol found in Plant (19902 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Enterotoxic
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Estrogenic
Geranial found in Plant (837 ppm)
Nerol found in Plant (310 ppm)
Expectorant
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Acetic-acid found in Essential Oil
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (1823 ppm)
Bornyl-acetate found in Plant (1085 ppm)
Camphene found in Plant (856 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (19902 ppm)
Geraniol found in Plant (29450 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
FLavor
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
3-octanol found in Plant (1655 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (1823 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (3193 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (3314 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (93 ppm)
Bornyl-acetate found in Plant (1085 ppm)
Camphene found in Plant (856 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (19902 ppm)
Cis-3-hexenol found in Plant (31 ppm)
Cuminaldehyde found in Plant (62 ppm)
Delta-3-carene found in Plant (93 ppm)
Dihydrocarvyl-acetate found in Plant (301 ppm)
Dihydrocuminyl-alcohol found in Essential Oil
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (11377 ppm)
Geraniol found in Plant (29450 ppm)
Isovaleraldehyde found in Essential Oil
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (1860 ppm)
N-butyraldehyde found in Essential Oil
Nerol found in Plant (310 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (15810 ppm)
Pulegone found in Plant (257 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Valeric-acid found in Essential Oil
Fungicide
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Acetic-acid found in Essential Oil
Carvacrol found in Plant (19902 ppm)
Cuminaldehyde found in Plant (62 ppm)
Formaldehyde found in Essential Oil
Geranial found in Plant (837 ppm)
Geraniol found in Plant (29450 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (1860 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (15810 ppm)
Perillyl-alcohol found in Essential Oil
Pulegone found in Plant (257 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Fungiphilic
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Fungistat
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
GST-Inducer
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Gastroirritant
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Gastroprotective
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Glutathionalytic
Pulegone found in Plant (257 ppm)
Glutathionigenic
Geranial found in Plant (837 ppm)
Hallucinogenic
Pulegone found in Plant (257 ppm)
Hepatotonic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Hepatotoxic
Pulegone found in Plant (257 ppm)
Herbicide
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (1823 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (93 ppm)
Geraniol found in Plant (29450 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (15810 ppm)
Pulegone found in Plant (257 ppm)
Histaminic
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Hypotensive
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Valeric-acid found in Essential Oil
Hypothermic
Myrcene found in Plant (1860 ppm)
Immunomodulator
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Immunostimulant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Inflammatory
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Insecticide
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (1823 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (3193 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (3314 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Pulegone found in Plant (257 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Insectifuge
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (1823 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (3193 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (93 ppm)
Bornyl-acetate found in Plant (1085 ppm)
Camphene found in Plant (856 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (19902 ppm)
Delta-3-carene found in Plant (93 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (11377 ppm)
Geraniol found in Plant (29450 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (1860 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (15810 ppm)
Pulegone found in Plant (257 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Insectiphile
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (1823 ppm)
Geraniol found in Plant (29450 ppm)
Interleukin-6-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (3314 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Irritant
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (1823 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (93 ppm)
Caproic-acid found in Essential Oil
Carvacrol found in Plant (19902 ppm)
Cuminaldehyde found in Plant (62 ppm)
Delta-3-carene found in Plant (93 ppm)
Formaldehyde found in Essential Oil
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (11377 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (1860 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (15810 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Keratitigenic
Acetic-acid found in Essential Oil
Larvicide
Cuminaldehyde found in Plant (62 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Laxative
P-cymene found in Plant (15810 ppm)
Lipolytic
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Thymoquinone found in Essential Oil
Molluscicide
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Mosquitofuge
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (3314 ppm)
Motor-Depressant
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (3314 ppm)
Mucolytic
Acetic-acid found in Essential Oil
Mutagenic
Formaldehyde found in Essential Oil
Mycobactericide
Geraniol found in Plant (29450 ppm)
Myorelaxant
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Bornyl-acetate found in Plant (1085 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (1860 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Valeric-acid found in Essential Oil
NO-Genic
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Nematicide
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (3314 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (19902 ppm)
Geraniol found in Plant (29450 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Perillyl-alcohol found in Essential Oil
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Nematistat
Butyric-acid found in Essential Oil
Neoplastic
Formaldehyde found in Essential Oil
Nephrotoxic
Pulegone found in Plant (257 ppm)
Neuroprotective
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Neurotoxic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Pulegone found in Plant (257 ppm)
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Osteolytic
Acetic-acid found in Essential Oil
Ozone-Scavenger
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
P450-2B1-Inhibitor
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (1823 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (3193 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (1860 ppm)
P450-Inducer
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Pediculicide
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Perfume
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Perfumery
3-octanol found in Plant (1655 ppm)
Acetic-acid found in Essential Oil
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (1823 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (3193 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (3314 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (93 ppm)
Cuminaldehyde found in Plant (62 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (11377 ppm)
Geraniol found in Plant (29450 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (1860 ppm)
Nerol found in Plant (310 ppm)
Pulegone found in Plant (257 ppm)
Sabinene found in Plant (93 ppm)
Thymohydroquinone found in Essential Oil
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Valeric-acid found in Essential Oil
Peristaltic
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Pesticide
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Acetic-acid found in Essential Oil
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (1823 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (3193 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (3314 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (93 ppm)
Bornyl-acetate found in Plant (1085 ppm)
Butyric-acid found in Essential Oil
Camphene found in Plant (856 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (19902 ppm)
Cuminaldehyde found in Plant (62 ppm)
Delta-3-carene found in Plant (93 ppm)
Formaldehyde found in Essential Oil
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (11377 ppm)
Geranial found in Plant (837 ppm)
Geraniol found in Plant (29450 ppm)
Germacrene-d found in Plant (1891 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (1860 ppm)
Neral found in Plant (589 ppm)
Nerol found in Plant (310 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (15810 ppm)
Perillyl-alcohol found in Essential Oil
Pulegone found in Plant (257 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Thymohydroquinone found in Essential Oil
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Thymoquinone found in Essential Oil
Pheromone
Germacrene-d found in Plant (1891 ppm)
Photosensitizer
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Prostaglandin-Inhibitor
Carvacrol found in Plant (19902 ppm)
Protisticide
Acetic-acid found in Essential Oil
Pulifuge
Pulegone found in Plant (257 ppm)
Pulmonotoxic
Pulegone found in Plant (257 ppm)
Radioprotective
Rosmarinic-acid found in Shoot (20000 ppm)
Rubefacient
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Scolicide
Formaldehyde found in Essential Oil
Secretogogue
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Sedative
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (1823 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (3314 ppm)
Bornyl-acetate found in Plant (1085 ppm)
Cuminaldehyde found in Plant (62 ppm)
Geraniol found in Plant (29450 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Nerol found in Plant (310 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (15810 ppm)
Pulegone found in Plant (257 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Valeric-acid found in Essential Oil
Spasmogenic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (1823 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (3193 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (93 ppm)
Camphene found in Plant (856 ppm)
Spasmolytic
Geranial found in Plant (837 ppm)
Spermicide
Acetic-acid found in Essential Oil
Sprout-Inhibitor
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Surfactant
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Termiticide
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (3314 ppm)
Neral found in Plant (589 ppm)
Testosterone-Hydroxylase-Inducer
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Toxic
Thymoquinone found in Essential Oil
Tracheorelaxant
Carvacrol found in Plant (19902 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Tranquilizer
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (1823 ppm)
Valeric-acid found in Essential Oil
Transdermal
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (1823 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (3314 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (93 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (589 ppm)
Trichomonicide
1,8-cineole found in Plant (5006 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Plant (19902 ppm)
Geraniol found in Plant (29450 ppm)
Nerol found in Plant (310 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (15810 ppm)
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
Cuminaldehyde found in Plant (62 ppm)
Ulcerogenic
Acetic-acid found in Essential Oil
Cuminaldehyde found in Plant (62 ppm)
Uricosuric
Thymoquinone found in Essential Oil
Urinary-Antiseptic
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Varroacide
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Vermicide
Thymol found in Plant (20850 ppm)
Vermifuge
Carvacrol found in Plant (19902 ppm)
Verrucolytic
Acetic-acid found in Essential Oil
Vulnerary
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (3314 ppm)

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
1,8-cineole Plant 3 5,006
1-octen-3-ol Plant 1 2,294
3,4-epoxy-gamma-terpinene Plant 3 186
3-octanol Plant 46 1,655
3-octanone Plant 1 93
3-octyl-acetate Plant 21 211
Acetic-acid Essential Oil
Alpha-pinene Plant 3 1,823
Alpha-terpinene Plant 3 3,193
Alpha-terpineol Plant 9 3,314
Alpha-thujene Plant 3 2,480
Beta-bourbonene Plant 1 62
Beta-pinene Plant 3 93
Bornyl-acetate Plant 1 1,085
Butyric-acid Essential Oil
Camphene Plant 1 856
Caproic-acid Essential Oil
Carvacrol Plant 93 19,902
Carvacryl-methyl-ether Plant 6 6,076
Cis-3-hexenol Plant 1 31
Cis-sabinene-hydrate Plant 1 527
Copaene Plant 1 124
Cuminaldehyde Plant 1 62
Delta-3-carene Plant 1 93
Dihydrocarvyl-acetate Plant 3 301
Dihydrocuminyl-alcohol Essential Oil
Dihydroxythymoquinone Essential Oil
Eo Plant 3,000 31,000
Formaldehyde Essential Oil
Gamma-terpinene Plant 3 11,377
Geranial Plant 15 837
Geraniol Plant 1 29,450
Germacrene-d Plant 9 1,891
Isomenthone Plant 12 146
Isovaleraldehyde Essential Oil
Limonene Plant 3 589
Linalol Plant 15 341
Myrcene Plant 3 1,860
N-butyraldehyde Essential Oil
Neral Plant 24 589
Nerol Plant 15 310
P-cymen-8-ol Plant 1 124
P-cymene Plant 3 15,810
Perillyl-alcohol Essential Oil
Pulegone Plant 12 257
Rosmarinic-acid Shoot 20,000
Sabinene Plant 1 93
Thymohydroquinone Essential Oil
Thymol Plant 1 20,850
Thymoquinone Essential Oil
Trans-sabinene-hydrate Plant 1 217
Valeric-acid Essential Oil
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]