Liquidambar styraciflua Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
alligator-wood American-storax red-gum satin-walnut sweet-gum

Liquidambar styraciflua, commonly called American sweetgum, sweetgum, sweet gum, sweet-gum, hazel pine, American-storax, bilsted, red-gum, satin-walnut, star-leaved gum, or alligator-wood is a deciduous tree in the genus Liquidambar native to warm temperate areas of eastern North America and tropical montane regions of Mexico and Central America. Sweet gum is one of the main valuable forest trees in the southeastern United States, and is a popular ornamental tree in temperate climates. It is recognizable by the combination of its five-pointed star-shaped leaves and its hard, spiked fruits. It is currently classified in the plant family Altingiaceae, but was formerly considered a member of the Hamamelidaceae.

Liquidambar styraciflua

Medical use

Economic importance of Liquidambar styraciflua

Food additives flavor fixative
Environmental ornamental shade/shelter
Materials esential oils gum/resin wod
Medicines folklore

Gallery

Liquidambar styraciflua Liquidambar styraciflua Liquidambar styraciflua Liquidambar styraciflua Liquidambar styraciflua Liquidambar styraciflua Liquidambar styraciflua Liquidambar styraciflua Liquidambar styraciflua Liquidambar styraciflua Liquidambar styraciflua Liquidambar styraciflua Liquidambar styraciflua Liquidambar styraciflua Liquidambar styraciflua

Geografical distribution

  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Native
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Connecticut , Indiana , New Jersey, New York , Ohio, Pennsylvania , West Virginia
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Illinois , Missouri , Oklahoma
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia
    • South-Central U.S.A.: United States - Texas
    • Northern Mexico: Mexico - San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas
    • Southern Mexico: Mexico - Chiapas, Oaxaca, Veracruz
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Native
    • Mesoamerica: Belize; El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Nicaragua

Biological activities

ACE-Inhibitor
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
AP-1-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
ATPase-Inhibitor
Vanadium found in Leaf (2.46 ppm);found in Stem (2.4 ppm)
Abortifacient
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Acnegenic
Iodine found in Stem (6 ppm)
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Cinnamic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (230000 ppm)
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Myricitrin found in Leaf
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Allelochemic
Borneol found in Leaf
Cyanidin found in Leaf
Delphinidin found in Leaf
Vanillin found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Allergenic
Benzyl-alcohol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Benzyl-cinnamate found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Cinnamic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (230000 ppm)
Cinnamic-alcohol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Delphinidin found in Leaf
Ethanol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Vanillin found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Analgesic
Borneol found in Leaf
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Androgenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Boron found in Leaf (84 ppm);found in Stem (60 ppm)
Anesthetic
Benzyl-alcohol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Cinnamic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (230000 ppm)
Ethanol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Angiogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Potassium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (33600 ppm)
Anhydrotic
Ethanol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Anorexic
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Anthelmintic
Tannin found in Plant
AntiAGE
Chromium found in Leaf (8.2 ppm);found in Stem (3.6 ppm)
AntiBPH
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
AntiCFS
Chromium found in Leaf (8.2 ppm);found in Stem (3.6 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
AntiGTF
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
AntiHIV
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
AntiLyme
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
AntiMS
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
AntiNF-kB
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
AntiPGE2
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
AntiPMS
Calcium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (42000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Manganese found in Stem (2400 ppm);found in Stem (2460 ppm)
AntiTGF-beta
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antiacetylcholine
Borneol found in Leaf
Antiacne
Chromium found in Leaf (8.2 ppm);found in Stem (3.6 ppm)
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antiacrodermatitic
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antiadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antiadrenalinic
Nickel found in Leaf (24.6 ppm);found in Stem (18 ppm)
Antiaflatoxin
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Antiaggregant
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Antiaging
Chromium found in Leaf (8.2 ppm);found in Stem (3.6 ppm)
Antialcoholic
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Manganese found in Stem (2400 ppm);found in Stem (2460 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antiallergic
Calcium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (42000 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antialopecic
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antialzheimeran
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antianaphylactic
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Antiandrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antianemic
Copper found in Leaf (164 ppm);found in Stem (360 ppm)
Manganese found in Stem (2400 ppm);found in Stem (2460 ppm)
Vanillin found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antianginal
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Antiangiogenic
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antianorectic
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Antianorexic
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antianxiety
Calcium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (42000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Antiarrhythmic
Calcium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (42000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Potassium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (33600 ppm)
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Antiarthritic
Calcium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (42000 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (164 ppm);found in Stem (360 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Manganese found in Stem (2400 ppm);found in Stem (2460 ppm)
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Antiatherosclerotic
Calcium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (42000 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (8.2 ppm);found in Stem (3.6 ppm)
Ethanol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Vanadium found in Leaf (2.46 ppm);found in Stem (2.4 ppm)
Antibronchitic
Borneol found in Leaf
Anticancer
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Vanillin found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Anticanker
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Anticarcinomic
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Anticariogenic
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Tannin found in Plant
Anticataract
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Anticephalagic
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Anticirrhotic
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Anticlimacteric
Calcium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (42000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Anticoeliac
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Anticold
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Anticolitic
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Anticomplement
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Anticonvulsant
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Anticorneotic
Chromium found in Leaf (8.2 ppm);found in Stem (3.6 ppm)
Anticoronary
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antidandruff
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antidementia
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antidepressant
Calcium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (42000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (33600 ppm)
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Antidiabetic
Chromium found in Leaf (8.2 ppm);found in Stem (3.6 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (164 ppm);found in Stem (360 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Manganese found in Stem (2400 ppm);found in Stem (2460 ppm)
Vanadium found in Leaf (2.46 ppm);found in Stem (2.4 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antidiarrheic
Tannin found in Plant
Antidiscotic
Manganese found in Stem (2400 ppm);found in Stem (2460 ppm)
Antidrepanocytic
Vanillin found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antidysenteric
Tannin found in Plant
Antidysgeuzic
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antidyskinetic
Manganese found in Stem (2400 ppm);found in Stem (2460 ppm)
Antidysmenorrheic
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Antieczemic
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antiedemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Antiencephalopathic
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antiendometriotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Antienterotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Antiepileptic
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Manganese found in Stem (2400 ppm);found in Stem (2460 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antiescherichic
Borneol found in Leaf
Vanillin found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antiestrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antifatigue
Chromium found in Leaf (8.2 ppm);found in Stem (3.6 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (164 ppm);found in Stem (360 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (33600 ppm)
Antifeedant
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Borneol found in Leaf
Bornyl-acetate found in Leaf
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Antifertility
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antifibromyalgic
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Antifibrotic
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antiflu
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Antifuruncular
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antigastrotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Antigingivitic
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antiglaucomic
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Antiglycosuric
Chromium found in Leaf (8.2 ppm);found in Stem (3.6 ppm)
Antigoiter
Iodine found in Stem (6 ppm)
Antigonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antigout
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Antihangover
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antihemorrhagic
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Antihepatotoxic
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Antiherpetic
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Antihyperkinetic
Calcium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (42000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Antihyperlipidemic
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antihyperlipoproteinaemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antihypertensive
Calcium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (42000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (33600 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Antihyperthyroid
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Antihypoglycemic
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Antiimpotence
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antiinfective
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antiinfertility
Vanadium found in Leaf (2.46 ppm);found in Stem (2.4 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antiinflammatory
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Borneol found in Leaf
Cinnamic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (230000 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (164 ppm);found in Stem (360 ppm)
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Myricitrin found in Leaf
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Antiinsomniac
Calcium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (42000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antiinsulinogenic
Vanadium found in Leaf (2.46 ppm);found in Stem (2.4 ppm)
Antiischemic
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antikeshan
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Antilactobacillic
Vanillin found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antilepric
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antileukemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Antileukonychic
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antileukotriene
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Antilipolytic
Tannin found in Plant
Antilisteria
Vanillin found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antilithic
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Antilymphomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antimaculitic
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antimalarial
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antimanic
Vanadium found in Leaf (2.46 ppm);found in Stem (2.4 ppm)
Antimastalgic
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Antimelanomic
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Antimenopausal
Calcium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (42000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Antimetastatic
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antimigraine
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Antimitral-valve-prolapse
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Antimutagenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Cinnamic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (230000 ppm)
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Myricitrin found in Leaf
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Vanillin found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antimyalgic
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Antinephritic
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Tannin found in Plant
Antinephrolytic
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Antineuropathic
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antineurotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Antinociceptive
Copper found in Leaf (164 ppm);found in Stem (360 ppm)
Antinyctalopic
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antiobesity
Calcium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (42000 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (8.2 ppm);found in Stem (3.6 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antiodontalgic
Benzyl-alcohol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antiophidic
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Tannin found in Plant
Antiosteoarthritic
Boron found in Leaf (84 ppm);found in Stem (60 ppm)
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Antiosteoporotic
Boron found in Leaf (84 ppm);found in Stem (60 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (42000 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (164 ppm);found in Stem (360 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Manganese found in Stem (2400 ppm);found in Stem (2460 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (2952 ppm);found in Stem (2880 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antiotitic
Borneol found in Leaf
Antiototic
Manganese found in Stem (2400 ppm);found in Stem (2460 ppm)
Antioxidant
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Cyanidin found in Leaf
Delphinidin found in Leaf
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Manganese found in Stem (2400 ppm);found in Stem (2460 ppm)
Myricitrin found in Leaf
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Vanillin found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antiparkinsonian
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Antiperiodontic
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antiperiodontitic
Calcium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (42000 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antiperoxidant
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antiplaque
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antiplasmodial
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antipolio
Vanillin found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antiprogestational
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antiprolactin
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antiproliferant
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Antiprostaglandin
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antiprostatadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antiprostatitic
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antipruritic
Benzyl-alcohol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Ethanol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antipurpuric
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Antipyretic
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Borneol found in Leaf
Antiradicular
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Vanillin found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antirenitic
Tannin found in Plant
Antiretinopathic
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Antirheumatic
Calcium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (42000 ppm)
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antisalmonella
Borneol found in Leaf
Antisarcomic
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antiseptic
Benzyl-alcohol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Ethanol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Iodine found in Stem (6 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antisickling
Vanillin found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antisilicotic
Aluminum found in Leaf (1230 ppm);found in Stem (1800 ppm)
Antispare-Tire
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antispasmodic
Borneol found in Leaf
Bornyl-acetate found in Leaf
Cinnamic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (230000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (33600 ppm)
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Antispasmophilic
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Antistaphylococcic
Borneol found in Leaf
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Antistomatitic
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antistreptococcic
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Antistress
Calcium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (42000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Antistroke
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (33600 ppm)
Antisyndrome-X
Chromium found in Leaf (8.2 ppm);found in Stem (3.6 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Manganese found in Stem (2400 ppm);found in Stem (2460 ppm)
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Vanadium found in Leaf (2.46 ppm);found in Stem (2.4 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antithrombogenic
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Antithyroid
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Antithyrotoxic
Iodine found in Stem (6 ppm)
Antitic
Calcium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (42000 ppm)
Antitinnitic
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antitriglyceride
Chromium found in Leaf (8.2 ppm);found in Stem (3.6 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antitumor-Promoter
Myricitrin found in Leaf
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Vanillin found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antitumor
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Vanillin found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antiulcer
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Antiulcerogenic
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Antivaginitic
Aluminum found in Leaf (1230 ppm);found in Stem (1800 ppm)
Antiviral
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Bornyl-acetate found in Leaf
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Iodine found in Stem (6 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Vanillin found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Antiyeast
Borneol found in Leaf
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Vanillin found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Anxiolytic
Calcium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (42000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (2952 ppm);found in Stem (2880 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (33600 ppm)
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Apoptotic
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Aromatase-Inhibitor
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Artemicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Astringent
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Silver found in Stem (0.24 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Bacteristat
Vanillin found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Beta-Blocker
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Potassium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (33600 ppm)
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Bruchifuge
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
CNS-Depressant
Ethanol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Quercitrin found in Leaf
CNS-Stimulant
Borneol found in Leaf
CNS-Toxic
Borneol found in Leaf
COX-2-Inhibitor
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Calcium-Antagonist
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Calcium-Channel-Blocker
Calcium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (42000 ppm)
Cancer-Preventive
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Cinnamic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (230000 ppm)
Delphinidin found in Leaf
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Vanillin found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Candida-SAP-Inhibitor
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Candidicide
Aluminum found in Leaf (1230 ppm);found in Stem (1800 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Borneol found in Leaf
Myricitrin found in Leaf
Vanillin found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Carcinogenic
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Cardiomyopathogenic
Cobalt found in Leaf (0.57 ppm);found in Stem (3.6 ppm)
Cardioprotective
Chromium found in Leaf (8.2 ppm);found in Stem (3.6 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (164 ppm);found in Stem (360 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Potassium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (33600 ppm)
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Cardiotonic
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Cardiotoxic
Potassium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (33600 ppm)
Caspase-8-Inducer
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Chelator
Tannin found in Plant
Choleretic
Borneol found in Leaf
Cinnamic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (230000 ppm)
Myricitrin found in Leaf
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Vanillin found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Collagenic
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Contraceptive
Copper found in Leaf (164 ppm);found in Stem (360 ppm)
Copper-Antagonist
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Cyclooxygenase-Activator
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Tannin found in Plant
Cytotoxic
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Deodorant
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Depressant
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Dermatitigenic
Cinnamic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (230000 ppm)
Iodine found in Stem (6 ppm)
Detoxicant
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Diuretic
Calcium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (42000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Myricitrin found in Leaf
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Potassium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (33600 ppm)
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Dye
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Elastase-Inhibitor
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Encephalopathic
Aluminum found in Leaf (1230 ppm);found in Stem (1800 ppm)
Energizer
Chromium found in Leaf (8.2 ppm);found in Stem (3.6 ppm)
Ergogenic
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Erythrocytogenic
Cobalt found in Leaf (0.57 ppm);found in Stem (3.6 ppm)
Estrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Boron found in Leaf (84 ppm);found in Stem (60 ppm)
Expectorant
Bornyl-acetate found in Leaf
Ethanol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
FEMA
Cinnamic-alcohol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
FLavor
Benzyl-alcohol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Benzyl-cinnamate found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Borneol found in Leaf
Bornyl-acetate found in Leaf
Cinnamic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (230000 ppm)
Cinnamyl-cinnamate found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (10000 ppm)
Ethyl-cinnamate found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Vanillin found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Febrifuge
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Fungicide
Benzyl-alcohol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Borneol found in Leaf
Cinnamic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (230000 ppm)
Iodine found in Stem (6 ppm)
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Vanillin found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Goitrogenic
Iodine found in Stem (6 ppm)
Gonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
HIV-RT-Inhibitor
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Hemostat
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Hemostatic
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Hepatoprotective
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Borneol found in Leaf
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Tannin found in Plant
Hepatotonic
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Hepatotoxic
Ethanol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Herbicide
Borneol found in Leaf
Cinnamic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (230000 ppm)
Hypertensive
Ethanol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Sodium found in Plant (220 ppm)
Hyperthyroid
Iodine found in Stem (6 ppm)
Hypnotic
Ethanol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Hypocalcemic
Ethanol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Hypocholesterolemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Calcium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (42000 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (8.2 ppm);found in Stem (3.6 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (164 ppm);found in Stem (360 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Vanadium found in Leaf (2.46 ppm);found in Stem (2.4 ppm)
Hypoglycemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Chromium found in Leaf (8.2 ppm);found in Stem (3.6 ppm)
Manganese found in Stem (2400 ppm);found in Stem (2460 ppm)
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Vanadium found in Leaf (2.46 ppm);found in Stem (2.4 ppm)
Hypolipemic
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Hypolipidemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Hypotensive
Calcium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (42000 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (8.2 ppm);found in Stem (3.6 ppm)
Ethanol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Potassium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (33600 ppm)
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Vanadium found in Leaf (2.46 ppm);found in Stem (2.4 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Hypotriglyceridemic
Vanadium found in Leaf (2.46 ppm);found in Stem (2.4 ppm)
Ileorelaxant
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Immunomodulator
Chromium found in Leaf (8.2 ppm);found in Stem (3.6 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (164 ppm);found in Stem (360 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Immunostimulant
Phosphorus found in Leaf (2952 ppm);found in Stem (2880 ppm)
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Immunosuppressant
Tannin found in Plant
Vanillin found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Inhalant
Borneol found in Leaf
Insect-Repellent
Borneol found in Leaf
Insectifuge
Borneol found in Leaf
Bornyl-acetate found in Leaf
Insectiphile
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Insulin-Sparing
Nickel found in Leaf (24.6 ppm);found in Stem (18 ppm)
Insulinogenic
Chromium found in Leaf (8.2 ppm);found in Stem (3.6 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Irritant
Benzyl-cinnamate found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Borneol found in Leaf
Cinnamic-alcohol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Styrene found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Vanillin found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Juvabional
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Laxative
Calcium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (42000 ppm)
Cinnamic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (230000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Leptingenic
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Leucocytogenic
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Cinnamic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (230000 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Litholytic
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
MAO-A-Inhibitor
Quercitrin found in Leaf
MAO-Inhibitor
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Memorigenic
Chromium found in Leaf (8.2 ppm);found in Stem (3.6 ppm)
Mucogenic
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Mucotropic
Ethanol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Mutagenic
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Myorelaxant
Borneol found in Leaf
Bornyl-acetate found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
NO-Inhibitor
Delphinidin found in Leaf
Narcotic
Styrene found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Nematicide
Borneol found in Leaf
Ethyl-cinnamate found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Nephrotoxic
Vanadium found in Leaf (2.46 ppm);found in Stem (2.4 ppm)
Neurolytic
Ethanol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Neurotransmitter
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Osteogenic
Phosphorus found in Leaf (2952 ppm);found in Stem (2880 ppm)
Pancreatoxic
Vanadium found in Leaf (2.46 ppm);found in Stem (2.4 ppm)
Paralytic
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Paramecicide
Myricitrin found in Leaf
Perfumery
Benzyl-cinnamate found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Borneol found in Leaf
Styrene found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Vanillin found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Phagocytotic
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Pigment
Cyanidin found in Leaf
Delphinidin found in Leaf
Piscicide
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Prooxidant
Cyanidin found in Leaf
Delphinidin found in Leaf
Prostaglandin-Sparer
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Protisticide
Iodine found in Stem (6 ppm)
Myricitrin found in Leaf
Psychotropic
Tannin found in Plant
Quinone-Reductase-Inducer
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Rubefacient
Ethanol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Schizophrenigenic
Copper found in Leaf (164 ppm);found in Stem (360 ppm)
Sclerosant
Ethanol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Sedative
Benzyl-alcohol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Borneol found in Leaf
Bornyl-acetate found in Leaf
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Spermicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Myricitrin found in Leaf
Spermigenic
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Sunscreen
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Surfactant
Ethanol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Teratogenic
Ethanol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Testosteronigenic
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Thyrotropic
Iodine found in Stem (6 ppm)
Topoisomerase-I-Antagonist
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Toxic
Vanadium found in Leaf (2.46 ppm);found in Stem (2.4 ppm)
Tranquilizer
Borneol found in Leaf
Calcium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (42000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Tremorilytic
Ethanol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Trichomonicide
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
Cinnamic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (230000 ppm)
Ubiquiot
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Ulcerogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Ethanol found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Uterorelaxant
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Uterotonic
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
VEGF-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Plant (0.4 ppm)
Vasodilator
Calcium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (42000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (5740 ppm);found in Stem (8400 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (18860 ppm);found in Stem (33600 ppm)
Vasopressor
Oleanolic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Quercitrin found in Leaf
Vermifuge
Cinnamic-acid found in Resin, Exudate, Sap (230000 ppm)
Vulnerary
Zinc found in Leaf (98 ppm);found in Stem (240 ppm)
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Ellagic-acid found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
3-epioleanolic-acid Resin, Exudate, Sap
Alpha-sitosterol Resin, Exudate, Sap
Aluminum Leaf 40 1,230
Stem 10 1,800
Ash Leaf 40,000 82,000
Seed 52,000
Stem 20,000 120,000
Barium Leaf 12 574
Stem 10 1,200
Benzyl-alcohol Resin, Exudate, Sap
Benzyl-cinnamate Resin, Exudate, Sap
Beta-sitosterol Resin, Exudate, Sap
Borneol Leaf
Bornyl-acetate Leaf
Boron Leaf 6 84
Stem 2 60
Calcium Leaf 3,720 18,860
Stem 2,400 42,000
Chromium Leaf 0.08 8.2
Stem 0.04 3.6
Cinnamic-acid Resin, Exudate, Sap 50,000 230,000
Cinnamic-alcohol Resin, Exudate, Sap
Cinnamyl-cinnamate Resin, Exudate, Sap 50,000 10,000
Cobalt Leaf 0 0.57
Stem 0 3.6
Copper Leaf 2.8 164
Stem 0.6 360
Cyanidin Leaf
Delphinidin Leaf
Ellagic-acid Leaf
Eo Leaf 800
Resin, Exudate, Sap 150,000 200,000
Ethanol Resin, Exudate, Sap
Ethyl-cinnamate Resin, Exudate, Sap
Fat Seed 297,000
Fluorine Stem 0 0.12
Iodine Stem 3 6
Kaempferol-3-0-glucoside Leaf
Lanthanum Leaf 1.2 8.2
Stem 0.6 18
Lead Leaf 0.4 25
Stem 0.2 57
Magnesium Leaf 280 5,740
Stem 200 8,400
Manganese Stem 14 2,400
Stem 60 2,460
Monotropeoside Plant
Myricetin-3-glucoside Leaf
Myricitrin Leaf
Neodymium Leaf 2.8 16.4
Stem 1.4 24
Nickel Leaf 0.3 24.6
Stem 0 18
Oleanolic-acid Resin, Exudate, Sap
Phenylpropyl-alcohol Resin, Exudate, Sap
Phenylpropyl-cinnamate Resin, Exudate, Sap 100,000
Phosphorus Leaf 360 2,952
Stem 60 2,880
Potassium Leaf 2,800 18,860
Stem 260 33,600
Protein Resin, Exudate, Sap 331,000
Quercetin-3'-glucoside Leaf
Quercitrin Leaf
Selenium Plant 0.01 0.4
Shikimic-acid Plant
Silver Stem 0 0.24
Sodium Plant 30 220
Strontium Leaf 8 246
Stem 6 840
Styrene Resin, Exudate, Sap
Styrocamphene? Resin, Exudate, Sap 4,000
Tannin Plant
Titanium Leaf 1 57
Stem 0.1 36
Tungsten Leaf 1 5.7
Stem 0.6 3.6
Valeranal Leaf
Valeranone Leaf
Vanadium Leaf 0.2 2.46
Stem 0.1 2.4
Vanillin Resin, Exudate, Sap
Vitispirane Leaf
Water Resin, Exudate, Sap 150,000 300,000
Ytterbium Leaf 0.08 24.6
Stem 0.04 0.84
Yttrium Leaf 0.2 24.6
Stem 0.1 18
Zinc Leaf 12 98
Stem 4 240
Zirconium Plant 2 5
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]