Lindera benzoin Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
benjamin-bush spicebush wild allspice

Lindera benzoin is a flowering plant in the family Lauraceae, native to eastern North America, ranging from New York to Ontario in the north, and to Kansas, Texas, and northern Florida in the center and south.

Lindera benzoin

Medical use

Economic importance of Lindera benzoin

Food additives flavoring
Environmental ornamental
Medicines folklore

Gallery

Lindera benzoin Lindera benzoin Lindera benzoin Lindera benzoin Lindera benzoin Lindera benzoin Lindera benzoin Lindera benzoin Lindera benzoin Lindera benzoin Lindera benzoin Lindera benzoin Lindera benzoin Lindera benzoin

Geografical distribution

  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Native
    • Eastern Canada: Canada - Ontario
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Connecticut, Indiana, Maine , Massachusetts, Michigan , New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Illinois, Kansas , Missouri , Oklahoma
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia
    • South-Central U.S.A.: United States - Texas

Biological activities

ACE-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpinene found in Fruit (6 ppm);found in Twig (9 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Twig (49 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Twig (21 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (225 ppm);found in Twig (10 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
AChE-Inhibitor
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Abortifacient
Beta-bisabolene found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Absorbent
Starch found in Plant
Acaricide
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Fruit (6 ppm);found in Twig (9 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Twig (21 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpinene found in Fruit (6 ppm);found in Twig (9 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Twig (49 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf (10 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Twig (21 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (225 ppm);found in Twig (10 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
Allelochemic
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (190 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (43 ppm)
Borneol found in Twig (15 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Terpinolene found in Fruit (9 ppm);found in Twig (2 ppm)
Allelopathic
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Twig (49 ppm)
Camphene found in Fruit (40 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (26 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Twig (29 ppm)
Allergenic
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (190 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (43 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (26 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (26 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (225 ppm);found in Twig (10 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
Analgesic
Borneol found in Twig (15 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (225 ppm);found in Twig (10 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (135 ppm);found in Twig (4 ppm)
Anesthetic
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Anthelmintic
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
AntiHIV
Tannin found in Plant
Antiacetylcholine
Borneol found in Twig (15 ppm)
Antiacetylcholinesterase
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Fruit (6 ppm);found in Twig (9 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Twig (21 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (135 ppm);found in Twig (4 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Twig (29 ppm)
Antiacne
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (190 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (43 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Twig (49 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf (10 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Twig (29 ppm)
Antiadenomic
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antiallergic
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Twig (29 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Twig (29 ppm)
Antibacillary
P-cymene found in Fruit (135 ppm);found in Twig (4 ppm)
Antibacterial
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Alpha-phellandrene found in Fruit (3135 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (190 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (43 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Twig (49 ppm)
Borneol found in Twig (15 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf (10 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (225 ppm);found in Twig (10 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (135 ppm);found in Twig (4 ppm)
Sabinene found in Fruit (8 ppm);found in Leaf (0.03 ppm);found in Twig (54 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Twig (29 ppm)
Antibronchitic
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Borneol found in Twig (15 ppm)
Anticancer
Alpha-terpineol found in Twig (49 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Anticariogenic
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Twig (49 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf (10 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Anticatarrh
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Anticholinesterase
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Anticonvulsant
Myrcene found in Fruit (225 ppm);found in Twig (10 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
Antidiarrheic
Tannin found in Plant
Antidysenteric
Tannin found in Plant
Antiedemic
Caryophyllene-oxide found in Leaf (4 ppm)
Antiescherichic
Borneol found in Twig (15 ppm)
Antiesophagitic
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antifatigue
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Antifeedant
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (190 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (43 ppm)
Borneol found in Twig (15 ppm)
Caryophyllene-oxide found in Leaf (4 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Twig (21 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Terpinolene found in Fruit (9 ppm);found in Twig (2 ppm)
Antiflu
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (190 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (43 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (135 ppm);found in Twig (4 ppm)
Antigliomic
Beta-elemene found in Fruit (105 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Antihalitosic
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Antihelicobacter
Sabinene found in Fruit (8 ppm);found in Leaf (0.03 ppm);found in Twig (54 ppm)
Antihepatotoxic
Tannin found in Plant
Antihypertensive
Tannin found in Plant
Antiinflammatory
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Alpha-curcumene found in Leaf (0.2 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (190 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (43 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Twig (49 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (26 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (26 ppm)
Borneol found in Twig (15 ppm)
Caryophyllene-oxide found in Leaf (4 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antilaryngitic
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Antilipolytic
Tannin found in Plant
Antilithic
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antilymphomic
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antimutagenic
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (225 ppm);found in Twig (10 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Antinephritic
Tannin found in Plant
Antinesidioblastosic
Starch found in Plant
Antinitrosaminic
Alpha-terpinene found in Fruit (6 ppm);found in Twig (9 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (225 ppm);found in Twig (10 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
Terpinolene found in Fruit (9 ppm);found in Twig (2 ppm)
Antinociceptive
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (225 ppm);found in Twig (10 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
Antiobesity
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Antiophidic
Tannin found in Plant
Antiotitic
Borneol found in Twig (15 ppm)
Antioxidant
Camphene found in Fruit (40 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (26 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Twig (21 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (225 ppm);found in Twig (10 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Twig (29 ppm)
Terpinolene found in Fruit (9 ppm);found in Twig (2 ppm)
Antipharyngitic
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Antiplaque
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Antipneumonic
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (190 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (43 ppm)
Antiproliferant
Alpha-terpineol found in Twig (49 ppm)
Beta-elemene found in Fruit (105 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Antipyretic
Borneol found in Twig (15 ppm)
Antiradicular
Tannin found in Plant
Antirenitic
Tannin found in Plant
Antirheumatalgic
P-cymene found in Fruit (135 ppm);found in Twig (4 ppm)
Antirheumatic
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Antirhinitic
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Antirhinoviral
Beta-bisabolene found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Beta-sesquiphellandrene found in Leaf (10 ppm)
Antisalmonella
Borneol found in Twig (15 ppm)
Antiseptic
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (190 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (43 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Twig (49 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (26 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (26 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Sabinene found in Fruit (8 ppm);found in Leaf (0.03 ppm);found in Twig (54 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Twig (29 ppm)
Antisinusitic
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Antispasmodic
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (190 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (43 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Fruit (6 ppm);found in Twig (9 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (26 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (26 ppm)
Borneol found in Twig (15 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (225 ppm);found in Twig (10 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Twig (29 ppm)
Antistaphylococcic
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Alpha-phellandrene found in Fruit (3135 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (190 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (43 ppm)
Borneol found in Twig (15 ppm)
Antistreptococcic
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf (10 ppm)
Antitumor-Promoter
Tannin found in Plant
Antitumor
Alpha-curcumene found in Leaf (0.2 ppm)
Alpha-humulene found in Leaf (4 ppm)
Caryophyllene-oxide found in Leaf (4 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Antitussive
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Twig (29 ppm)
Antiulcer
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Alpha-zingiberene found in Leaf (0.3 ppm)
Beta-bisabolene found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Beta-sesquiphellandrene found in Leaf (10 ppm)
Sabinene found in Fruit (8 ppm);found in Leaf (0.03 ppm);found in Twig (54 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Twig (29 ppm)
Antiviral
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (190 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (43 ppm)
Beta-bisabolene found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (135 ppm);found in Twig (4 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Antiyeast
Borneol found in Twig (15 ppm)
Apoptotic
Beta-elemene found in Fruit (105 ppm);found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Bacteriostatic
Terpinen-4-ol found in Twig (29 ppm)
Bronchoprotectant
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
CNS-Stimulant
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Borneol found in Twig (15 ppm)
CNS-Toxic
Borneol found in Twig (15 ppm)
Calcium-Antagonist
Caryophyllene-oxide found in Leaf (4 ppm)
Cancer-Preventive
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (190 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (43 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Candidicide
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (26 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (26 ppm)
Borneol found in Twig (15 ppm)
Candidistat
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Carcinogenic
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Chelator
Tannin found in Plant
Chemopreventive
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (225 ppm);found in Twig (10 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
Choleretic
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Borneol found in Twig (15 ppm)
Cholesterolytic
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Cicatrizant
Alpha-terpineol found in Twig (49 ppm)
Coleoptophile
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (190 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (43 ppm)
Convulsant
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Counterirritant
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Curaroid
Laurotetanine found in Stem
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Plant
Cytochrome-P450-Inducer
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf (10 ppm)
Cytotoxic
Laurotetanine found in Stem
Decongestant
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Degranulant
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Dentifrice
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Deodorant
Terpinolene found in Fruit (9 ppm);found in Twig (2 ppm)
Dermal
Alpha-phellandrene found in Fruit (3135 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
Detoxicant
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Diuretic
Terpinen-4-ol found in Twig (29 ppm)
Edemagenic
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Emetic
Alpha-phellandrene found in Fruit (3135 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
Emollient
Starch found in Plant
Enterocontractant
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Expectorant
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (190 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (43 ppm)
Beta-phellandrene found in Fruit (545 ppm)
Beta-sesquiphellandrene found in Leaf (10 ppm)
Camphene found in Fruit (40 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (26 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
FLavor
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Alpha-phellandrene found in Fruit (3135 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (190 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (43 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Fruit (6 ppm);found in Twig (9 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Twig (49 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (26 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (26 ppm)
Borneol found in Twig (15 ppm)
Camphene found in Fruit (40 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (26 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Twig (21 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (225 ppm);found in Twig (10 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (135 ppm);found in Twig (4 ppm)
Terpinolene found in Fruit (9 ppm);found in Twig (2 ppm)
Fungicide
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Alpha-phellandrene found in Fruit (3135 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
Beta-phellandrene found in Fruit (545 ppm)
Borneol found in Twig (15 ppm)
Caryophyllene-oxide found in Leaf (4 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (225 ppm);found in Twig (10 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (135 ppm);found in Twig (4 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Twig (29 ppm)
Terpinolene found in Fruit (9 ppm);found in Twig (2 ppm)
Fungiphilic
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Fungistat
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
GST-Inducer
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Gastroprotective
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Plant
Hepatoprotective
Borneol found in Twig (15 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Hepatotonic
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Herbicide
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (190 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (43 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (26 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (26 ppm)
Borneol found in Twig (15 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (135 ppm);found in Twig (4 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Twig (29 ppm)
Histaminic
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Hypotensive
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Hypothermic
Myrcene found in Fruit (225 ppm);found in Twig (10 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
Hypotriglyceridemic
Alpha-curcumene found in Leaf (0.2 ppm)
Immunomodulator
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Immunosuppressant
Tannin found in Plant
Inflammatory
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Inhalant
Borneol found in Twig (15 ppm)
Insect-Repellent
Borneol found in Twig (15 ppm)
Insecticide
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (190 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (43 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Fruit (6 ppm);found in Twig (9 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Twig (49 ppm)
Caryophyllene-oxide found in Leaf (4 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Insectifuge
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (190 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (43 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Fruit (6 ppm);found in Twig (9 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (26 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (26 ppm)
Borneol found in Twig (15 ppm)
Camphene found in Fruit (40 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (26 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Twig (21 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (225 ppm);found in Twig (10 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (135 ppm);found in Twig (4 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Twig (29 ppm)
Insectiphile
Alpha-phellandrene found in Fruit (3135 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (190 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (43 ppm)
Interleukin-6-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpineol found in Twig (49 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Irritant
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Alpha-phellandrene found in Fruit (3135 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (190 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (43 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (26 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (26 ppm)
Borneol found in Twig (15 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Twig (21 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (225 ppm);found in Twig (10 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (135 ppm);found in Twig (4 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Twig (29 ppm)
Laxative
Alpha-phellandrene found in Fruit (3135 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (135 ppm);found in Twig (4 ppm)
Lipolytic
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Plant
MAO-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Plant
Mosquitofuge
Alpha-terpineol found in Twig (49 ppm)
Motor-Depressant
Alpha-terpineol found in Twig (49 ppm)
Myorelaxant
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Borneol found in Twig (15 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (225 ppm);found in Twig (10 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
NO-Genic
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Nematicide
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Twig (49 ppm)
Borneol found in Twig (15 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Twig (29 ppm)
Neurotoxic
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Ozone-Scavenger
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
P450-2B1-Inhibitor
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (190 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (43 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Fruit (6 ppm);found in Twig (9 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (225 ppm);found in Twig (10 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
P450-Inducer
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf (10 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Pediculicide
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Perfume
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Perfumery
Alpha-humulene found in Leaf (4 ppm)
Alpha-phellandrene found in Fruit (3135 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (190 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (43 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Fruit (6 ppm);found in Twig (9 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Twig (49 ppm)
Beta-bisabolene found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Beta-phellandrene found in Fruit (545 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (26 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (26 ppm)
Borneol found in Twig (15 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Twig (21 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (225 ppm);found in Twig (10 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
Sabinene found in Fruit (8 ppm);found in Leaf (0.03 ppm);found in Twig (54 ppm)
Terpinolene found in Fruit (9 ppm);found in Twig (2 ppm)
Peristaltic
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Pesticide
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Alpha-phellandrene found in Fruit (3135 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (190 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (43 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Fruit (6 ppm);found in Twig (9 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Twig (49 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (26 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (26 ppm)
Beta-sesquiphellandrene found in Leaf (10 ppm)
Borneol found in Twig (15 ppm)
Camphene found in Fruit (40 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (26 ppm)
Caryophyllene-oxide found in Leaf (4 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf (10 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Twig (21 ppm)
Germacrene-d found in Leaf (3 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (225 ppm);found in Twig (10 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (135 ppm);found in Twig (4 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Twig (29 ppm)
Terpinolene found in Fruit (9 ppm);found in Twig (2 ppm)
Pheromone
Germacrene-d found in Leaf (3 ppm)
Photosensitizer
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Poultice
Starch found in Plant
Psychotropic
Tannin found in Plant
Renoirritant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Twig (29 ppm)
Rubefacient
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Secretogogue
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Sedative
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (190 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (43 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Twig (49 ppm)
Borneol found in Twig (15 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (135 ppm);found in Twig (4 ppm)
Spasmogenic
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (190 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (43 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Fruit (6 ppm);found in Twig (9 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (26 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (26 ppm)
Camphene found in Fruit (40 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (26 ppm)
Spermicide
Terpinen-4-ol found in Twig (29 ppm)
Stomachic
Beta-bisabolene found in Leaf (11 ppm)
Beta-sesquiphellandrene found in Leaf (10 ppm)
Surfactant
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Termiticide
Alpha-terpineol found in Twig (49 ppm)
Testosterone-Hydroxylase-Inducer
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Testosterone-Inducer
Delta-cadinene found in Leaf (10 ppm)
Tranquilizer
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (190 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (43 ppm)
Borneol found in Twig (15 ppm)
Transdermal
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (190 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (43 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Twig (49 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (26 ppm);found in Leaf (2 ppm);found in Twig (26 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (115 ppm);found in Twig (11 ppm);found in Leaf (0.4 ppm)
Trichomonicide
1,8-cineole found in Shoot Essent. Oil (160000 ppm);found in Twig (320 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (135 ppm);found in Twig (4 ppm)
Vulnerary
Alpha-terpineol found in Twig (49 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Twig (29 ppm)
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Plant

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
(e)-alpha-bergamotene Leaf 4
(e)-beta-farnesene Leaf 12
(e)-beta-ocimene Fruit 36 50
(e)-nerolidol Shoot Essent. Oil 100,000
Leaf 10 28
(z)-beta-ocimene Fruit 55 75
(z)-hexenyl-benzoate Leaf 0.8
1,6-germacriene-5-ol Leaf 12
1,8-cineole Shoot Essent. Oil 100,000 160,000
Twig 315 320
6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one Shoot Essent. Oil 110,000 160,000
Leaf 4 90
Alpha-amorphene Leaf 1
Alpha-curcumene Leaf 0.2
Alpha-humulene Leaf 4
Alpha-phellandrene Fruit 2,300 3,135
Leaf 0.1
Alpha-pinene Fruit 125 190
Leaf 2
Twig 35 43
Alpha-terpinene Fruit 4 6
Twig 7 9
Alpha-terpineol Twig 46 49
Alpha-zingiberene Leaf 0.3
Beta-bisabolene Leaf 11
Beta-caryophyllene Shoot Essent. Oil 150,000
Fruit 60 135
Leaf 30 100
Beta-elemene Fruit 50 105
Leaf 0.5
Beta-phellandrene Fruit 400 545
Beta-pinene Fruit 18 26
Leaf 2
Twig 24 26
Beta-sesquiphellandrene Leaf 10
Bicyclogermacrene Leaf 3
Borneol Twig 13 15
Camphene Fruit 22 40
Leaf 2
Twig 17 26
Caryophyllene-oxide Leaf 4
Delta-cadinene Leaf 10
Delta-carene Fruit 4 7
Eo Fruit 4,140 4,260
Leaf 200
Twig 700
Gamma-cadinene Leaf 3
Gamma-terpinene Twig 20 21
Germacrene-d Leaf 3
Isolinderanolide Fruit
Isolinderenolide Fruit
Isoobtusilactone Fruit
Isoobtusilactone-a Fruit
Laurotetanine Stem
Limonene Fruit 80 115
Twig 9 11
Leaf 0.4
Linderanolide Fruit
Myrcene Fruit 170 225
Twig 0 10
Leaf 0.1
Obtusilactone Fruit
Obtusilactone-a Fruit
P-cymene Fruit 90 135
Twig 0 4
Resin Plant
Sabinene Fruit 5 8
Leaf 0.03
Twig 41 54
Spathulenol Leaf 0.4
Starch Plant
Tannin Plant
Terpinen-4-ol Twig 26 29
Terpinolene Fruit 2 9
Twig 0 2
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]