Levisticum officinale Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
lovage
Levisticum officinale

Medical use

Economic importance of Levisticum officinale

Food additives flavoring
Medicines folklore

Gallery

Levisticum officinale Levisticum officinale Levisticum officinale Levisticum officinale Levisticum officinale Levisticum officinale Levisticum officinale Levisticum officinale Levisticum officinale Levisticum officinale Levisticum officinale Levisticum officinale Levisticum officinale Levisticum officinale

Geografical distribution

  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Western Asia: Afghanistan; Iran

Biological activities

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Palmitic-acid found in Root
ACE-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpinene found in Root (10 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Root (80 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Root (30 ppm)
Myrcene found in Root (60 ppm)
AChE-Inhibitor
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Abortifacient
Apiole found in Seed
Absorbent
Starch found in Root
Acaricide
1,8-cineole found in Root
Alpha-terpinene found in Root (10 ppm)
Butylidene-phthalide found in Root (1535 ppm)
Citronellal found in Plant
Eugenol found in Root
Gamma-terpinene found in Root (30 ppm)
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Acidulant
Acetic-acid found in Root
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpinene found in Root (10 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Root (80 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Coumarin found in Root
Delta-cadinene found in Root (5 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Root (30 ppm)
Myrcene found in Root (60 ppm)
Umbelliferone found in Root
Allelochemic
Alpha-pinene found in Root (200 ppm)
Borneol found in Root
Coumarin found in Root
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Umbelliferone found in Root
Allelopathic
1,8-cineole found in Root
Alpha-terpineol found in Root (80 ppm)
Camphene found in Root (70 ppm)
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Terpinen-4-ol found in Root
Allergenic
1,8-cineole found in Root
Alpha-pinene found in Root (200 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Root
Benzyl-alcohol found in Root (30 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Root (210 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Carvacrol found in Root
Carvone found in Root (100 ppm)
Citronellal found in Plant
Eugenol found in Root
Geraniol found in Root
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Menthol found in Root
Myrcene found in Root (60 ppm)
Amphetaminagenic
Myristicin found in Seed
Analgesic
Borneol found in Root
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Coumarin found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Menthol found in Root
Myrcene found in Root (60 ppm)
P-cymene found in Root
Trans-anethole found in Root
Androgenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Anesthetic
1,8-cineole found in Root
Benzoic-acid found in Root
Benzyl-alcohol found in Root (30 ppm)
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Root
Coumarin found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Menthol found in Root
Myristicin found in Seed
Trans-anethole found in Root
Angiogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Anorexic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Anthelmintic
1,8-cineole found in Root
Carvacrol found in Root
Geraniol found in Root
AntiHIV
Caffeic-acid found in Root
AntiLegionella
Caffeic-acid found in Root
AntiTNF
Eugenol found in Root
Antiacetylcholine
Borneol found in Root
Antiacetylcholinesterase
1,8-cineole found in Root
Alpha-terpinene found in Root (10 ppm)
Carvone found in Root (100 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Root (30 ppm)
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Menthol found in Root
P-cymene found in Root
Terpinen-4-ol found in Root
Antiacne
Alpha-pinene found in Root (200 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Root (80 ppm)
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Root (5 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Root
Antiadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Antiadenoviral
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Antiaflatoxin
Imperatorin found in Fruit (13 ppm)
Antiaggregant
Bergapten found in Root
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Coumarin found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Imperatorin found in Fruit (13 ppm)
Menthol found in Root
Myristicin found in Seed
Antiaging
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Antiallergic
1,8-cineole found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Menthol found in Root
Terpinen-4-ol found in Root
Antialopecic
8-methoxy-psoralen found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Imperatorin found in Fruit (13 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Root
Antianaphylactic
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Antiandrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Coumarin found in Root
Palmitic-acid found in Root
Antianginal
Butylidene-phthalide found in Root (1535 ppm)
Antiapertif
Bergapten found in Root
Antiarachidonate
Eugenol found in Root
Antiarrhythmic
Butyl-phthalide found in Root (1535 ppm)
Butylidene-phthalide found in Root (1535 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Antiasthmatic
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Menthol found in Root
Terpinen-4-ol found in Root
Z-ligustilide found in Root
Antiatherogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Antiatherosclerotic
Carvacrol found in Root
Antibacillary
P-cymene found in Root
Antibacillus
Menthol found in Root
Antibacterial
1,8-cineole found in Root
8-methoxy-psoralen found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Acetic-acid found in Root
Alpha-phellandrene found in Root (10 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Root (200 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Root (80 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Root
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Borneol found in Root
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Carvacrol found in Root
Citronellal found in Plant
Delta-3-carene found in Root (10 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Root (5 ppm)
Eugenol found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Geraniol found in Root
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Menthol found in Root
Myrcene found in Root (60 ppm)
P-cymene found in Root
Terpinen-4-ol found in Root
Umbelliferone found in Root
Antibronchitic
1,8-cineole found in Root
Borneol found in Root
Menthol found in Root
Antibrucellosic
Coumarin found in Root
Anticancer
Alpha-terpineol found in Root (80 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Anticarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Anticariogenic
1,8-cineole found in Root
Alpha-terpineol found in Root (80 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Root (5 ppm)
Geraniol found in Root
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Anticatarrh
1,8-cineole found in Root
Anticholinesterase
1,8-cineole found in Root
Anticolic
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Anticonstrictive
Butyl-phthalide found in Root (1535 ppm)
Butylidene-phthalide found in Root (1535 ppm)
Anticonvulsant
Bergapten found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Imperatorin found in Fruit (13 ppm)
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Myrcene found in Root (60 ppm)
Antidandruff
Menthol found in Root
Antidepressant
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Myristicin found in Seed
Psoralen found in Fruit (3 ppm);found in Root
Antidiarrheic
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Antidiuretic
Carvacrol found in Root
Coumarin found in Root
Antidysenteric
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Antidysmenorrheic
Apiole found in Seed
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Antiedemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Coumarin found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Umbelliferone found in Root
Antielastase
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Antiemetic
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Antiescherichic
Borneol found in Root
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Menthol found in Root
Antiesherichic
Coumarin found in Root
Antiesophagitic
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Antiestrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Antifatigue
1,8-cineole found in Root
Antifeedant
Alpha-pinene found in Root (200 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Borneol found in Root
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Eugenol found in Root
Gamma-terpinene found in Root (30 ppm)
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Antifertility
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Antifibrinolytic
Palmitic-acid found in Root
Antifibrositic
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Antiflu
Alpha-pinene found in Root (200 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
P-cymene found in Root
Antigenotoxic
Eugenol found in Root
Trans-anethole found in Root
Antigliomic
Beta-elemene found in Root (125 ppm)
Antiglutamaergic
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Antigonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Antigonadotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Antihalitosic
1,8-cineole found in Root
Menthol found in Root
Antihemolytic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Antihepatoadenomic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Antihepatotoxic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Antiherpetic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Antihistaminic
Bergapten found in Root
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Menthol found in Root
Umbelliferone found in Root
Antihypercholesterolemic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Antihyperlipoproteinaemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Antihyperthyroid
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Antiinflammatory
1,8-cineole found in Root
Alpha-pinene found in Root (200 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Root (80 ppm)
Bergapten found in Root
Beta-pinene found in Root (210 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Borneol found in Root
Butylidene-phthalide found in Root (1535 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Carvacrol found in Root
Coumarin found in Root
Cuparene found in Root (5 ppm)
Delta-3-carene found in Root (10 ppm)
Eugenol found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Imperatorin found in Fruit (13 ppm)
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Menthol found in Root
Myristicin found in Seed
Umbelliferone found in Root
Antijet-lag
Bergapten found in Root
Antikeratotic
Eugenol found in Root
Antilaryngitic
1,8-cineole found in Root
Antileukemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Pretazettine found in Stem
Antileukodermic
Bergapten found in Root
Imperatorin found in Fruit (13 ppm)
Psoralen found in Fruit (3 ppm);found in Root
Antileukotriene
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Antilisteria
Menthol found in Root
Antilithic
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Antilymphedemic
Coumarin found in Root
Antilymphomic
8-methoxy-psoralen found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Antimalarial
Alpha-selinene found in Root (100 ppm)
Apiole found in Seed
Beta-selinene found in Root (100 ppm)
Myrtenol found in Root
Antimange
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Antimelanogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Antimelanomic
Carvacrol found in Root
Coumarin found in Root
Geraniol found in Root
Antimetastatic
Coumarin found in Root
Antimite
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Antimitotic
Bergapten found in Root
Coumarin found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Imperatorin found in Fruit (13 ppm)
Psoralen found in Fruit (3 ppm);found in Root
Umbelliferone found in Root
Antimononuccleotic
Coumarin found in Root
Antimutagenic
5-methoxy-psoralen found in Fruit (6 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Coumarin found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Imperatorin found in Fruit (13 ppm)
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Myrcene found in Root (60 ppm)
Psoralen found in Fruit (3 ppm);found in Root
Umbelliferone found in Root
Antimycoplasmotic
Coumarin found in Root
Antimycotic
8-methoxy-psoralen found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Antineoplastic
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Antinesidioblastosic
Starch found in Root
Antineuralgic
Apiole found in Seed
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Menthol found in Root
Antinitrosaminic
Alpha-terpinene found in Root (10 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Myrcene found in Root (60 ppm)
Antinitrosating
Eugenol found in Root
Antinociceptive
1,8-cineole found in Root
Myrcene found in Root (60 ppm)
Antiobesity
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Antiodontalgic
Benzyl-alcohol found in Root (30 ppm)
Menthol found in Root
Antiophidic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Antiotitic
Acetic-acid found in Root
Benzoic-acid found in Root
Borneol found in Root
Antioxidant
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Camphene found in Root (70 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Gamma-terpinene found in Root (30 ppm)
Myrcene found in Root (60 ppm)
Myristic-acid found in Root
Myristicin found in Seed
Palmitic-acid found in Root
Terpinen-4-ol found in Root
Trans-anethole found in Root
Antiperoxidant
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Antipharyngitic
1,8-cineole found in Root
Antiplaque
1,8-cineole found in Root
Carvacrol found in Root
Antiplasmodial
Alpha-selinene found in Root (100 ppm)
Beta-selinene found in Root (100 ppm)
Myrtenol found in Root
Antiplatelet
Bergapten found in Root
Butylidene-phthalide found in Root (1535 ppm)
Imperatorin found in Fruit (13 ppm)
Antipneumonic
Alpha-pinene found in Root (200 ppm)
Antiprogestational
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Antiproliferant
Alpha-terpineol found in Root (80 ppm)
Beta-elemene found in Root (125 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Antiproliferative
Carvone found in Root (100 ppm)
Antiprostaglandin
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Butyl-phthalide found in Root (1535 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Carvacrol found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Umbelliferone found in Root
Antiprostatadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Antiprostatitic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Antiproteinigenic
Pretazettine found in Stem
Antipruritic
Benzyl-alcohol found in Root (30 ppm)
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Menthol found in Root
Antipsittacotic
Coumarin found in Root
Antipsoriac
5-methoxy-psoralen found in Fruit (6 ppm)
8-methoxy-psoralen found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Bergapten found in Root
Coumarin found in Root
Psoralen found in Fruit (3 ppm);found in Root
Antipyretic
Apiole found in Seed
Benzoic-acid found in Root
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Borneol found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Menthol found in Root
Antiradicular
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Carvacrol found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Trans-anethole found in Root
Antireproductive
Apiole found in Seed
Antirheumatalgic
P-cymene found in Root
Antirheumatic
1,8-cineole found in Root
Menthol found in Root
Antirhinitic
1,8-cineole found in Root
Antirhinoviral
Ar-curcumene found in Root (13 ppm)
Antisalmonella
Acetic-acid found in Root
Benzoic-acid found in Root
Borneol found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Geraniol found in Root
Menthol found in Root
Antiseptic
1,8-cineole found in Root
Alpha-pinene found in Root (200 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Root (80 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Root
Benzyl-alcohol found in Root (30 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Root (210 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Root
Carvone found in Root (100 ppm)
Citronellal found in Plant
Eugenol found in Root
Furfural found in Root (20 ppm)
Geraniol found in Root
Hexanol found in Root (610 ppm)
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Menthol found in Root
Terpinen-4-ol found in Root
Umbelliferone found in Root
Antiserotonin
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Antishock
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Antisinusitic
1,8-cineole found in Root
Menthol found in Root
Antispasmodic
1,8-cineole found in Root
Alpha-pinene found in Root (200 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Root (10 ppm)
Apiole found in Seed
Bergapten found in Root
Beta-pinene found in Root (210 ppm)
Borneol found in Root
Butyl-phthalide found in Root (1535 ppm)
Butylidene-phthalide found in Root (1535 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Geraniol found in Root
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Menthol found in Root
Myrcene found in Root (60 ppm)
Myristicin found in Seed
Psoralen found in Fruit (3 ppm);found in Root
Terpinen-4-ol found in Root
Umbelliferone found in Root
Z-ligustilide found in Root
Antistaphylococcic
1,8-cineole found in Root
8-methoxy-psoralen found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Alpha-phellandrene found in Root (10 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Root (200 ppm)
Borneol found in Root
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Carvacrol found in Root
Citronellal found in Plant
Eugenol found in Root
Menthol found in Root
Umbelliferone found in Root
Antistomatitic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Antistreptococcic
Carvacrol found in Root
Citronellal found in Plant
Delta-cadinene found in Root (5 ppm)
Menthol found in Root
Antistress
Myristicin found in Seed
Antisunburn
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Antitartar
Menthol found in Root
Antithiamin
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Antithrombic
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Antithromboxane
Eugenol found in Root
Antithyroid
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Antitoxoplasmotic
Coumarin found in Root
Antitubercular
Geraniol found in Root
Psoralen found in Fruit (3 ppm);found in Root
Antitumor-Promoter
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Imperatorin found in Fruit (13 ppm)
Psoralen found in Fruit (3 ppm);found in Root
Antitumor
5-methoxy-psoralen found in Fruit (6 ppm)
8-methoxy-psoralen found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Bergapten found in Root
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Coumarin found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Geraniol found in Root
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Pretazettine found in Stem
Psoralen found in Fruit (3 ppm);found in Root
Antitussive
1,8-cineole found in Root
Carvacrol found in Root
Terpinen-4-ol found in Root
Antiulcer
1,8-cineole found in Root
Ar-curcumene found in Root (13 ppm)
Eugenol found in Root
Terpinen-4-ol found in Root
Antiulcerogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Antiuterocontractant
Butyl-phthalide found in Root (1535 ppm)
Antivaccinia
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Antivaginitic
Acetic-acid found in Root
Menthol found in Root
Antiviral
8-methoxy-psoralen found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Root (200 ppm)
Ar-curcumene found in Root (13 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
P-cymene found in Root
Pretazettine found in Stem
Psoralen found in Fruit (3 ppm);found in Root
Antivitiligic
5-methoxy-psoralen found in Fruit (6 ppm)
8-methoxy-psoralen found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Imperatorin found in Fruit (13 ppm)
Antivulvitic
Menthol found in Root
Antiyeast
Benzoic-acid found in Root
Borneol found in Root
Anxiolytic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Apifuge
Eugenol found in Root
Apoptotic
Beta-elemene found in Root (125 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Artemicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Psoralen found in Fruit (3 ppm);found in Root
Arteriodilator
Butylidene-phthalide found in Root (1535 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Ascaricide
Geraniol found in Root
Bacteriophagicide
Psoralen found in Fruit (3 ppm);found in Root
Bacteriostatic
Terpinen-4-ol found in Root
Bacteristat
Coumarin found in Root
Barbituate-Synergist
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Bradycardic
Menthol found in Root
Bronchomucolytic
Menthol found in Root
Bronchomucotropic
Menthol found in Root
Bronchoprotectant
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Bronchorelaxant
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Bronchorrheic
Menthol found in Root
Bruchiphobe
Coumarin found in Root
Bufocide
Imperatorin found in Fruit (13 ppm)
CNS-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Root
CNS-Depressant
Bergapten found in Root
Diphenyl found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Menthol found in Root
CNS-Stimulant
1,8-cineole found in Root
Apiole found in Seed
Borneol found in Root
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Carvone found in Root (100 ppm)
Geraniol found in Root
Menthol found in Root
CNS-Toxic
Borneol found in Root
COX-1-Inhibitor
Eugenol found in Root
COX-2-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Calcium-Antagonist
Apiole found in Seed
Bergapten found in Root
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Imperatorin found in Fruit (13 ppm)
Menthol found in Root
Myristicin found in Seed
Psoralen found in Fruit (3 ppm);found in Root
Trans-anethole found in Root
Cancer-Preventive
5-methoxy-psoralen found in Fruit (6 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Root (200 ppm)
Bergapten found in Root
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Carvone found in Root (100 ppm)
Coumarin found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Geraniol found in Root
Imperatorin found in Fruit (13 ppm)
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Myristic-acid found in Root
Myristicin found in Seed
Psoralen found in Fruit (3 ppm);found in Root
Umbelliferone found in Root
Candidicide
1,8-cineole found in Root
8-methoxy-psoralen found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Root (210 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Borneol found in Root
Carvacrol found in Root
Citronellal found in Plant
Eugenol found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Geraniol found in Root
Menthol found in Root
Umbelliferone found in Root
Candidistat
Carvone found in Root (100 ppm)
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Carcinogenic
1,8-cineole found in Root
8-methoxy-psoralen found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Bergapten found in Root
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Coumarin found in Root
Cardiac
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Cardiodepressant
Coumarin found in Root
Cardiotonic
Coumarin found in Root
Carminative
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Root
Carvone found in Root (100 ppm)
Copaene found in Root (290 ppm)
Eugenol found in Root
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Menthol found in Root
Caspase-8-Inducer
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Chemopreventive
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Coumarin found in Root
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Myrcene found in Root (60 ppm)
Cholagogue
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Choleretic
1,8-cineole found in Root
Benzoic-acid found in Root
Borneol found in Root
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Menthol found in Root
Umbelliferone found in Root
Cholesterolytic
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Cicatrizant
Alpha-terpineol found in Root (80 ppm)
Ciliotoxic
Menthol found in Root
Clastogenic
Bergapten found in Root
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Co-carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Coleoptophile
Alpha-pinene found in Root (200 ppm)
Collagen-Sparing
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Congestant
Menthol found in Root
Contraceptive
Psoralen found in Fruit (3 ppm);found in Root
Convulsant
1,8-cineole found in Root
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Menthol found in Root
Cosmetic
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Myristic-acid found in Root
Counterirritant
1,8-cineole found in Root
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Menthol found in Root
Culicide
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Butylidene-phthalide found in Root (1535 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Root
Cytochrome-P450-Inducer
1,8-cineole found in Root
Delta-cadinene found in Root (5 ppm)
Cytochrome-P450-Inhibitor
Eugenol found in Root
Imperatorin found in Fruit (13 ppm)
Cytoprotective
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Cytotoxic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Psoralen found in Fruit (3 ppm);found in Root
DME-Inhibitor
Bergapten found in Root
Coumarin found in Root
Imperatorin found in Fruit (13 ppm)
DNA-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Root
DNA-Protective
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Decongestant
1,8-cineole found in Root
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Degranulant
1,8-cineole found in Root
Deliriant
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Dentifrice
1,8-cineole found in Root
Dermal
Alpha-phellandrene found in Root (10 ppm)
Dermatitigenic
Delta-3-carene found in Root (10 ppm)
Eugenol found in Root
Menthol found in Root
Detoxicant
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Diaphoretic
Menthol found in Root
Diuretic
Apiole found in Seed
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Myristicin found in Seed
Terpinen-4-ol found in Root
Ecbolic
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Edemagenic
1,8-cineole found in Root
Embryotoxic
Citronellal found in Plant
Geraniol found in Root
Emetic
Alpha-phellandrene found in Root (10 ppm)
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Coumarin found in Root
Diphenyl found in Root
Geraniol found in Root
Emmenagogue
Apiole found in Seed
Butylidene-phthalide found in Root (1535 ppm)
Emollient
Starch found in Root
Enterocontractant
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Enterorelaxant
Carvacrol found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Menthol found in Root
Epileptigenic
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Estrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Coumarin found in Root
Expectorant
1,8-cineole found in Root
Acetic-acid found in Root
Alpha-pinene found in Root (200 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Root
Beta-phellandrene found in Root (240 ppm)
Camphene found in Root (70 ppm)
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Root
Geraniol found in Root
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Menthol found in Root
FLavor
1,8-cineole found in Root
Alpha-phellandrene found in Root (10 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Root (200 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Root (10 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Root (80 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Root
Benzyl-alcohol found in Root (30 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Root (210 ppm)
Borneol found in Root
Camphene found in Root (70 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Root
Carvone found in Root (100 ppm)
Citronellal found in Plant
Delta-3-carene found in Root (10 ppm)
Eugenol found in Root
Furfural found in Root (20 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Root (30 ppm)
Geraniol found in Root
Hexanol found in Root (610 ppm)
Isovaleric-acid found in Root
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Myrcene found in Root (60 ppm)
Myristicin found in Seed
N-butyric-acid found in Root
P-cymene found in Root
Palmitic-acid found in Root
Trans-anethole found in Root
Febrifuge
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Fumigant
Thujopsene found in Root (80 ppm)
Fungicide
1,8-cineole found in Root
5-methoxy-psoralen found in Fruit (6 ppm)
8-methoxy-psoralen found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Acetic-acid found in Root
Alpha-phellandrene found in Root (10 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Root
Benzyl-alcohol found in Root (30 ppm)
Beta-phellandrene found in Root (240 ppm)
Borneol found in Root
Butyl-phthalide found in Root (1535 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Root
Citronellal found in Plant
Coumarin found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Furfural found in Root (20 ppm)
Geraniol found in Root
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Myrcene found in Root (60 ppm)
Myristicin found in Seed
P-cymene found in Root
Psoralen found in Fruit (3 ppm);found in Root
Terpinen-4-ol found in Root
Umbelliferone found in Root
Fungiphilic
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Fungistat
Carvone found in Root (100 ppm)
Diphenyl found in Root
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
GABA-nergic
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
GST-Inducer
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Gastroprotective
1,8-cineole found in Root
Gastrosedative
Menthol found in Root
Genotoxic
Psoralen found in Fruit (3 ppm);found in Root
Gonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
HIV-RT-Inhibitor
Pretazettine found in Stem
Hallucinogenic
Myristicin found in Seed
Hemolytic
Palmitic-acid found in Root
Hemorrhagic
Coumarin found in Root
Hepatocarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Hepatoprotective
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Borneol found in Root
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Imperatorin found in Fruit (13 ppm)
Hepatotonic
1,8-cineole found in Root
Hepatotoxic
Apiole found in Seed
Coumarin found in Root
Imperatorin found in Fruit (13 ppm)
Myristicin found in Seed
Hepatotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Herbicide
1,8-cineole found in Root
Alpha-pinene found in Root (200 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Root (210 ppm)
Borneol found in Root
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Eugenol found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Geraniol found in Root
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
P-cymene found in Root
Terpinen-4-ol found in Root
Histamine-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Histaminic
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Hydrocholerectic
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Hypercholesterolemic
Myristic-acid found in Root
Palmitic-acid found in Root
Hypnotic
Coumarin found in Root
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Myristicin found in Seed
Hypocholesterolemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Hypoglycemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Coumarin found in Root
Hypolipidemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Hypotensive
1,8-cineole found in Root
Bergapten found in Root
Myristicin found in Seed
Psoralen found in Fruit (3 ppm);found in Root
Hypothermic
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Myrcene found in Root (60 ppm)
Immunomodulator
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Immunostimulant
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Coumarin found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Immunosuppressant
8-methoxy-psoralen found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Inflammatory
1,8-cineole found in Root
Inhalant
Borneol found in Root
Insect-Repellent
Borneol found in Root
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Insecticide-Synergist
Myristicin found in Seed
Insecticide
Alpha-pinene found in Root (200 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Root (10 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Root (80 ppm)
Apiole found in Seed
Benzene found in Root
Bergapten found in Root
Carvone found in Root (100 ppm)
Eugenol found in Root
Furfural found in Root (20 ppm)
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Myristicin found in Seed
Psoralen found in Fruit (3 ppm);found in Root
Insectifuge
1,8-cineole found in Root
Alpha-pinene found in Root (200 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Root (10 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Root
Beta-pinene found in Root (210 ppm)
Borneol found in Root
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Camphene found in Root (70 ppm)
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Root
Carvone found in Root (100 ppm)
Citronellal found in Plant
Delta-3-carene found in Root (10 ppm)
Eugenol found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Gamma-terpinene found in Root (30 ppm)
Geraniol found in Root
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Myrcene found in Root (60 ppm)
P-cymene found in Root
Terpinen-4-ol found in Root
Insectiphile
Alpha-phellandrene found in Root (10 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Root (200 ppm)
Geraniol found in Root
Interleukin-6-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpineol found in Root (80 ppm)
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Intoxicant
Apiole found in Seed
Irritant
1,8-cineole found in Root
Alpha-phellandrene found in Root (10 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Root (200 ppm)
Apiole found in Seed
Beta-pinene found in Root (210 ppm)
Borneol found in Root
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Root
Citronellal found in Plant
Delta-3-carene found in Root (10 ppm)
Eugenol found in Root
Furfural found in Root (20 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Root (30 ppm)
Isovaleric-acid found in Root
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Menthol found in Root
Myrcene found in Root (60 ppm)
P-cymene found in Root
Terpinen-4-ol found in Root
Juvabional
Coumarin found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Keratitigenic
Acetic-acid found in Root
Larvicide
Benzene found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Myristicin found in Seed
Larvistat
Coumarin found in Root
Laxative
Alpha-phellandrene found in Root (10 ppm)
P-cymene found in Root
Leukotriene-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Lipolytic
Bergapten found in Root
Imperatorin found in Fruit (13 ppm)
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Umbelliferone found in Root
Lubricant
Myristic-acid found in Root
Palmitic-acid found in Root
Lyase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Lymphocytogenic
8-methoxy-psoralen found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Coumarin found in Root
Lymphokinetic
Coumarin found in Root
MAO-A-Inhibitor
Psoralen found in Fruit (3 ppm);found in Root
MAO-B-Inhibitor
Psoralen found in Fruit (3 ppm);found in Root
MAO-Inhibitor
Myristicin found in Seed
Melaninogenic
5-methoxy-psoralen found in Fruit (6 ppm)
8-methoxy-psoralen found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Melatoninogenic
5-methoxy-psoralen found in Fruit (6 ppm)
Metal-Chelator
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Mitogenic
8-methoxy-psoralen found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Molluscicide
Bergapten found in Root
Imperatorin found in Fruit (13 ppm)
Mosquitofuge
Alpha-terpineol found in Root (80 ppm)
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Motor-Depressant
Alpha-terpineol found in Root (80 ppm)
Carvone found in Root (100 ppm)
Citronellal found in Plant
Eugenol found in Root
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Mucolytic
Acetic-acid found in Root
Mutagenic
8-methoxy-psoralen found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Bergapten found in Root
Psoralen found in Fruit (3 ppm);found in Root
Mycobactericide
Geraniol found in Root
Myorelaxant
1,8-cineole found in Root
Borneol found in Root
Butyl-phthalide found in Root (1535 ppm)
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Menthol found in Root
Myrcene found in Root (60 ppm)
NO-Genic
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Narcotic
Coumarin found in Root
Nematicide
1,8-cineole found in Root
Alpha-terpineol found in Root (80 ppm)
Borneol found in Root
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Root
Carvone found in Root (100 ppm)
Citronellal found in Plant
Eugenol found in Root
Geraniol found in Root
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Menthol found in Root
Myristic-acid found in Root
Palmitic-acid found in Root
Terpinen-4-ol found in Root
Neurodepressant
Menthol found in Root
Neuropathogenic
Menthol found in Root
Neurotoxic
1,8-cineole found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Myristicin found in Seed
Nociceptive
Menthol found in Root
Occuloirritant
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Osteolytic
Acetic-acid found in Root
Ovicide
Coumarin found in Root
Oxytocic
Myristicin found in Seed
Ozone-Scavenger
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
P450-2B1-Inhibitor
Alpha-pinene found in Root (200 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Root (10 ppm)
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Citronellal found in Plant
Myrcene found in Root (60 ppm)
P450-Inducer
1,8-cineole found in Root
Delta-cadinene found in Root (5 ppm)
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Paralytic
Myristicin found in Seed
Pediculicide
1,8-cineole found in Root
Perfume
1,8-cineole found in Root
Perfumery
Acetic-acid found in Root
Alpha-phellandrene found in Root (10 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Root (200 ppm)
Alpha-selinene found in Root (100 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Root (10 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Root (80 ppm)
Beta-phellandrene found in Root (240 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Root (210 ppm)
Beta-selinene found in Root (100 ppm)
Borneol found in Root
Carvone found in Root (100 ppm)
Citronellal found in Plant
Diphenyl found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Gamma-terpinene found in Root (30 ppm)
Geraniol found in Root
Isovaleric-acid found in Root
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Menthol found in Root
Myrcene found in Root (60 ppm)
Umbelliferone found in Root
Peristaltic
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Pesticide
1,8-cineole found in Root
8-methoxy-psoralen found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Acetic-acid found in Root
Alpha-phellandrene found in Root (10 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Root (200 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Root (10 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Root (80 ppm)
Apiole found in Seed
Benzene found in Root
Benzoic-acid found in Root
Benzyl-alcohol found in Root (30 ppm)
Bergapten found in Root
Beta-pinene found in Root (210 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Borneol found in Root
Butyl-phthalide found in Root (1535 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Camphene found in Root (70 ppm)
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Root
Carvone found in Root (100 ppm)
Citronellal found in Plant
Coumarin found in Root
Delta-3-carene found in Root (10 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Root (5 ppm)
Diphenyl found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Furfural found in Root (20 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Root (30 ppm)
Geraniol found in Root
Hexanol found in Root (610 ppm)
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Menthol found in Root
Myrcene found in Root (60 ppm)
Myristicin found in Seed
P-cymene found in Root
Palmitic-acid found in Root
Psoralen found in Fruit (3 ppm);found in Root
Terpinen-4-ol found in Root
Thujopsene found in Root (80 ppm)
Umbelliferone found in Root
Phagocytotic
Coumarin found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Photoactive
Umbelliferone found in Root
Photocarcinogenic
Psoralen found in Fruit (3 ppm);found in Root
Photodermatitigenic
5-methoxy-psoralen found in Fruit (6 ppm)
8-methoxy-psoralen found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Photosensitizer
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Phototoxic
8-methoxy-psoralen found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Bergapten found in Root
Psoralen found in Fruit (3 ppm);found in Root
Phytoalexin
Benzoic-acid found in Root
Psoralen found in Fruit (3 ppm);found in Root
Piscicide
Bergapten found in Root
Coumarin found in Root
Imperatorin found in Fruit (13 ppm)
Poultice
Starch found in Root
Preservative
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Prooxidant
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Propecic
Palmitic-acid found in Root
Prostaglandigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Prostaglandin-Inhibitor
Carvacrol found in Root
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Eugenol found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Protisticide
Acetic-acid found in Root
Psychoactive
Myristicin found in Seed
Refrigerant
Menthol found in Root
Renoirritant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Root
Respirainhibitor
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Respirastimulant
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Respirodepressant
Coumarin found in Root
Rodenticide
Coumarin found in Root
Rubefacient
1,8-cineole found in Root
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Menthol found in Root
Secretogogue
1,8-cineole found in Root
Secretolytic
Apiole found in Seed
Sedative
1,8-cineole found in Root
Alpha-pinene found in Root (200 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Root (80 ppm)
Angelic-acid found in Root
Benzyl-alcohol found in Root (30 ppm)
Borneol found in Root
Butyl-phthalide found in Root (1535 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Carvone found in Root (100 ppm)
Citronellal found in Plant
Coumarin found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Geraniol found in Root
Imperatorin found in Fruit (13 ppm)
Isovaleric-acid found in Root
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Myristicin found in Seed
P-cymene found in Root
Sedanenolide found in Root
Serotoninergic
Myristicin found in Seed
Soap
Palmitic-acid found in Root
Spasmogenic
1,8-cineole found in Root
Alpha-pinene found in Root (200 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Root (10 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Root (210 ppm)
Camphene found in Root (70 ppm)
Spermicide
Acetic-acid found in Root
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Terpinen-4-ol found in Root
Stimulant
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Sunscreen
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Umbelliferone found in Root
Surfactant
1,8-cineole found in Root
Sweetener
Trans-anethole found in Root
Synergist
Apiole found in Seed
Tachycardic
Myristicin found in Seed
Teratogenic
Citronellal found in Plant
Termiticide
Alpha-terpineol found in Root (80 ppm)
Eugenol found in Root
Menthol found in Root
Termitifuge
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Testosterone-Hydroxylase-Inducer
1,8-cineole found in Root
Testosterone-Inducer
Delta-cadinene found in Root (5 ppm)
Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor
Psoralen found in Fruit (3 ppm);found in Root
Tracheorelaxant
Butyl-phthalide found in Root (1535 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Root
Tranquilizer
Alpha-pinene found in Root (200 ppm)
Borneol found in Root
Isovaleric-acid found in Root
Transdermal
1,8-cineole found in Root
Alpha-pinene found in Root (200 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Root (80 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Root (210 ppm)
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Limonene found in Root (80 ppm)
Menthol found in Root
Trichomonicide
1,8-cineole found in Root
Carvacrol found in Root
Carvone found in Root (100 ppm)
Eugenol found in Root
Geraniol found in Root
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
P-cymene found in Root
Trichomonistat
Eugenol found in Root
Trypsin-Enhancer
Eugenol found in Root
Tumor-Promoter
Linalool found in Root (30 ppm)
Tumorigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
Benzoic-acid found in Root
Ubiquiot
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Ulcerogenic
Acetic-acid found in Root
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Uricosuric
Benzoic-acid found in Root
Uterosedative
Ferulic-acid found in Fruit
Uterotonic
Apiole found in Seed
Myristicin found in Seed
Varroacide
Eugenol found in Root
Vasodilator
Apiole found in Seed
Eugenol found in Root
Vermicide
Carvone found in Root (100 ppm)
Vermifuge
Carvacrol found in Root
Eugenol found in Root
Verrucolytic
Acetic-acid found in Root
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Vibriocide
Camphor found in Root (10 ppm)
Menthol found in Root
Vulnerary
Alpha-terpineol found in Root (80 ppm)
Benzoic-acid found in Root
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Terpinen-4-ol found in Root
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Root
Umbelliferone found in Root

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
(+)-falcarindiol Root 600
1,8-cineole Root
2-methyl-butanal Root
2-octanone Root
3-butyl-4,5-dihydrophthalide Root
3-butylphthalide Root 600 5,440
4-octanone Root
5-methoxy-psoralen Fruit 6
8-methoxy-psoralen Fruit 0 1
Acetic-acid Root
Alkyl-phthalides Root 1,400 11,900
Alpha-fenchyl-alcohol Root
Alpha-p-dimethyl-styrene Root 3 30
Alpha-phellandrene Root 1 10
Alpha-pinene Root 20 200
Alpha-selinene Root 10 100
Alpha-terpinene Root 1 10
Alpha-terpineol Root 8 80
Alpha-terpinyl-acetate Leaf
Angelic-acid Root
Angeolide Root
Apiole Seed
Apterin Root
Ar-curcumene Root 1 13
Benzene Root
Benzoic-acid Root
Benzyl-alcohol Root 3 30
Bergapten Root
Beta-chamigrene Root 1 13
Beta-elemene Root 12 125
Beta-phellandrene Root 24 240
Beta-pinene Root 21 210
Beta-selinene Root 10 100
Beta-sitosterol Root
Beta-sitosterol-beta-d-glucoside Root
Borneol Root
Butyl-dihydrophthalide Root
Butyl-hexahydrophthalide Root
Butyl-phthalide Root 153 1,535
Butylidene-phthalide Root 153 1,535
Butylidene-phthalides Root 700 7,000
Caffeic-acid Root
Calamenene Root 0 5
Camphene Root 7 70
Camphor Root 1 10
Carvacrol Root
Carvone Root 10 100
Carvotanacetone Root
Cis-3-hexenyl Root
Cis-ligustilide Root 240 2,040
Cis-ocimenen Root
Citronellal Plant
Copaene Root 29 290
Coumarin Root
Coumarins Root 1,000 43,000
Cuparene Root 0 5
Cuparenene Root 1 13
D-alpha-terpineol Root
Delta-3-carene Root 1 10
Delta-cadinene Root 0 5
Delta-selinene Root
Dihydrobutylidene-phthalide Root
Diphenyl Root
E-ligustilide Root
Eo Plant 500 2,450
Seed 8,000 11,000
Root 1,000 18,000
Eugenol Root
Fat Fruit 147,000
Ferulic-acid Fruit
Furfural Root 2 20
Furfurol Root 1 10
Gamma-cadinene Root 0 5
Gamma-terpinene Root 3 30
Geraniol Root
Heptanal Root
Hexanol Root 61 610
Hydrophthalide-acids Root
Imperatorin Fruit 13
Isosenkyunolide Root
Isovaleric-acid Root
Levistolide-a Root
Levistolide-b Root
Ligusticide Root 215 2,150
Ligusticumlactone-e-butylidene-phthalide Root
Ligusticumlactone-z-butylidene-phthalide Root
Limonene Root 8 80
Limonene-10-ol Root 1 10
Linalool Root 3 30
Maleic-acid Root
Menthol Root
Myrcene Root 6 60
Myristic-acid Root
Myristicin Seed
Myrtenol Root
N-butyric-acid Root
N-pentyl-benzene Root
Octyl-aldehyde Root
P-cymene Root
Palmitic-acid Root
Pentacyclohexadiene Root
Phthalides Root 700 12,600
Pretazettine Stem
Protein Fruit 200,000
Psoralen Fruit 3
Root
Resin Root
Sedanenolide Root
Sedanoic-acid Root
Sedanoic-anhydride Root
Senkyunolide Root
Starch Root
Sugar Root
Terpinen-4-ol Root
Thujopsene Root 8 80
Trans-2-nonenal Root
Trans-alpha-bergamotene Root 12 125
Trans-anethole Root
Trans-ligustilide Root 240 2,040
Trans-ocimene Root
Umbelliferone Root
Validene-4,5-dihydrophthalide Root
Z-ligustilide Root
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]