Illicium verum Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
Chinese star-anise star-anise
Illicium verum

Medical use

Economic importance of Illicium verum

Food additives flavoring
Materials esential oils
Medicines source of shikimic acid

Gallery

Illicium verum Illicium verum Illicium verum Illicium verum Illicium verum Illicium verum Illicium verum Illicium verum Illicium verum

Geografical distribution

  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • China: China - Fujian , Guangdong , Guangxi, Yunnan
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Native
    • Indo-China: Vietnam

Biological activities

5-HT-Inhibitor
Rutin found in Fruit
ACE-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpinene found in Fruit (70 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Fruit (75 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (200 ppm)
AChE-Inhibitor
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Abortifacient
Beta-bisabolene found in Fruit (75 ppm)
Acaricide
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Fruit (70 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Fruit (75 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Rutin found in Fruit
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpinene found in Fruit (70 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Fruit (3600 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Fruit (75 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Nerolidol found in Fruit (50 ppm)
Rutin found in Fruit
Allelochemic
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (1310 ppm)
Hydroquinone found in Fruit
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Rutin found in Fruit
Terpinolene found in Fruit (435 ppm)
Allelopathic
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Camphene found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Allergenic
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (1310 ppm)
Anethole found in Plant
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Carvone found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Fruit (3600 ppm)
Cinnamic-alcohol found in Fruit (50 ppm)
Hydroquinone found in Fruit
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Nerolidol found in Fruit (50 ppm)
Analgesic
Anisatin found in Seed
Caryophyllene found in Fruit (3600 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (200 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Quercetin-3-o-galactoside found in Plant
Trans-anethole found in Fruit (90000 ppm)
Androgenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Anesthetic
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Safrole found in Fruit
Trans-anethole found in Fruit (90000 ppm)
Angiogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Anorexic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Anthelmintic
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Tannin found in Fruit
AntiCVI
Proanthocyanidins found in Fruit
Rutin found in Fruit
AntiHIV
Kaempferol-3-o-glucoside found in Plant
Tannin found in Fruit
AntiNF-kB
Anethole found in Plant
AntiTNF
Anethole found in Plant
Antiacetylcholinesterase
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Fruit (70 ppm)
Carvone found in Fruit (1 ppm)
D-limonene found in Fruit
Gamma-terpinene found in Fruit (75 ppm)
L-limonene found in Fruit
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Antiacne
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (1310 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Fruit (3600 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Nerolidol found in Fruit (50 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Antiadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Antiaggregant
Estragole found in Fruit
Rutin found in Fruit
Safrole found in Fruit
Antiallergic
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Rutin found in Fruit
Terpinen-4-ol found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Antialopecic
Proanthocyanidins found in Fruit
Antianaphylactic
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Antiandrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Antiapoplectic
Rutin found in Fruit
Antiasthmatic
Caryophyllene found in Fruit (3600 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Antiatherogenic
Rutin found in Fruit
Antiatherosclerotic
Proanthocyanidins found in Fruit
Rutin found in Fruit
Antibacillary
P-cymene found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Antibacterial
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Alpha-phellandrene found in Fruit (435 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (1310 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Anethole found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Fruit (3600 ppm)
Delta-3-carene found in Fruit (465 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Hydroquinone found in Fruit
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Nerolidol found in Fruit (50 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Proanthocyanidins found in Fruit
Rutin found in Fruit
Sabinene found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Safrole found in Fruit
Tannin found in Fruit
Terpinen-4-ol found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Antibronchitic
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Anticancer
Alpha-terpineol found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Rutin found in Fruit
Tannin found in Fruit
Anticapillary-Fragility
Rutin found in Fruit
Anticariogenic
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Fruit (3600 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Nerolidol found in Fruit (50 ppm)
Tannin found in Fruit
Anticataract
Rutin found in Fruit
Anticatarrh
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Anticholinesterase
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Fenchone found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Anticlastogen
Rutin found in Fruit
Anticolic
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Anticomplementary
Quercetin-3-o-rhamnoside found in Plant
Anticonvulsant
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Rutin found in Fruit
Safrole found in Fruit
Antidementia
Rutin found in Fruit
Antidermatitic
Caryophyllene found in Fruit (3600 ppm)
Rutin found in Fruit
Antidiabetic
Proanthocyanidins found in Fruit
Rutin found in Fruit
Antidiarrheic
Tannin found in Fruit
Antidysenteric
Tannin found in Fruit
Antiedemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Fruit (3600 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Proanthocyanidins found in Fruit
Rutin found in Fruit
Antierythemic
Rutin found in Fruit
Antiesophagitic
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Antiestrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Antifatigue
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Antifeedant
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (1310 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Fruit (3600 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Fruit (75 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Nerolidol found in Fruit (50 ppm)
Rutin found in Fruit
Terpinolene found in Fruit (435 ppm)
Antifertility
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Antiflu
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (1310 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Antigenotoxic
Anethole found in Plant
Trans-anethole found in Fruit (90000 ppm)
Antiglaucomic
Rutin found in Fruit
Antigliomic
Beta-elemene found in Fruit (650 ppm)
Antiglutamaergic
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Antigonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Antihalitosic
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Antihelicobacter
Sabinene found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Antihematuric
Rutin found in Fruit
Antihemorrhoidal
Rutin found in Fruit
Antihepatomic
Hydroquinone found in Fruit
Antihepatotic
Anethole found in Plant
Antihepatotoxic
Rutin found in Fruit
Stigmasterol found in Fruit (80 ppm)
Tannin found in Fruit
Antiherpetic
Rutin found in Fruit
Antihistaminic
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Proanthocyanidins found in Fruit
Rutin found in Fruit
Antihyperlipoproteinaemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Antihypertensive
Rutin found in Fruit
Tannin found in Fruit
Antiinflammatory
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (1310 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Anethole found in Plant
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Fruit (3600 ppm)
Delta-3-carene found in Fruit (465 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Quercetin-3-o-galactoside found in Plant
Rutin found in Fruit
Stigmasterol found in Fruit (80 ppm)
Antiischemic
Proanthocyanidins found in Fruit
Antilaryngitic
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Antileishmanic
Caryophyllene found in Fruit (3600 ppm)
Antileukemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Antilipolytic
Tannin found in Fruit
Antilithic
Hydroquinone found in Fruit
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Antilymphomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Antimalarial
Hydroquinone found in Fruit
Rutin found in Fruit
Antimange
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Antimelanomic
D-limonene found in Fruit
Hydroquinone found in Fruit
Rutin found in Fruit
Antimelasmic
Hydroquinone found in Fruit
Antimenorrhagic
Hydroquinone found in Fruit
Antimetastatic
Rutin found in Fruit
Antimite
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Antimitotic
Hydroquinone found in Fruit
Antimutagenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (200 ppm)
P-anisaldehyde found in Fruit (850 ppm)
Rutin found in Fruit
Tannin found in Fruit
Antinephritic
Hydroquinone found in Fruit
Rutin found in Fruit
Tannin found in Fruit
Antinitrosaminic
Alpha-terpinene found in Fruit (70 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Terpinolene found in Fruit (435 ppm)
Antinociceptive
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Rutin found in Fruit
Stigmasterol found in Fruit (80 ppm)
Antiobesity
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Antionychyotic
Caryophyllene found in Fruit (3600 ppm)
Antiophidic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Fruit (80 ppm)
Tannin found in Fruit
Antioxidant
Anethole found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Campesterol found in Fruit (130 ppm)
Camphene found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Fruit (75 ppm)
Hydroquinone found in Fruit
Myrcene found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Proanthocyanidins found in Fruit
Rutin found in Fruit
Stigmasterol found in Fruit (80 ppm)
Tannin found in Fruit
Terpinen-4-ol found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Terpinolene found in Fruit (435 ppm)
Trans-anethole found in Fruit (90000 ppm)
Antiperiodontal
Proanthocyanidins found in Fruit
Antiperoxidant
Rutin found in Fruit
Antipertussive
Hydroquinone found in Fruit
Antipharyngitic
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Antiplaque
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Proanthocyanidins found in Fruit
Antiplatelet
Rutin found in Fruit
Antipneumonic
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (1310 ppm)
Antiprogestational
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Antiproliferant
Alpha-terpineol found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Beta-elemene found in Fruit (650 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Fruit (3600 ppm)
Proanthocyanidins found in Fruit
Rutin found in Fruit
Antiproliferative
Carvone found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Antiprostaglandin
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Antiprostatadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Antiprostatitic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Antiprostatotic
Phytosterols found in Fruit (1140 ppm)
Antiprotozoal
Rutin found in Fruit
Antipurpuric
Rutin found in Fruit
Antipyretic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Antiradicular
Anethole found in Plant
Rutin found in Fruit
Tannin found in Fruit
Trans-anethole found in Fruit (90000 ppm)
Antirenitic
Tannin found in Fruit
Antiretinopathic
Proanthocyanidins found in Fruit
Antirheumatalgic
P-cymene found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Antirheumatic
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Antirhinitic
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Antirhinoviral
Beta-bisabolene found in Fruit (75 ppm)
Antisalmonella
Anethole found in Plant
Antiseptic
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (1310 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Anethole found in Plant
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Carvone found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Hydroquinone found in Fruit
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Proanthocyanidins found in Fruit
Sabinene found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Safrole found in Fruit
Terpinen-4-ol found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Antishock
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Antisinusitic
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Antispasmodic
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (1310 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Fruit (70 ppm)
Anethole found in Plant
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Fruit (3600 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Rutin found in Fruit
Terpinen-4-ol found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Antistaphylococcic
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Alpha-phellandrene found in Fruit (435 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (1310 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Fruit (3600 ppm)
Antistreptococcic
Caryophyllene found in Fruit (3600 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Nerolidol found in Fruit (50 ppm)
Antistroke
Proanthocyanidins found in Fruit
Antisunburn
Rutin found in Fruit
Antithrombogenic
Rutin found in Fruit
Antithyreotropic
Hydroquinone found in Fruit
Antithyroid
Rutin found in Fruit
Antitrypanosomic
Hydroquinone found in Fruit
Rutin found in Fruit
Antitumor-Promoter
D-limonene found in Fruit
Rutin found in Fruit
Tannin found in Fruit
Antitumor
Alpha-humulene found in Fruit (900 ppm)
Anethole found in Plant
Caryophyllene found in Fruit (3600 ppm)
Hydroquinone found in Fruit
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Proanthocyanidins found in Fruit
Rutin found in Fruit
Tannin found in Fruit
Antitussive
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Antiulcer
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Beta-bisabolene found in Fruit (75 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Fruit (3600 ppm)
Rutin found in Fruit
Sabinene found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Tannin found in Fruit
Terpinen-4-ol found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Antivaricose
Rutin found in Fruit
Antiviral
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (1310 ppm)
Beta-bisabolene found in Fruit (75 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Kaempferol-3-o-glucoside found in Plant
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Proanthocyanidins found in Fruit
Rutin found in Fruit
Stigmasterol found in Fruit (80 ppm)
Tannin found in Fruit
Antiyeast
Anethole found in Plant
Apoptotic
Beta-elemene found in Fruit (650 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
D-limonene found in Fruit
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Rutin found in Fruit
Artemicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Fruit (80 ppm)
Astringent
Hydroquinone found in Fruit
Bacteriostatic
Terpinen-4-ol found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Barbituate-Synergist
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Proanthocyanidins found in Fruit
Bronchoprotectant
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Bronchorelaxant
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
CNS-Depressant
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Safrole found in Fruit
CNS-Stimulant
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Carvone found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Safrole found in Fruit
Calcium-Antagonist
Estragole found in Fruit
Methyl-chavicol found in Fruit (6500 ppm)
Safrole found in Fruit
Trans-anethole found in Fruit (90000 ppm)
Cancer-Preventive
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (1310 ppm)
Anethole found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Carvone found in Fruit (1 ppm)
D-limonene found in Fruit
Estragole found in Fruit
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Rutin found in Fruit
Safrole found in Fruit
Stigmasterol found in Fruit (80 ppm)
Tannin found in Fruit
Candidicide
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Anethole found in Plant
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Fruit (3600 ppm)
Candidistat
Carvone found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Capillariprotective
Proanthocyanidins found in Fruit
Rutin found in Fruit
Carcinogenic
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Estragole found in Fruit
Hydroquinone found in Fruit
Safrole found in Fruit
Tannin found in Fruit
Cardioprotective
Proanthocyanidins found in Fruit
Carminative
Anethole found in Plant
Carvone found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Safrole found in Fruit
Caspase-8-Inducer
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Catabolic
Rutin found in Fruit
Chelator
Tannin found in Fruit
Chemopreventive
D-limonene found in Fruit
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Rutin found in Fruit
Choleretic
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Kaempferol-3-o-glucoside found in Plant
Cholesterolytic
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Cicatrizant
Alpha-terpineol found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Co-carcinogenic
Hydroquinone found in Fruit
Coleoptophile
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (1310 ppm)
Collagenase-Inhibitor
Proanthocyanidins found in Fruit
Collagenic
Proanthocyanidins found in Fruit
Controlled
Safrole found in Fruit
Convulsant
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Anisatin found in Seed
Hydroquinone found in Fruit
Cosmetic
P-anisaldehyde found in Fruit (850 ppm)
Counterirritant
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Fenchone found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Culicide
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Fruit
Cytochrome-P450-Inducer
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Safrole found in Fruit
Cytochrome-P488-Inducer
Safrole found in Fruit
Cytoprotective
Rutin found in Fruit
Cytotoxic
Hydroquinone found in Fruit
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
DNA-Binder
Estragole found in Fruit
Methyl-chavicol found in Fruit (6500 ppm)
Safrole found in Fruit
Decongestant
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Degranulant
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Deliriant
Hydroquinone found in Fruit
Dentifrice
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Deodorant
Proanthocyanidins found in Fruit
Terpinolene found in Fruit (435 ppm)
Depigmentor
Hydroquinone found in Fruit
Dermal
Alpha-phellandrene found in Fruit (435 ppm)
Dermatitigenic
Anethole found in Plant
Delta-3-carene found in Fruit (465 ppm)
Detoxicant
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Differentiator
D-limonene found in Fruit
Digestive
Anethole found in Plant
Diuretic
Terpinen-4-ol found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Edemagenic
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Elastase-Inhibitor
Proanthocyanidins found in Fruit
Emetic
Alpha-phellandrene found in Fruit (435 ppm)
Hydroquinone found in Fruit
Enterocontractant
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Estrogenic
Anethole found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Fruit (80 ppm)
Expectorant
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (1310 ppm)
Anethole found in Plant
Beta-phellandrene found in Fruit (835 ppm)
Camphene found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
FEMA
Cinnamic-alcohol found in Fruit (50 ppm)
FLavor
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Alpha-phellandrene found in Fruit (435 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (1310 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Fruit (70 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Camphene found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Carvone found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Fruit (3600 ppm)
D-limonene found in Fruit
Delta-3-carene found in Fruit (465 ppm)
Estragole found in Fruit
Fenchone found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Fruit (75 ppm)
Hydroquinone found in Fruit
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Methyl-anisate found in Fruit (300 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Nerolidol found in Fruit (50 ppm)
P-anisaldehyde found in Fruit (850 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Terpinolene found in Fruit (435 ppm)
Trans-anethole found in Fruit (90000 ppm)
Febrifuge
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Fungicide
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Alpha-phellandrene found in Fruit (435 ppm)
Anethole found in Plant
Beta-phellandrene found in Fruit (835 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Fruit (3600 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (200 ppm)
P-anisaldehyde found in Fruit (850 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Terpinolene found in Fruit (435 ppm)
Fungiphilic
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Fungistat
Carvone found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
GABA-Antagonist
Anisatin found in Seed
GABA-nergic
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
GST-Inducer
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Gastroprotective
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Fruit (3600 ppm)
Gastrostimulant
Anethole found in Plant
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Fruit
Gonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Hemostat
Rutin found in Fruit
Hepatocarcinogenic
Estragole found in Fruit
Methyl-chavicol found in Fruit (6500 ppm)
Safrole found in Fruit
Hepatomagenic
Rutin found in Fruit
Hepatoprotective
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Proanthocyanidins found in Fruit
Rutin found in Fruit
Tannin found in Fruit
Hepatoregenerative
Safrole found in Fruit
Hepatotonic
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Hepatotoxic
Anethole found in Plant
Safrole found in Fruit
Herbicide
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (1310 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Hydroquinone found in Fruit
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (100 ppm)
P-methoxycinnamaldehyde found in Plant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Histaminic
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Hyaluronidase-Inhibitor
Proanthocyanidins found in Fruit
Hypertensive
Hydroquinone found in Fruit
Hypnotic
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Hypocholesterolemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Campesterol found in Fruit (130 ppm)
D-limonene found in Fruit
Phytosterols found in Fruit (1140 ppm)
Rutin found in Fruit
Stigmasterol found in Fruit (80 ppm)
Hypoglycemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Proanthocyanidins found in Fruit
Hypolipidemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Hypotensive
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Rutin found in Fruit
Hypothermic
Estragole found in Fruit
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Methyl-chavicol found in Fruit (6500 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Safrole found in Fruit
Immunomodulator
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Rutin found in Fruit
Immunostimulant
Anethole found in Plant
Immunosuppressant
Tannin found in Fruit
Inflammatory
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Insecticide
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (1310 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Fruit (70 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Anethole found in Plant
Carvone found in Fruit (1 ppm)
D-limonene found in Fruit
Estragole found in Fruit
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Methyl-chavicol found in Fruit (6500 ppm)
P-anisaldehyde found in Fruit (850 ppm)
Rutin found in Fruit
Insectifuge
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (1310 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Fruit (70 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Camphene found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Carvone found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Fruit (3600 ppm)
D-limonene found in Fruit
Delta-3-carene found in Fruit (465 ppm)
Estragole found in Fruit
Gamma-terpinene found in Fruit (75 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (200 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Trans-beta-farnesene found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Insectiphile
Alpha-phellandrene found in Fruit (435 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (1310 ppm)
Rutin found in Fruit
Interleukin-6-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpineol found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Irritant
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Alpha-phellandrene found in Fruit (435 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (1310 ppm)
Anethole found in Plant
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Fruit (3600 ppm)
Cinnamic-alcohol found in Fruit (50 ppm)
Delta-3-carene found in Fruit (465 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Fruit (75 ppm)
Hydroquinone found in Fruit
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (200 ppm)
P-anisaldehyde found in Fruit (850 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Safrole found in Fruit
Terpinen-4-ol found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Juvabional
Rutin found in Fruit
Lactagogue
Anethole found in Plant
Larvicide
Caryophyllene found in Fruit (3600 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Larvistat
Rutin found in Fruit
Laxative
Alpha-phellandrene found in Fruit (435 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Leucocytogenic
Anethole found in Plant
Lipolytic
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Rutin found in Fruit
Tannin found in Fruit
Litholytic
D-limonene found in Fruit
MAO-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Fruit
Mosquitocide
Caryophyllene found in Fruit (3600 ppm)
Mosquitofuge
Alpha-terpineol found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Motor-Depressant
Alpha-terpineol found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Carvone found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Mutagenic
Anethole found in Plant
Estragole found in Fruit
Rutin found in Fruit
Safrole found in Fruit
Mycoplasmistat
Hydroquinone found in Fruit
Myoprotective
Rutin found in Fruit
Myorelaxant
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Rutin found in Fruit
NO-Genic
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Nematicide
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Carvone found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Nerolidol found in Fruit (50 ppm)
P-anisaldehyde found in Fruit (850 ppm)
Safrole found in Fruit
Terpinen-4-ol found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Nephroprotective
Anethole found in Plant
Nephrotoxic
D-limonene found in Fruit
Neurotoxic
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Safrole found in Fruit
Neurotropic
Anisatin found in Seed
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Proanthocyanidins found in Fruit
Tannin found in Fruit
Oviposition-Stimulant
Rutin found in Fruit
Ovulant
Stigmasterol found in Fruit (80 ppm)
Ozone-Scavenger
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
P450-2B1-Inhibitor
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (1310 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Fruit (70 ppm)
D-limonene found in Fruit
Myrcene found in Fruit (200 ppm)
P450-Inducer
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
PAF-Inhibitor
Rutin found in Fruit
Pediculicide
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Safrole found in Fruit
Perfume
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Perfumery
Alpha-humulene found in Fruit (900 ppm)
Alpha-phellandrene found in Fruit (435 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (1310 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Fruit (70 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Beta-bisabolene found in Fruit (75 ppm)
Beta-phellandrene found in Fruit (835 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Carvone found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Fruit (3600 ppm)
Estragole found in Fruit
Fenchone found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Fruit (75 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Methyl-anisate found in Fruit (300 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Nerolidol found in Fruit (50 ppm)
P-anisaldehyde found in Fruit (850 ppm)
Sabinene found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Safrole found in Fruit
Terpinolene found in Fruit (435 ppm)
Peristaltic
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Pesticide
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Alpha-phellandrene found in Fruit (435 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (1310 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Fruit (70 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Anethole found in Plant
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Camphene found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Carvone found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Fruit (3600 ppm)
D-limonene found in Fruit
Delta-3-carene found in Fruit (465 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Fruit (75 ppm)
Hydroquinone found in Fruit
Kaempferol-3-o-glucoside found in Plant
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Methyl-chavicol found in Fruit (6500 ppm)
Myrcene found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Nerolidol found in Fruit (50 ppm)
P-anisaldehyde found in Fruit (850 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (100 ppm)
P-methoxycinnamaldehyde found in Plant
Rutin found in Fruit
Safrole found in Fruit
Tannin found in Fruit
Terpinen-4-ol found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Terpinolene found in Fruit (435 ppm)
Trans-beta-farnesene found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Photosensitizer
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Piscicide
Anisatin found in Seed
P-anisaldehyde found in Fruit (850 ppm)
Poison
Anisatin found in Seed
Prooxidant
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Propecic
Proanthocyanidins found in Fruit
Protisticide
Rutin found in Fruit
Psychoactive
Safrole found in Fruit
Psychotropic
Tannin found in Fruit
Radioprotective
Rutin found in Fruit
Renoirritant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Rubefacient
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Secretogogue
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Anethole found in Plant
Secretolytic
Anethole found in Plant
Fenchone found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Sedative
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (1310 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Anisatin found in Seed
Carvone found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Fruit (3600 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
P-anisaldehyde found in Fruit (850 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Fruit (80 ppm)
Spasmogenic
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (1310 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Fruit (70 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Camphene found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Spermicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Stomachic
Beta-bisabolene found in Fruit (75 ppm)
Sunscreen
Rutin found in Fruit
Surfactant
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Sweetener
Anethole found in Plant
Trans-anethole found in Fruit (90000 ppm)
Sympathomimetic
Anethole found in Plant
Termiticide
Alpha-terpineol found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Termitifuge
Caryophyllene found in Fruit (3600 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Testosterone-Hydroxylase-Inducer
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Testosterone-Inducer
Delta-cadinene found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Tinnitigenic
Hydroquinone found in Fruit
Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor
Rutin found in Fruit
Toxic
Anisatin found in Seed
Cis-anethole found in Fruit (140 ppm)
Tranquilizer
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (1310 ppm)
Transdermal
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Fruit (1310 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Limonene found in Fruit (5220 ppm)
Tremorigenic
Safrole found in Fruit
Trichomonicide
1,8-cineole found in Fruit (3500 ppm)
Carvone found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
P-cymene found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Tumor-Promoter
Linalool found in Fruit (1400 ppm)
Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor
Catechins found in Fruit
Ubiquiot
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Ulcerogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit (930 ppm)
Vasodilator
Proanthocyanidins found in Fruit
Rutin found in Fruit
Vasopressor
Rutin found in Fruit
Vasorelaxant
Proanthocyanidins found in Fruit
Vermicide
Carvone found in Fruit (1 ppm)
Vulnerary
Alpha-terpineol found in Fruit (200 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Fruit (100 ppm)
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Fruit
cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor
Rutin found in Fruit

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
1,4-cineole Fruit
1,8-cineole Fruit 1 3,500
1-methyl-4-isopropenyl-benzene Fruit 1
4-(beta-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-benzoic-acid Fruit
Allo-aromadendrene Fruit 1,050
Alpha-copaene Fruit 25 1,100
Alpha-cubebene Fruit 200
Alpha-humulene Fruit 1 900
Alpha-muurolene Fruit 1
Alpha-phellandrene Fruit 435
Alpha-pinene Fruit 50 1,310
Alpha-santalene Fruit 1
Alpha-terpinene Fruit 70
Alpha-terpineol Fruit 85 200
Anethole Plant
Anisatin Seed
Beta-bisabolene Fruit 1 75
Beta-copaene Fruit 500
Beta-elemene Fruit 1 650
Beta-phellandrene Fruit 220 835
Beta-pinene Fruit 1
Beta-selinine Fruit 1
Beta-sitosterol Fruit 930
Calamene Fruit 650
Campesterol Fruit 130
Camphene Fruit 1
Carvone Fruit 1
Caryophyllene Fruit 85 3,600
Catechins Fruit
Chavicol-methyl-ether Fruit
Cinnamic-alcohol Fruit 1 50
Cis-alpha-bergamotene Fruit 1 50
Cis-anethole Fruit 1 140
Cis-beta-farnesene Fruit 1 40
Cis-beta-ocimene Fruit 100
D-fenchone Fruit
D-limonene Fruit
D-pinene Fruit
Delta-3-carene Fruit 25 465
Delta-cadinene Fruit 1
Dl-limonene Fruit
Eo Fruit 50,000 100,000
Seed 25,000
Leaf 10,000
Estragole Fruit
Fenchone Fruit 1
Feniculin Fruit 275 2,550
Flavonol-glycosides Fruit 300
Foeniculin Fruit 275 2,550
Gamma-terpinene Fruit 1 75
Hydroquinone Fruit
Kaempferol-3-o-galactoside Plant
Kaempferol-3-o-glucoside Plant
Kaempferol-3-o-rutinoside Fruit
L-limonene Fruit
Limonene Fruit 100 5,220
Linalool Fruit 250 1,400
Longifolene Fruit 1
Methyl-anisate Fruit 1 300
Methyl-chavicol Fruit 280 6,500
Myrcene Fruit 40 200
Nerolidol Fruit 50
P-anisaldehyde Fruit 190 850
P-cymene Fruit 1 100
P-cymene-8-ol Fruit 200
P-methoxy-phenyl-propan-2-one Fruit 50
P-methoxy-propan-2-one Plant 75 100
P-methoxycinnamaldehyde Plant
Phytosterols Fruit 1,140
Proanthocyanidins Fruit
Quercetin-3-o-galactoside Plant
Quercetin-3-o-glycoside Plant
Quercetin-3-o-rhamnoside Plant
Quercetin-3-o-rutinoside Plant
Quercetin-3-o-xyloside Plant
Rutin Fruit
Sabinene Fruit 1 20
Fruit 1
Safrole Fruit
Stigmasterol Fruit 80
Tannin Fruit
Terpinen-4-ol Fruit 1 100
Terpinolene Fruit 5 435
Trans-alpha-bergamotene Fruit 1 160
Trans-anethole Fruit 39,000 90,000
Trans-beta-farnesene Fruit 1
Trans-methyl-isoeugenol Fruit 0 60
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]