Conium maculatum Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
carrot-fern fool's-parsley hemlock poison-hemlock spotted-hemlock spotted-parsley

Conium maculatum is a highly poisonous perennial herbaceous flowering plants in the family Apiaceae, native to Europe and the Mediterranean region. It is a herbaceous biennial plant that grows between 1.5–2.5 metres tall, with a smooth green hollow stem, usually spotted or streaked with red or purple on the lower half of the stem. All parts of the plant are hairless. The leaves are 2-4-pinnate, finely divided and lacy, overall triangular in shape, up to 50 centimetres long and 40 centimetres broad. The flowers are small, white, clustered in umbels up to 10–15 centimetres across. When crushed, the leaves and root emit a rank, unpleasant odour often compared to that of parsnips. It produces a large number of seeds that allow the plant to form thick stands in modified soils.

Conium maculatum

Medical use

Economic importance of Conium maculatum

Harmful organism host crop diseases
Environmental ornamental
Medicines folklore
Vertebrate poisons mamals
Weed potential sed contaminant

Gallery

Conium maculatum Conium maculatum Conium maculatum Conium maculatum Conium maculatum Conium maculatum Conium maculatum Conium maculatum Conium maculatum Conium maculatum Conium maculatum Conium maculatum Conium maculatum Conium maculatum Conium maculatum Conium maculatum Conium maculatum Conium maculatum

Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Native
    • Northern Africa: Algeria; Morocco; Tunisia
    • Northeast Tropical Africa: Ethiopia
    Naturalized
    • South Tropical Africa: Mozambique; Zimbabwe
    • Southern Africa: South Africa - Western Cape
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Western Asia: Afghanistan; Iran; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey
    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation - Ciscaucasia, Dagestan
    • Siberia: Russian Federation - Western Siberia
    • Middle Asia: Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
    Naturalized
    • China: China - Xinjiang
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Native
    • Indian Subcontinent: India - Jammu and Kashmir; Pakistan
  • AUSTRALASIA
    Naturalized
    • Australia: Australia
    • New Zealand: New Zealand
  • EUROPE
    Native
    • Northern Europe: Denmark; Finland; Ireland; Norway; Sweden; United Kingdom
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czech Republic; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Slovakia; Switzerland
    • East Europe: Belarus; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Ukraine
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Greece; Italy; Macedonia; Montenegro; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia
    • Southwestern Europe: France; Portugal; Spain
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Naturalized
    • Eastern Canada: Canada - New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Quebec
    • Western Canada: Canada - Alberta, British Columbia, Saskatchewan
    • Mexico
    • United States
  • PACIFIC
    Naturalized
    • Northwestern Pacific: Micronesia
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Naturalized
    • Mesoamerica: Costa Rica; Guatemala; Honduras
    • Brazil: Brazil
    • Western South America: Bolivia; Ecuador; Peru
    • Southern South America: Argentina; Chile; Uruguay

Biological activities

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Allelochemic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Allergenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Analgesic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
AntiCVI
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
AntiEBV
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
AntiHIV
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Lignin found in Plant (320000 ppm)
AntiLegionella
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antiadenoviral
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antiaggregant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antiaging
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antiatherogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antiatherosclerotic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antibacterial
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Lignin found in Plant (320000 ppm)
Anticancer
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
Lignin found in Plant (320000 ppm)
Anticapillary-Fragility
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
Anticarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
Anticlastogen
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
Anticoronary
Lignin found in Plant (320000 ppm)
Anticytotoxic
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
Antidepressant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antidiabetic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Xylose found in Plant (46000 ppm)
Antidiarrheic
Lignin found in Plant (320000 ppm)
Antiedemic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
Antielastase
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antiescherichic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antifeedant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antiflu
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antigenotoxic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antigonadotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antihemolytic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antihemorrhoidal
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
Antihepatoadenomic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antihepatotoxic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antiherpetic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antihistaminic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
Antihypercholesterolemic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antihyperthyroid
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antiinflammatory
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
Antileukemic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antileukotriene
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
Antimelanogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antimelanomic
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
Antimetastatic
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
Antimetrorrhagic
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
Antimutagenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antinitrosaminic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Lignin found in Plant (320000 ppm)
Antiophidic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antioxidant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
Lignin found in Plant (320000 ppm)
Antiperoxidant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
Antipolio
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antiproliferant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
Antiprostaglandin
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
Antiradicular
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
Antiseptic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antispasmodic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antistaphylococcic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antistomatitic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antisunburn
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antithiamin
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antithromboxane
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
Antithyroid
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antitumor-Promoter
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antitumor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Lignin found in Plant (320000 ppm)
Antiulcer
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
Antiulcerogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antivaccinia
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antiviral
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Lignin found in Plant (320000 ppm)
Anxiolytic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Autotoxic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
CNS-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
CNS-Stimulant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
COMT-Inhibitor
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
COX-2-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Calcium-Antagonist
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cancer-Preventive
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cardioprotective
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Chelator
Lignin found in Plant (320000 ppm)
Chemopreventive
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
Cholagogue
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Choleretic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Clastogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Co-carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Collagen-Sparing
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
Cytoprotective
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
Cytotoxic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
DNA-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
DNA-Protective
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Diagnostic
Xylose found in Plant (46000 ppm)
Diuretic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
Dye
Xylose found in Plant (46000 ppm)
Emetic
Coniine found in Fruit ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Stem ;found in Plant (17500 ppm)
Fungicide
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Falcarinone found in Plant
Hepatocarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Hepatoprotective
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Hepatotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Histamine-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Hypocholesterolemic
Lignin found in Plant (320000 ppm)
Hypoglycemic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
Immunostimulant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Insectifuge
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Interferonogenic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Juvabional
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Larvistat
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Laxative
Lignin found in Plant (320000 ppm)
Leukotriene-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
Lyase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
MDR-Inhibitor
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
Metal-Chelator
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
NO-Genic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Oviposition-Stimulant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
P450-Inhibitor
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
Paralytic
Coniine found in Fruit ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Stem ;found in Plant (17500 ppm)
Pesticide
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Falcarinone found in Plant
Lignin found in Plant (320000 ppm)
Phytoalexin
Falcarinone found in Plant
Prooxidant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Prostaglandigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Radioprotective
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
Sedative
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Sunscreen
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Sweetener
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Tumorigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Venoprotective
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
Venotonic
Diosmin found in Plant (40000 ppm)
Vulnerary
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
Alpha-conhyrdine Plant
Arabino-4-o-methylglucuronoxylan Plant
Arabinose Plant 7,000
Caffeic-acid Plant
Chlorogenic-acid Plant
Conhydrine Plant
Coniine Fruit
Leaf
Plant
Stem
Plant 16,500 17,500
Diosmin Plant 30,000 40,000
Eo Plant 10,000
Ethyl-piperidine Plant
Falcarinol-one Plant
Falcarinone Plant
Fat Seed 116,000 179,000
Gamma-coniceine Plant
Lignin Plant 320,000
Methyl-coniine Leaf 140
N-acetyl-(+)-coniine Plant
N-acetyl-(-)-coniine Plant
N-methyl-(+)-coniine Plant
N-methyl-(-)-coniine Fruit
Plant
Plant
Pentosans Plant 66,000
Protein Seed 206,000 249,000
Pseudoconhydrine Plant
Uronic-acids Plant 33,000
Xylose Plant 46,000
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]