Colocasia esculenta Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
cocoyam dasheen eddo elephant's-ear taro
Colocasia esculenta

Medical use

Economic importance of Colocasia esculenta

Environmental agroforestry ornamental
Human food starch vegetable
Animal food potential as foder
Medicines folklore
Vertebrate poisons mamals

Gallery

Colocasia esculenta Colocasia esculenta Colocasia esculenta Colocasia esculenta Colocasia esculenta Colocasia esculenta Colocasia esculenta Colocasia esculenta Colocasia esculenta Colocasia esculenta Colocasia esculenta Colocasia esculenta

Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Naturalized
    • Macaronesia: Cape Verde; Portugal - Azores, Madeira Islands; Spain - Canary Islands
    • Northern Africa: Algeria; Libya; Morocco
  • AUSTRALASIA
    Naturalized
    • New Zealand: New Zealand
  • EUROPE
    Naturalized
    • Europe
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Naturalized
    • United States
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Naturalized
    • Caribbean: West Indies

Biological activities

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (14925 ppm);found in Root (1975 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (4185 ppm);found in Root (545 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (9135 ppm);found in Root (1190 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Plant (200 ppm);found in Root (205 ppm)
ACE-Inhibitor
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Absorbent
Starch found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (262000 ppm)
Acaricide
Oxalic-acid found in Root (1334 ppm)
Acarifuge
Sulfur found in Leaf (240 ppm);found in Root (565 ppm)
Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Adjuvant
Cystine found in Leaf (4465 ppm);found in Root (1090 ppm)
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Allergenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Mufa found in Leaf (4185 ppm);found in Root (454 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (4185 ppm);found in Root (545 ppm)
Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (4185 ppm);found in Root (545 ppm)
Analgesic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (17 ppm);found in Root (5 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3345 ppm);found in Root (785 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Androgenic
Boron found in Leaf (3.6 ppm);found in Root (7 ppm)
Anemiagenic
Mufa found in Leaf (4185 ppm);found in Root (454 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (4185 ppm);found in Root (545 ppm)
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (150000 ppm);found in Root (37000 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (51774 ppm);found in Root (21760 ppm)
AntiADD
Phenylalanine found in Leaf (13600 ppm);found in Root (2795 ppm)
AntiAGE
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
AntiBPH
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
AntiCFS
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
AntiCTS
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
AntiHIV
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
AntiLyme
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Root (1.6 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (17 ppm);found in Root (5 ppm)
AntiMS
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (14925 ppm);found in Root (1975 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Pufa found in Leaf (21410 ppm);found in Root (2825 ppm)
AntiPMS
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (17400 ppm);found in Root (3780 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (45 ppm);found in Root (7.6 ppm)
Antiacid
Glycine found in Root (2520 ppm)
Antiacne
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (14925 ppm);found in Root (1975 ppm)
Pufa found in Leaf (21410 ppm);found in Root (2825 ppm)
Sulfur found in Leaf (240 ppm);found in Root (565 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antiacrodermatitic
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antiacrodynic
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Antiaggregant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Antiaging
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Antiakathisic
Iron found in Leaf (200 ppm);found in Root (200 ppm)
Antialcoholic
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (45 ppm);found in Root (7.6 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (17 ppm);found in Root (5 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antialdosteronic
Glycine found in Root (2520 ppm)
Antialkalotic
Lysine found in Leaf (17155 ppm);found in Root (2280 ppm)
Antiallergic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (17400 ppm);found in Root (3780 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Antialopecic
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (14925 ppm);found in Root (1975 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (4185 ppm);found in Root (545 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (9135 ppm);found in Root (1190 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antialzheimeran
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (17 ppm);found in Root (5 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antiamblyopic
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Antianaphylactic
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (14925 ppm);found in Root (1975 ppm)
Antiandrogenic
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (14925 ppm);found in Root (1975 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (4185 ppm);found in Root (545 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (9135 ppm);found in Root (1190 ppm)
Antianemic
Copper found in Leaf (1.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Iron found in Leaf (200 ppm);found in Root (200 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (45 ppm);found in Root (7.6 ppm)
Antianginal
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Antiangiogenic
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antianorectic
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (17 ppm);found in Root (5 ppm)
Antianorexic
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antianxiety
Calcium found in Leaf (17400 ppm);found in Root (3780 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3345 ppm);found in Root (785 ppm)
Antiarabiflavinotic
Riboflavin found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Root (1.6 ppm)
Antiarrhythmic
Calcium found in Leaf (17400 ppm);found in Root (3780 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (51774 ppm);found in Root (21760 ppm)
Antiarteriosclerotic
Histidine found in Leaf (7950 ppm);found in Root (1160 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (14925 ppm);found in Root (1975 ppm)
Antiarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (17400 ppm);found in Root (3780 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (1.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (14925 ppm);found in Root (1975 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (45 ppm);found in Root (7.6 ppm)
Sulfur found in Leaf (240 ppm);found in Root (565 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Antiatherosclerotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (17400 ppm);found in Root (3780 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Antibackache
Thiamin found in Leaf (17 ppm);found in Root (5 ppm)
Antibacterial
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Antiberiberi
Thiamin found in Leaf (17 ppm);found in Root (5 ppm)
Anticancer
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Anticanker
Iron found in Leaf (200 ppm);found in Root (200 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (17 ppm);found in Root (5 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Anticarcinomic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Anticardiospasmic
Thiamin found in Leaf (17 ppm);found in Root (5 ppm)
Anticarpal-Tunnel
Riboflavin found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Root (1.6 ppm)
Anticataract
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Methionine found in Leaf (5510 ppm);found in Root (680 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Root (1.6 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (17 ppm);found in Root (5 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Anticephalagic
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Root (1.6 ppm)
Anticervicaldysplasic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Root (1.6 ppm)
Anticheilitic
Iron found in Leaf (200 ppm);found in Root (200 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Root (1.6 ppm)
Antichilblain
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Anticlimacteric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (17400 ppm);found in Root (3780 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Anticoeliac
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Anticold
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Anticolitic
Thiamin found in Leaf (17 ppm);found in Root (5 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Anticonvulsant
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Anticoronary
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (14925 ppm);found in Root (1975 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antidandruff
Sulfur found in Leaf (240 ppm);found in Root (565 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antidecubitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Root (1.6 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (17 ppm);found in Root (5 ppm)
Antideliriant
Thiamin found in Leaf (17 ppm);found in Root (5 ppm)
Antidementia
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (17 ppm);found in Root (5 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3345 ppm);found in Root (785 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antidepressant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (17400 ppm);found in Root (3780 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Phenylalanine found in Leaf (13600 ppm);found in Root (2795 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (51774 ppm);found in Root (21760 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3345 ppm);found in Root (785 ppm)
Antidermatitic
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Antidiabetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (1.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (150000 ppm);found in Root (37000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (45 ppm);found in Root (7.6 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antidiscotic
Manganese found in Leaf (45 ppm);found in Root (7.6 ppm)
Antidysgeuzic
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antidyskinetic
Manganese found in Leaf (45 ppm);found in Root (7.6 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3345 ppm);found in Root (785 ppm)
Antidysmenorrheic
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Antidyspeptic
Thiamin found in Leaf (17 ppm);found in Root (5 ppm)
Antidysphagic
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Antieczemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (14925 ppm);found in Root (1975 ppm)
Methionine found in Leaf (5510 ppm);found in Root (680 ppm)
Pufa found in Leaf (21410 ppm);found in Root (2825 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antiedemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Antiencephalitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Antiencephalopathic
Arginine found in Leaf (15340 ppm);found in Root (3510 ppm)
Glycine found in Root (2520 ppm)
Leucine found in Leaf (27335 ppm);found in Root (3780 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (17 ppm);found in Root (5 ppm)
Tyrosine found in Leaf (12415 ppm);found in Root (1875 ppm)
Valine found in Leaf (17850 ppm);found in Root (2790 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antiendometriotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Antienterotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Antiepileptic
Glutamic-acid found in Root (5925 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (45 ppm);found in Root (7.6 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antifatigue
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (1.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (51774 ppm);found in Root (21760 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (17 ppm);found in Root (5 ppm)
Antifibrinolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (14925 ppm);found in Root (1975 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (9135 ppm);found in Root (1190 ppm)
Antifibromyalgic
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Antifibrotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antifuruncular
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antigallstone
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Antigastritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Glycine found in Root (2520 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (17 ppm);found in Root (5 ppm)
Antigastrotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Antigingivitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Antiglaucomic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Antiglossitic
Riboflavin found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Root (1.6 ppm)
Antigranular
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (14925 ppm);found in Root (1975 ppm)
Antigrey
Sulfur found in Leaf (240 ppm);found in Root (565 ppm)
Antihangover
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (17 ppm);found in Root (5 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antiheartburn
Thiamin found in Leaf (17 ppm);found in Root (5 ppm)
Antihemorrhagic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Antihepatitic
Arginine found in Leaf (15340 ppm);found in Root (3510 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Antihepatotic
Methionine found in Leaf (5510 ppm);found in Root (680 ppm)
Antihepatotoxic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Antiherpetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Lysine found in Leaf (17155 ppm);found in Root (2280 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (17 ppm);found in Root (5 ppm)
Antihistaminic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (14925 ppm);found in Root (1975 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Antihomocystinuric
Cystine found in Leaf (4465 ppm);found in Root (1090 ppm)
Antihyperactivity
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Antihyperammonemic
Glutamic-acid found in Root (5925 ppm)
Antihyperkeratotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Antihyperkinetic
Calcium found in Leaf (17400 ppm);found in Root (3780 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Antihypertensive
Arginine found in Leaf (15340 ppm);found in Root (3510 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (17400 ppm);found in Root (3780 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (150000 ppm);found in Root (37000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (51774 ppm);found in Root (21760 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3345 ppm);found in Root (785 ppm)
Antihypoglycemic
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Antiichythyotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Antiimpotence
Arginine found in Leaf (15340 ppm);found in Root (3510 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antiinfective
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antiinfertility
Arginine found in Leaf (15340 ppm);found in Root (3510 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antiinflammatory
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (1.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (14925 ppm);found in Root (1975 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Mufa found in Leaf (4185 ppm);found in Root (454 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (4185 ppm);found in Root (545 ppm)
Antiinsomniac
Calcium found in Leaf (17400 ppm);found in Root (3780 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3345 ppm);found in Root (785 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antiinsomnic
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Antikeratitic
Riboflavin found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Root (1.6 ppm)
Antilepric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antileukonychic
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antileukoplakic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Antileukotriene-D4
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (14925 ppm);found in Root (1975 ppm)
Mufa found in Leaf (4185 ppm);found in Root (454 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (4185 ppm);found in Root (545 ppm)
Antilipoperoxidant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Antilithic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Glutamic-acid found in Root (5925 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Antilupus
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Antilymphomic
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antimaculitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antimanic
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3345 ppm);found in Root (785 ppm)
Antimastalgic
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Antimastitic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Antimeasles
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Antimenopausal
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (17400 ppm);found in Root (3780 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3345 ppm);found in Root (785 ppm)
Antimenorrhagic
Iron found in Leaf (200 ppm);found in Root (200 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (14925 ppm);found in Root (1975 ppm)
Antimetastatic
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antimigraine
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Root (1.6 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (17 ppm);found in Root (5 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3345 ppm);found in Root (785 ppm)
Antimitral-valve-prolapse
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Antimorphinic
Aspartic-acid found in Root (6540 ppm)
Antimutagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Antimyocarditic
Thiamin found in Leaf (17 ppm);found in Root (5 ppm)
Antinephritic
Histidine found in Leaf (7950 ppm);found in Root (1160 ppm)
Antinephrolytic
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Antinesidioblastosic
Starch found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (262000 ppm)
Antineuralgic
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (17 ppm);found in Root (5 ppm)
Antineuramidase
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Antineurasthenic
Thiamin found in Leaf (17 ppm);found in Root (5 ppm)
Antineuritic
Thiamin found in Leaf (17 ppm);found in Root (5 ppm)
Antineuropathic
Thiamin found in Leaf (17 ppm);found in Root (5 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antineurotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Antinitrosic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Antinociceptive
Copper found in Leaf (1.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Antinyctalopic
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antiobesity
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (17400 ppm);found in Root (3780 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (150000 ppm);found in Root (37000 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antiorchitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Antiosteoarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Boron found in Leaf (3.6 ppm);found in Root (7 ppm)
Sulfur found in Leaf (240 ppm);found in Root (565 ppm)
Antiosteoporotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Boron found in Leaf (3.6 ppm);found in Root (7 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (17400 ppm);found in Root (3780 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (1.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (45 ppm);found in Root (7.6 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (5800 ppm);found in Root (5204 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antiototic
Manganese found in Leaf (45 ppm);found in Root (7.6 ppm)
Antioxidant
Alanine found in Root (2485 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Histidine found in Leaf (7950 ppm);found in Root (1160 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (45 ppm);found in Root (7.6 ppm)
Methionine found in Leaf (5510 ppm);found in Root (680 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (9135 ppm);found in Root (1190 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Root (1.6 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3345 ppm);found in Root (785 ppm)
Antiozenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Antipapillomic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Antiparkinsonian
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Methionine found in Leaf (5510 ppm);found in Root (680 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Phenylalanine found in Leaf (13600 ppm);found in Root (2795 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3345 ppm);found in Root (785 ppm)
Tyrosine found in Leaf (12415 ppm);found in Root (1875 ppm)
Antiparotitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Antipellagric
Isoleucine found in Leaf (18130 ppm);found in Root (1840 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Root (1.6 ppm)
Antiperiodontitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (17400 ppm);found in Root (3780 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antiphenylketonuric
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3345 ppm);found in Root (785 ppm)
Tyrosine found in Leaf (12415 ppm);found in Root (1875 ppm)
Antiphotophobic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Root (1.6 ppm)
Antipityriasic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Antiplaque
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antipneumonic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Antipodriac
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Antipoliomyelitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (17 ppm);found in Root (5 ppm)
Antipolyneuritic
Pufa found in Leaf (21410 ppm);found in Root (2825 ppm)
Antiporphyric
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Antiprolactin
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antiproliferant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Antiprostaglandin
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3345 ppm);found in Root (785 ppm)
Antiprostatitic
Glutamic-acid found in Root (5925 ppm)
Glycine found in Root (2520 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (14925 ppm);found in Root (1975 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antiprostatotic
Phytosterols found in Root (650 ppm)
Antipruritic
Glycine found in Root (2520 ppm)
Antipsoriac
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Antipsychotic
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3345 ppm);found in Root (785 ppm)
Antipyretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Antiradicular
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Antiretardation
Glutamic-acid found in Root (5925 ppm)
Antiretinopathic
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Antiretinotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Antirheumatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (17400 ppm);found in Root (3780 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3345 ppm);found in Root (785 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antirhinitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Antiscoliotic
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3345 ppm);found in Root (785 ppm)
Antiscorbutic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Antiscotomic
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Antiseborrheic
Sulfur found in Leaf (240 ppm);found in Root (565 ppm)
Antiseptic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Oxalic-acid found in Root (1334 ppm)
Sulfur found in Leaf (240 ppm);found in Root (565 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antishingles
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Antisickling
Glycine found in Root (2520 ppm)
Phenylalanine found in Leaf (13600 ppm);found in Root (2795 ppm)
Antisilicotic
Aluminum found in Leaf (18 ppm);found in Root (3.9 ppm)
Antispare-Tire
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antispasmodic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (51774 ppm);found in Root (21760 ppm)
Antispasmophilic
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Antistomatitic
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antistress
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (17400 ppm);found in Root (3780 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Antistroke
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (51774 ppm);found in Root (21760 ppm)
Antisyndrome-X
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (45 ppm);found in Root (7.6 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antitic
Calcium found in Leaf (17400 ppm);found in Root (3780 ppm)
Antitinnitic
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antitriglyceride
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antitumor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (150000 ppm);found in Root (37000 ppm)
Antiulcer
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (150000 ppm);found in Root (37000 ppm)
Glycine found in Root (2520 ppm)
Histidine found in Leaf (7950 ppm);found in Root (1160 ppm)
Threonine found in Leaf (11645 ppm);found in Root (2350 ppm)
Tyrosine found in Leaf (12415 ppm);found in Root (1875 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Antiuremic
Histidine found in Leaf (7950 ppm);found in Root (1160 ppm)
Antivaginitic
Aluminum found in Leaf (18 ppm);found in Root (3.9 ppm)
Antivertigo
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Antiviral
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Antivitiligic
Phenylalanine found in Leaf (13600 ppm);found in Root (2795 ppm)
Antixerophthalmic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Anxiolytic
Calcium found in Leaf (17400 ppm);found in Root (3780 ppm)
Glutamic-acid found in Root (5925 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (5800 ppm);found in Root (5204 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (51774 ppm);found in Root (21760 ppm)
Aphrodisiac
Arginine found in Leaf (15340 ppm);found in Root (3510 ppm)
Apoptotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Asthma-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Astringent
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Beta-Blocker
Fiber found in Leaf (150000 ppm);found in Root (37000 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (51774 ppm);found in Root (21760 ppm)
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
CNS-Depressant
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
CNS-Paralytic
Oxalic-acid found in Root (1334 ppm)
COX-1-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
COX-2-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Calcium-Antagonist
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Calcium-Channel-Blocker
Calcium found in Leaf (17400 ppm);found in Root (3780 ppm)
Cancer-Preventive
Alanine found in Root (2485 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (150000 ppm);found in Root (37000 ppm)
Glycine found in Root (2520 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (14925 ppm);found in Root (1975 ppm)
Methionine found in Leaf (5510 ppm);found in Root (680 ppm)
Mucilage found in Root (10700 ppm)
Mufa found in Leaf (4185 ppm);found in Root (454 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (4185 ppm);found in Root (545 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Root (1.6 ppm)
Serine found in Root (3135 ppm)
Tyrosine found in Leaf (12415 ppm);found in Root (1875 ppm)
Candidicide
Aluminum found in Leaf (18 ppm);found in Root (3.9 ppm)
Carcinogenic
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (14925 ppm);found in Root (1975 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3345 ppm);found in Root (785 ppm)
Cardioprotective
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (1.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (150000 ppm);found in Root (37000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (51774 ppm);found in Root (21760 ppm)
Cardiotoxic
Potassium found in Leaf (51774 ppm);found in Root (21760 ppm)
Chemopreventive
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Choleretic
Mufa found in Leaf (4185 ppm);found in Root (454 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (4185 ppm);found in Root (545 ppm)
Circulotonic
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Cold-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Collagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Colorant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Comedogenic
Sulfur found in Leaf (240 ppm);found in Root (565 ppm)
Comedolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (14925 ppm);found in Root (1975 ppm)
Contraceptive
Copper found in Leaf (1.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Copper-Antagonist
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Cosmetic
Stearic-acid found in Plant (200 ppm);found in Root (205 ppm)
Demulcent
Mucilage found in Root (10700 ppm)
Deodorant
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Dermatitigenic
Mufa found in Leaf (4185 ppm);found in Root (454 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (4185 ppm);found in Root (545 ppm)
Detoxicant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Diuretic
Arginine found in Leaf (15340 ppm);found in Root (3510 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (17400 ppm);found in Root (3780 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (150000 ppm);found in Root (37000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (51774 ppm);found in Root (21760 ppm)
Emetic
Calcium-oxalate found in Leaf (4000 ppm);found in Root (430 ppm)
Methionine found in Leaf (5510 ppm);found in Root (680 ppm)
Emollient
Starch found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (262000 ppm)
Encephalopathic
Aluminum found in Leaf (18 ppm);found in Root (3.9 ppm)
Ergogenic
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Essential
Histidine found in Leaf (7950 ppm);found in Root (1160 ppm)
Isoleucine found in Leaf (18130 ppm);found in Root (1840 ppm)
Leucine found in Leaf (27335 ppm);found in Root (3780 ppm)
Lysine found in Leaf (17155 ppm);found in Root (2280 ppm)
Methionine found in Leaf (5510 ppm);found in Root (680 ppm)
Threonine found in Leaf (11645 ppm);found in Root (2350 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3345 ppm);found in Root (785 ppm)
Valine found in Leaf (17850 ppm);found in Root (2790 ppm)
Estrogenic
Boron found in Leaf (3.6 ppm);found in Root (7 ppm)
FLavor
Mufa found in Leaf (4185 ppm);found in Root (454 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (4185 ppm);found in Root (545 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (9135 ppm);found in Root (1190 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Plant (200 ppm);found in Root (205 ppm)
Threonine found in Leaf (11645 ppm);found in Root (2350 ppm)
Valine found in Leaf (17850 ppm);found in Root (2790 ppm)
Fatal
Oxalic-acid found in Root (1334 ppm)
Fibrinolytic
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Fistula-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Fungicide
Homogentisic-acid found in Rhizome
Gastroprotective
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Glutathionigenic
Methionine found in Leaf (5510 ppm);found in Root (680 ppm)
Hemolytic
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (9135 ppm);found in Root (1190 ppm)
Hemostatic
Oxalic-acid found in Root (1334 ppm)
Hepatoprotective
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (14925 ppm);found in Root (1975 ppm)
Methionine found in Leaf (5510 ppm);found in Root (680 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Hepatotoxic
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Hypercholesterolemic
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (9135 ppm);found in Root (1190 ppm)
Hypertensive
Sodium found in Leaf (484 ppm);found in Root (480 ppm)
Hypnotic
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3345 ppm);found in Root (785 ppm)
Hypoammonemic
Arginine found in Leaf (15340 ppm);found in Root (3510 ppm)
Hypoarginanemic
Lysine found in Leaf (17155 ppm);found in Root (2280 ppm)
Hypocholesterolemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (17400 ppm);found in Root (3780 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (1.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (150000 ppm);found in Root (37000 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (14925 ppm);found in Root (1975 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Mucilage found in Root (10700 ppm)
Mufa found in Leaf (4185 ppm);found in Root (454 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (4185 ppm);found in Root (545 ppm)
Phytosterols found in Root (650 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Plant (200 ppm);found in Root (205 ppm)
Hypoglycemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (45 ppm);found in Root (7.6 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3345 ppm);found in Root (785 ppm)
Hypolipidemic
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Hypotensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (17400 ppm);found in Root (3780 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (150000 ppm);found in Root (37000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (51774 ppm);found in Root (21760 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3345 ppm);found in Root (785 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Hypouricemic
Fiber found in Leaf (150000 ppm);found in Root (37000 ppm)
Immunomodulator
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (1.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (14925 ppm);found in Root (1975 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Immunostimulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (5800 ppm);found in Root (5204 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Immunosuppressant
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Inflammatory
Calcium-oxalate found in Leaf (4000 ppm);found in Root (430 ppm)
Insectifuge
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (14925 ppm);found in Root (1975 ppm)
Mufa found in Leaf (4185 ppm);found in Root (454 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (4185 ppm);found in Root (545 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (17 ppm);found in Root (5 ppm)
Insulinase-Inhibitor
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3345 ppm);found in Root (785 ppm)
Insulinogenic
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Insulinotonic
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3345 ppm);found in Root (785 ppm)
Interferon-Synergist
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Interferonogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Irritant
Mufa found in Leaf (4185 ppm);found in Root (454 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (4185 ppm);found in Root (545 ppm)
Oxalic-acid found in Root (1334 ppm)
Keratolytic
Sulfur found in Leaf (240 ppm);found in Root (565 ppm)
Laxative
Calcium found in Leaf (17400 ppm);found in Root (3780 ppm)
Calcium-oxalate found in Leaf (4000 ppm);found in Root (430 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (150000 ppm);found in Root (37000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Sulfur found in Leaf (240 ppm);found in Root (565 ppm)
Leptingenic
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Lipotropic
Methionine found in Leaf (5510 ppm);found in Root (680 ppm)
Lithogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Calcium-oxalate found in Leaf (4000 ppm);found in Root (430 ppm)
Litholytic
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Lubricant
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (9135 ppm);found in Root (1190 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Plant (200 ppm);found in Root (205 ppm)
Metastatic
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (14925 ppm);found in Root (1975 ppm)
Monoamine-Precursor
Phenylalanine found in Leaf (13600 ppm);found in Root (2795 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3345 ppm);found in Root (785 ppm)
Tyrosine found in Leaf (12415 ppm);found in Root (1875 ppm)
Mucogenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Mucolytic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Myorelaxant
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
NO-Genic
Arginine found in Leaf (15340 ppm);found in Root (3510 ppm)
Nematicide
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (14925 ppm);found in Root (1975 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (9135 ppm);found in Root (1190 ppm)
Neuroexcitant
Aspartic-acid found in Root (6540 ppm)
Neuroinhibitor
Glycine found in Root (2520 ppm)
Neuroprotective
Thiamin found in Leaf (17 ppm);found in Root (5 ppm)
Neurotoxic
Glutamic-acid found in Root (5925 ppm)
Neurotransmitter
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Osteogenic
Phosphorus found in Leaf (5800 ppm);found in Root (5204 ppm)
Oxidant
Alanine found in Root (2485 ppm)
Histidine found in Leaf (7950 ppm);found in Root (1160 ppm)
Parasiticide
Sulfur found in Leaf (240 ppm);found in Root (565 ppm)
Percutaneostimulant
Mufa found in Leaf (4185 ppm);found in Root (454 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (4185 ppm);found in Root (545 ppm)
Perfumery
Mufa found in Leaf (4185 ppm);found in Root (454 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (4185 ppm);found in Root (545 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Plant (200 ppm);found in Root (205 ppm)
Pesticide
Aluminum found in Leaf (18 ppm);found in Root (3.9 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Homogentisic-acid found in Rhizome
Oxalic-acid found in Root (1334 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (9135 ppm);found in Root (1190 ppm)
Sulfur found in Leaf (240 ppm);found in Root (565 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (17 ppm);found in Root (5 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Phagocytotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Pituitary-Stimulant
Arginine found in Leaf (15340 ppm);found in Root (3510 ppm)
Poultice
Starch found in Leaf (700 ppm);found in Root (262000 ppm)
Prolactinogenic
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3345 ppm);found in Root (785 ppm)
Prooxidant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Iron found in Leaf (200 ppm);found in Root (200 ppm)
Propecic
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (14925 ppm);found in Root (1975 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (4185 ppm);found in Root (545 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (9135 ppm);found in Root (1190 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Plant (200 ppm);found in Root (205 ppm)
Renotoxic
Oxalic-acid found in Root (1334 ppm)
Roborant
Aspartic-acid found in Root (6540 ppm)
Scabicide
Sulfur found in Leaf (240 ppm);found in Root (565 ppm)
Schizophrenigenic
Copper found in Leaf (1.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Sedative
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3345 ppm);found in Root (785 ppm)
Serotoninergic
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3345 ppm);found in Root (785 ppm)
Soap
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (9135 ppm);found in Root (1190 ppm)
Spermigenic
Arginine found in Leaf (15340 ppm);found in Root (3510 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Suppository
Stearic-acid found in Plant (200 ppm);found in Root (205 ppm)
Sweetener
Galactose found in Root (94100 ppm)
Testosteronigenic
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Thymoprotective
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Tranquilizer
Calcium found in Leaf (17400 ppm);found in Root (3780 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Tremorigenic
Phenylalanine found in Leaf (13600 ppm);found in Root (2795 ppm)
Trichomonicide
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)
Tumor-Promoter
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3345 ppm);found in Root (785 ppm)
Ubiquiot
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (298 ppm);found in Root (0.8 ppm)
Uricosuric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Glycine found in Root (2520 ppm)
Urinary-Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Urine-Acidifier
Methionine found in Leaf (5510 ppm);found in Root (680 ppm)
Urine-Deodorant
Methionine found in Leaf (5510 ppm);found in Root (680 ppm)
Uterorelaxant
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Varroacide
Oxalic-acid found in Root (1334 ppm)
Vasodilator
Arginine found in Leaf (15340 ppm);found in Root (3510 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (17400 ppm);found in Root (3780 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (150000 ppm);found in Root (37000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (3140 ppm);found in Root (1350 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (105 ppm);found in Root (40 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (51774 ppm);found in Root (21760 ppm)
Vulnerary
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (3625 ppm);found in Root (325 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (6.6 ppm);found in Root (66 ppm)

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
Alanine Root 730 2,485
Aluminum Leaf 18
Root 3.9
Amylopectin Root 176,400 188,640
Amylose Root 68,600 73,360
Arabinose Root 3,200 8,560
Arginine Leaf 2,200 15,340
Root 1,030 3,510
Ascorbic-acid Leaf 69 3,625
Root 0 325
Ash Leaf 13,000 155,000
Root 8,000 63,000
Aspartic-acid Root 1,920 6,540
Beta-carotene Leaf 18 298
Root 0 0.8
Boron Leaf 3.6
Root 0.9 7
Calcium Leaf 260 17,400
Root 130 3,780
Calcium-oxalate Leaf 4,000
Root 430
Carbohydrates Leaf 48,000 640,000
Root 200,000 885,000
Carotenoids Leaf 5 7.3
Root 0.07 0.2
Copper Leaf 1.5
Root 1.6 8
Cystine Leaf 640 4,465
Root 320 1,090
Fat Leaf 6,000 107,000
Root 1,000 16,000
Fiber Leaf 12,000 150,000
Root 6,100 37,000
Galactose Root 35,200 94,100
Glutamic-acid Root 1,740 5,925
Glycine Root 740 2,520
Hemicellulose Root
Histidine Leaf 1,140 7,950
Root 340 1,160
Homogentisic-acid Rhizome
Iron Leaf 6 200
Root 4 200
Isoleucine Leaf 2,600 18,130
Root 540 1,840
Kilocalories Leaf 310 3,280
Root 920 3,820
Leucine Leaf 3,920 27,335
Root 1,110 3,780
Linoleic-acid Leaf 2,140 14,925
Root 580 1,975
Linolenic-acid Leaf 930 6,485
Root 250 850
Lysine Leaf 2,460 17,155
Root 670 2,280
Magnesium Leaf 200 3,140
Root 200 1,350
Manganese Leaf 45
Root 1.3 7.6
Methionine Leaf 790 5,510
Root 200 680
Mucilage Root 40,000 10,700
Mufa Leaf 600 4,185
Root 160 454
Niacin Leaf 8 105
Root 4 40
Oleic-acid Leaf 600 4,185
Root 160 545
Oxalate Leaf 4,260
Root 650
Oxalic-acid Root 1,334
Palmitic-acid Leaf 1,310 9,135
Root 350 1,190
Phenylalanine Leaf 1,950 13,600
Root 820 2,795
Phosphorus Leaf 490 5,800
Root 460 5,204
Phytosterols Root 190 650
Potassium Leaf 4,370 51,774
Root 3,230 21,760
Proline Root 600 2,045
Protein Leaf 24,000 347,280
Root 10,000 112,000
Pufa Leaf 3,070 21,410
Root 830 2,825
Riboflavin Leaf 3 35
Root 0.2 1.6
Saponin Root
Sapotoxin Root
Serine Root 920 3,135
Sfa Leaf 1,510 10,530
Root 410 1,400
Sodium Leaf 20 484
Root 7 480
Starch Leaf 700
Root 245,000 262,000
Stearic-acid Plant 200
Root 60 205
Sugar Leaf 9,200
Root 10,000 11,000
Sulfur Leaf 240
Root 85 565
Thiamin Leaf 1.3 17
Root 0.3 5
Threonine Leaf 1,670 11,645
Root 690 2,350
Tryptophan Leaf 480 3,345
Root 230 785
Tyrosine Leaf 1,780 12,415
Root 550 1,875
Uronic-acid Root 800 2,140
Valine Leaf 2,560 17,850
Root 820 2,790
Water Leaf 810,000 900,000
Root 660,530 754,000
Zinc Leaf 6.6
Root 5 66
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]