Centaurea calcitrapa Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
purple cockspur purple star thistle red star thistle saucy-bob star thistle

Centaurea calcitrapa is a species of flowering plant known by several common names, including purple starthistle and red starthistle. It is native to Europe but is rarely found there, it is known across the globe as an introduced species and often a noxious weed. The species name calcitrapa comes from the word caltrop, a type of weapon covered in sharp spikes. In western Crete, Greece a local variety called gourounaki has its leaves eaten boiled by the locals. A south Italian variety of the species is also traditionally consumed by ethnic Albanians in the Vulture area. In the Arbëreshë communities in Lucania the young whorls of Centaurea calcitrapa are boiled and fried in mixtures with other weedy non cultivated greens. According to a research by A. Pieroni, V. Janiak, C. M. Dürr, S. Lüdeke, E. Trachsel and M. Heinrich in the Centre for Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy "the antioxidant activity of the young whorls of Centaurea calcitrapa, both in the DPPH and in the lipid peroxidation inhibition assays, are very interesting and the species should be investigated phytochemically and biochemically focusing on these properties".

Centaurea calcitrapa

Medical use

Economic importance of Centaurea calcitrapa

Weed potential sed contaminant

Gallery

Centaurea calcitrapa Centaurea calcitrapa Centaurea calcitrapa Centaurea calcitrapa Centaurea calcitrapa Centaurea calcitrapa Centaurea calcitrapa Centaurea calcitrapa Centaurea calcitrapa Centaurea calcitrapa

Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Native
    • Northern Africa: Algeria; Egypt; Morocco; Tunisia
    Naturalized
    • Macaronesia: Cape Verde; Portugal - Madeira Islands; Spain - Canary Islands
    • Southern Africa: South Africa
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Western Asia: Cyprus; Jordan; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey
  • AUSTRALASIA
    Naturalized
    • Australia: Australia
    • New Zealand: New Zealand
  • EUROPE
    Native
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Switzerland
    • East Europe: Russian Federation - European part; Ukraine - Krym
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Greece ; Italy ; Macedonia; Montenegro; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia
    • Southwestern Europe: France ; Portugal; Spain
    Naturalized
    • Northern Europe: United Kingdom
    Adventive
    • Northern Europe: Norway
    • Middle Europe: Czech Republic; Poland
    • East Europe: Latvia
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Naturalized
    • Eastern Canada: Canada - Ontario
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Illinois, Iowa
    • Northwestern U.S.A.: United States - Oregon, Washington
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Alabama, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, Virginia
    • South-Central U.S.A.: United States - New Mexico
    • Southwestern U.S.A.: United States - Arizona, California, Utah
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Naturalized
    • Southern South America: Argentina; Chile; Uruguay

Biological activities

11B-HSD-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Naringenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Oleic-acid found in Plant
Palmitic-acid found in Plant
Stearic-acid found in Plant
5-HT-Inhibitor
Rutin found in Plant
5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
ACE-Inhibitor
Astragalin found in Plant
ATPase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Alcohol-Dehydrogenase-Inhibitor
Inulin found in Plant
Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Astragalin found in Plant
Naringenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Allelochemic
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Allergenic
Oleic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Oleic-acid found in Plant
Analgesic
Beta-amyrin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Androgenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Anemiagenic
Oleic-acid found in Plant
Angiogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Anorexic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
AntiADD
Apigenin found in Plant
AntiCVI
Rutin found in Plant
AntiGTF
Quercetin found in Plant
AntiHIV
Apigenin found in Plant
Naringenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
AntiMS
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
AntiPMS
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiacetylcholinesterase
Naringenin found in Plant
Antiacne
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Antiadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antiaflatoxin
Apigenin found in Plant
Naringenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiaggregant
Apigenin found in Plant
Cichoriin found in Flower
Naringenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antiaging
Apigenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiallergic
Apigenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antialopecic
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Oleic-acid found in Plant
Palmitic-acid found in Plant
Antialzheimeran
Choline found in Plant
Naringenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiamnesic
Naringenin found in Plant
Antiamyloid-Beta
Naringenin found in Plant
Antianaphylactic
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiandrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Oleic-acid found in Plant
Palmitic-acid found in Plant
Antiangiogenic
Apigenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiapoplectic
Rutin found in Plant
Antiarrhythmic
Apigenin found in Plant
Antiarteriosclerotic
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Antiarthritic
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiasthmatic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiatherogenic
Rutin found in Plant
Antiatheromic
Pectin found in Plant
Antiatherosclerotic
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antibacterial
Apigenin found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Naringenin found in Plant
Pectin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Anticancer
Naringenin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Anticapillary-Fragility
Rutin found in Plant
Anticariogenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Anticataract
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antichoreic
Choline found in Plant
Anticirrhotic
Choline found in Plant
Anticlastogen
Rutin found in Plant
Anticolitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Anticomplementary
Apigenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Anticonvulsant
Rutin found in Plant
Anticoronary
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Anticystinuric
Choline found in Plant
Anticystitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antidementia
Choline found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antidepressant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antidermatitic
Apigenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antidiabetic
Choline found in Plant
Inulin found in Plant
Pectin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antidiarrheic
Inulin found in Plant
Pectin found in Plant
Antidyskinetic
Choline found in Plant
Antieczemic
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Antiedemic
Beta-amyrin found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antielastase
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiencephalitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antienteritic
Pectin found in Plant
Antierythemic
Rutin found in Plant
Antiescherichic
Naringenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiestrogenic
Apigenin found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Naringenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antifebrile
Centaurin found in Plant
Antifeedant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Cichoriin found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antifertility
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antifibrinolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Palmitic-acid found in Plant
Antifibrosarcomic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antifibrotic
Naringenin found in Plant
Antiflu
Quercetin found in Plant
Antigallstone
Pectin found in Plant
Antigastric
Quercetin found in Plant
Antigastritic
Pectin found in Plant
Antiglaucomic
Rutin found in Plant
Antigonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antigonadotropic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antigranular
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Antihematuric
Rutin found in Plant
Antihemorrhoidal
Rutin found in Plant
Antihepatotoxic
Lignoceric-acid found in Plant
Naringenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antiherpetic
Apigenin found in Plant
Naringenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antihistaminic
Apigenin found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antihomocysteine
Choline found in Plant
Antihydrophobic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antihyperlipoproteinaemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antihypertensive
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antiinflammatory
Apigenin found in Plant
Beta-amyrin found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Naringenin found in Plant
Oleic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antileishmanic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antileukemic
Apigenin found in Plant
Astragalin found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Naringenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antileukotriene-D4
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Oleic-acid found in Plant
Antileukotriene
Quercetin found in Plant
Antilipoperoxidant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antilithic
Pectin found in Plant
Antilymphomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antimalarial
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antimanic
Choline found in Plant
Antimelanomic
Apigenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antimenorrhagic
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Antimetastatic
Apigenin found in Plant
Pectin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antimutagenic
Apigenin found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Naringenin found in Plant
Pectin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antimyocarditic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antinephritic
Rutin found in Plant
Antinitrosaminic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antinociceptive
Beta-amyrin found in Plant
Choline found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antiobesity
Pectin found in Plant
Antiophidic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antioxidant
Apigenin found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Myristic-acid found in Plant
Naringenin found in Plant
Palmitic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antipancreatitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiperiodontal
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiperistaltic
Apigenin found in Plant
Naringenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipermeability
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiperoxidant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antiperoxidative
Naringenin found in Plant
Antipharyngitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiplaque
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiplasmodial
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiplatelet
Rutin found in Plant
Antipodriac
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipolio
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiprogestational
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antiproliferant
Apigenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antiprostaglandin
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antiprostanoid
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiprostatadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antiprostatitic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiprotozoal
Rutin found in Plant
Antipsoriac
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipurpuric
Rutin found in Plant
Antipyretic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antiradicular
Naringenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antisindhis
Naringenin found in Plant
Antispasmodic
Apigenin found in Plant
Naringenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antistaphylococcic
Naringenin found in Plant
Antisteatotic
Choline found in Plant
Antistreptococcic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antistress
Apigenin found in Plant
Antisunburn
Rutin found in Plant
Antithiamin
Quercetin found in Plant
Antithrombic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antithrombogenic
Rutin found in Plant
Antithyroid
Apigenin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antitrypanosomic
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antitumor-Promoter
Naringenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antitumor
Apigenin found in Plant
Naringenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antitussive
Pectin found in Plant
Antiulcer
Beta-amyrin found in Plant
Naringenin found in Plant
Pectin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antivaricose
Rutin found in Plant
Antiviral
Apigenin found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Naringenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Anxiolytic
Apigenin found in Plant
Aphidifuge
Naringenin found in Plant
Apoptotic
Apigenin found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Aromatase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Naringenin found in Plant
Artemicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Bacteristat
Quercetin found in Plant
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Bifidogenic
Inulin found in Plant
Bradycardiac
Quercetin found in Plant
CNS-Depressant
Apigenin found in Plant
COMT-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
COX-1-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
COX-2-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Calmodulin-Antagonist
Quercetin found in Plant
Cancer-Preventive
Apigenin found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Myristic-acid found in Plant
Naringenin found in Plant
Oleic-acid found in Plant
Pectin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Candidicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Naringenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Capillariprotective
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Carcinogenic
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Cardiodepressant
Choline found in Plant
Caspase-8-Inducer
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Catabolic
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Cerebrotonic
Choline found in Plant
Chemopreventive
Pectin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Choleretic
Apigenin found in Plant
Naringenin found in Plant
Oleic-acid found in Plant
Cholinergic
Choline found in Plant
Comedolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Copper-Chelator
Quercetin found in Plant
Cosmetic
Behenic-acid found in Plant
Myristic-acid found in Plant
Stearic-acid found in Plant
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Cytochrome-P450-1A1-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Cytochrome-P450-1A2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Cytochrome-P450-Inhibitor
Naringenin found in Plant
Cytoprotective
Rutin found in Plant
Cytotoxic
Apigenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
DNA-Protective
Apigenin found in Plant
Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Naringenin found in Plant
Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Demulcent
Pectin found in Plant
Dermatitigenic
Oleic-acid found in Plant
Differentiator
Apigenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Diuretic
Apigenin found in Plant
Embryotoxic
Naringenin found in Plant
Estrogenic
Apigenin found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Naringenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Expectorant
Astragalin found in Plant
Inulin found in Plant
FLavor
Oleic-acid found in Plant
Palmitic-acid found in Plant
Stearic-acid found in Plant
Febrifuge
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Fungicide
Naringenin found in Plant
Pectin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Fungistat
Naringenin found in Plant
Gastroprotective
Beta-amyrin found in Plant
Gastrostimulant
Inulin found in Plant
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Gonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
HIF-1alpha-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
HIV-RT-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Hemolytic
Palmitic-acid found in Plant
Hemostat
Pectin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Hepatomagenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Hepatoprotective
Beta-amyrin found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Choline found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Naringenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Hyaluronidase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Hypercholesterolemic
Myristic-acid found in Plant
Palmitic-acid found in Plant
Hypocholesterolemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Inulin found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Oleic-acid found in Plant
Pectin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Stearic-acid found in Plant
Hypoglycemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Inulin found in Plant
Pectin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Hypolipidemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Hypotensive
Apigenin found in Plant
Astragalin found in Plant
Choline found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
ICAM-1-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
IKK-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Ileorelaxant
Choline found in Plant
Immunomodulator
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Immunostimulant
Astragalin found in Plant
Inulin found in Plant
Inotropic
Apigenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Insecticide
Rutin found in Plant
Insectifuge
Cichoriin found in Flower
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Oleic-acid found in Plant
Insectiphile
Rutin found in Plant
Insulinogenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Interleukin-6-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Irritant
Oleic-acid found in Plant
Juvabional
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Larvicide
Beta-amyrin found in Plant
Larvistat
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Laxative
Inulin found in Plant
Lipolytic
Inulin found in Plant
Lipotropic
Choline found in Plant
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Lubricant
Myristic-acid found in Plant
Palmitic-acid found in Plant
Stearic-acid found in Plant
MAO-A-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
MAO-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
MAPK-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
MMP-9-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Mast-Cell-Stabilizer
Quercetin found in Plant
Memorigenic
Choline found in Plant
Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Metastatic
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Mosquitocide
Beta-amyrin found in Plant
Musculotropic
Apigenin found in Plant
Mutagenic
Apigenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Myoprotective
Rutin found in Plant
Myorelaxant
Apigenin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
NEP-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
NO-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
NO-Synthase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Nematicide
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Myristic-acid found in Plant
Palmitic-acid found in Plant
Neuroprotective
Naringenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Nodulation-Signal
Apigenin found in Plant
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Oviposition-Stimulant
Rutin found in Plant
P21-Inducer
Apigenin found in Plant
P450-Inducer
Quercetin found in Plant
P450-Inhibitor
Naringenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
PAF-Inhibitor
Rutin found in Plant
PGE2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
PKC-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
PTK-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Parasympathomimetic
Choline found in Plant
Percutaneostimulant
Oleic-acid found in Plant
Perfumery
Oleic-acid found in Plant
Stearic-acid found in Plant
Peristaltic
Pectin found in Plant
Pesticide
Apigenin found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Naringenin found in Plant
Palmitic-acid found in Plant
Pectin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Phospholipase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Plasmodicide
Quercetin found in Plant
Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Prebiotic
Inulin found in Plant
Probiotic
Inulin found in Plant
Probiotigenic
Inulin found in Plant
Progestational
Apigenin found in Plant
Proliferant
Quercetin found in Plant
Propecic
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Oleic-acid found in Plant
Palmitic-acid found in Plant
Stearic-acid found in Plant
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Protisticide
Rutin found in Plant
Quinone-Reductase-Inducer
Apigenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Radioprotective
Apigenin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Sedative
Apigenin found in Plant
Serotonin-Inhibitor
Naringenin found in Plant
Soap
Palmitic-acid found in Plant
Spermicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Sunscreen
Apigenin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Suppository
Stearic-acid found in Plant
TNF-alpha-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Naringenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Teratogenic
Naringenin found in Plant
Teratologic
Quercetin found in Plant
Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Naringenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Tumorigenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Ubiquiot
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Ulcerogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Uterotrophic
Apigenin found in Plant
Naringenin found in Plant
VEGF-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Vasodilator
Apigenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Vasopressor
Rutin found in Plant
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor
Naringenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
iNOS-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
Apigenin Plant
Apigenin-7-methylgalacturonide Plant
Arachidic-acid Plant
Astragalin Plant
Behenic-acid Plant
Beta-amyrin Plant
Beta-sitosterol Plant
Centaurin Plant
Choline Plant
Cichoriin Flower
Cniciin Flower
Fat Seed 154,000 246,000
Inulin Plant
Lignoceric-acid Plant
Linoleic-acid Plant
Myristic-acid Plant
Naringenin Plant
Oleic-acid Plant
Palmitic-acid Plant
Pectin Plant
Protein Seed 205,000 241,000
Quercetin Plant
Rutin Plant
Scabiolide Plant
Stearic-acid Plant
Stizolphine Plant
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]