Althaea officinalis Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
marshmallow white-mallow

Althaea officinalis is a perennial species indigenous to Africa, which is used as a medicinal plant and ornamental plant. A confection made from the root since ancient Egyptian time evolved into today's marshmallow treat.

Althaea officinalis

Medical use

Economic importance of Althaea officinalis

Environmental ornamental
Human food vegetable
Medicines folklore

Gallery

Althaea officinalis Althaea officinalis Althaea officinalis Althaea officinalis Althaea officinalis Althaea officinalis Althaea officinalis Althaea officinalis Althaea officinalis Althaea officinalis Althaea officinalis Althaea officinalis Althaea officinalis Althaea officinalis Althaea officinalis Althaea officinalis

Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Native
    • Northern Africa: Algeria ; Tunisia
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Western Asia: Afghanistan; Iran; Iraq; Israel; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey
    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia
    • Siberia: Russian Federation - Eastern Siberia , Western Siberia
    • Middle Asia: Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
    • China: China - Xinjiang
    Cultivated
    • China: China
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Native
    • Indian Subcontinent: Pakistan
  • EUROPE
    Native
    • Northern Europe: Denmark; United Kingdom
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czech Republic; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Slovakia
    • East Europe: Moldova; Russian Federation - European part ; Ukraine
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bulgaria; Croatia; Greece; Italy ; Romania
    • Southwestern Europe: France ; Portugal; Spain
    Cultivated
    • Middle Europe: Germany; Hungary
    • Southeastern Europe: Croatia; Italy
    • Southwestern Europe: France

Biological activities

11B-HSD-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (91000 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (52975 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (16685 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed (16685 ppm)
5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Aesculetin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
ACE-Inhibitor
Astragalin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
AP-1-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
ATPase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Abortifacient
Betaine found in Root (40000 ppm)
Absorbent
Starch found in Root (380000 ppm);found in Root (370000 ppm)
Acetylcholinergic
Glucose found in Plant
Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Aggregant
Sucrose found in Plant
Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Aesculetin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Aesculin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Astragalin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Herniarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Isoscopoletin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Salicylic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Spiraeoside found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Umbelliferone found in Root ;found in Shoot
Vanillic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Allelochemic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Umbelliferone found in Root ;found in Shoot
Allelopathic
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Syringic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Vanillic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Allergenic
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Herniarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (52975 ppm)
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Alpha-Glucosidase-Inhibitor
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Oleic-acid found in Seed (52975 ppm)
Analgesic
Aesculetin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Aesculin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Salicylic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Thiamin found in Root (1 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Anemiagenic
Oleic-acid found in Seed (52975 ppm)
Anesthetic
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Fiber found in Root (83000 ppm)
Potassium found in Root (12100 ppm);found in Root (12100 ppm)
Anorexic
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Anthelmintic
Tannin found in Root (20000 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
AntiAGE
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Chromium found in Root (1.5 ppm);found in Root (1.5 ppm)
AntiBPH
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
AntiCFS
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Chromium found in Root (1.5 ppm);found in Root (1.5 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
AntiCTS
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
AntiCVS
Aesculin found in Root ;found in Shoot
AntiEBV
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
AntiGTF
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
AntiHIV
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Tannin found in Root (20000 ppm)
Tiliroside found in Flower (1900 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
AntiLegionella
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
AntiLyme
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Root (0.5 ppm);found in Root (0.5 ppm)
Thiamin found in Root (1 ppm)
AntiMS
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (91000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
AntiNF-kB
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
AntiPMS
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Calcium found in Root (8160 ppm);found in Root (8160 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Manganese found in Root (4.4 ppm);found in Root (4.4 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
AntiUTI
Mannose found in Plant
Antiacne
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Chromium found in Root (1.5 ppm);found in Root (1.5 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (91000 ppm)
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Tin found in Root (29 ppm);found in Root (29 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antiacrocyanotic
Aesculin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Antiacrodermatitic
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antiacrodynic
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Antiadenoviral
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antiadhesive
Mannose found in Plant
Antiadrenergic
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Antiaflatoxin
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Antiaggregant
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Antiaging
Aesculin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chromium found in Root (1.5 ppm);found in Root (1.5 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antiakathisic
Iron found in Root (115 ppm);found in Root (115 ppm)
Antialcoholic
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Manganese found in Root (4.4 ppm);found in Root (4.4 ppm)
Thiamin found in Root (1 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antiallergic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Calcium found in Root (8160 ppm);found in Root (8160 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Herniarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antialopecic
Aesculin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (91000 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (52975 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (16685 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antialzheimeran
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Choline found in Plant
Lecithin found in Root
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Thiamin found in Root (1 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antiamblyopic
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Antianaphylactic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (91000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antiandrogenic
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (91000 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (52975 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (16685 ppm)
Antianemic
Iron found in Root (115 ppm);found in Root (115 ppm)
Manganese found in Root (4.4 ppm);found in Root (4.4 ppm)
Antianginal
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Antiangiogenic
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antianorectic
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Thiamin found in Root (1 ppm)
Antianorexic
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antianxiety
Calcium found in Root (8160 ppm);found in Root (8160 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Antiarabiflavinotic
Riboflavin found in Root (0.5 ppm);found in Root (0.5 ppm)
Antiarrhythmic
Aesculetin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Calcium found in Root (8160 ppm);found in Root (8160 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Potassium found in Root (12100 ppm);found in Root (12100 ppm)
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Antiarteriosclerotic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (91000 ppm)
Silicon found in Root (3 ppm);found in Root (3 ppm)
Antiarthritic
Aesculin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Calcium found in Root (8160 ppm);found in Root (8160 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (91000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Manganese found in Root (4.4 ppm);found in Root (4.4 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Salicylic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antiasthmatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Antiataxic
Lecithin found in Root
Antiatherogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antiatheromic
Pectin found in Root (110000 ppm);found in Root (350000 ppm)
Antiatherosclerotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Calcium found in Root (8160 ppm);found in Root (8160 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Chromium found in Root (1.5 ppm);found in Root (1.5 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Antibackache
Thiamin found in Root (1 ppm)
Antiberiberi
Thiamin found in Root (1 ppm)
Antibronchoconstrictor
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Antibrucellosic
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Anticancer
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Butyric-acid found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Tannin found in Root (20000 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Anticanker
Iron found in Root (115 ppm);found in Root (115 ppm)
Thiamin found in Root (1 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Anticapillary-Fragility
Aesculetin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Aesculin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Anticarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Anticarcinomic
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Anticardiospasmic
Thiamin found in Root (1 ppm)
Anticariogenic
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Tannin found in Root (20000 ppm)
Anticarpal-Tunnel
Riboflavin found in Root (0.5 ppm);found in Root (0.5 ppm)
Anticataract
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Riboflavin found in Root (0.5 ppm);found in Root (0.5 ppm)
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Thiamin found in Root (1 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Anticellulitic
Aesculin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Anticephalagic
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Root (0.5 ppm);found in Root (0.5 ppm)
Anticervicaldysplasic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Riboflavin found in Root (0.5 ppm);found in Root (0.5 ppm)
Anticheilitic
Iron found in Root (115 ppm);found in Root (115 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Root (0.5 ppm);found in Root (0.5 ppm)
Antichilblain
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Anticholinergic
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Scopolin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Antichoreic
Choline found in Plant
Anticirrhotic
Choline found in Plant
Lecithin found in Root
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Anticlastogen
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Anticlimacteric
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Calcium found in Root (8160 ppm);found in Root (8160 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Anticoeliac
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Anticold
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Anticolitic
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Thiamin found in Root (1 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Anticomplementary
Arabinogalactan found in Plant
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Anticonvulsant
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Anticorneotic
Chromium found in Root (1.5 ppm);found in Root (1.5 ppm)
Anticoronary
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (91000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Anticystinuric
Choline found in Plant
Anticystitic
Mannose found in Plant
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antidandruff
Salicylic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antidecubitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Root (0.5 ppm);found in Root (0.5 ppm)
Thiamin found in Root (1 ppm)
Antideliriant
Thiamin found in Root (1 ppm)
Antidementia
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Choline found in Plant
Lecithin found in Root
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Thiamin found in Root (1 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antidepressant
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Calcium found in Root (8160 ppm);found in Root (8160 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Potassium found in Root (12100 ppm);found in Root (12100 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Antidermatitic
Aesculin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antidermatotic
Salicylic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antidiabetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Choline found in Plant
Chromium found in Root (1.5 ppm);found in Root (1.5 ppm)
Fiber found in Root (83000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Manganese found in Root (4.4 ppm);found in Root (4.4 ppm)
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Pectin found in Root (110000 ppm);found in Root (350000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Sorbitol found in Plant
Xylose found in Plant
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antidiarrheic
Pectin found in Root (110000 ppm);found in Root (350000 ppm)
Tannin found in Root (20000 ppm)
Antidiscotic
Manganese found in Root (4.4 ppm);found in Root (4.4 ppm)
Antidiuretic
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Antidysenteric
Aesculetin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Tannin found in Root (20000 ppm)
Antidysgeuzic
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antidyskinetic
Choline found in Plant
Lecithin found in Root
Manganese found in Root (4.4 ppm);found in Root (4.4 ppm)
Antidysmenorrheic
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Antidyspeptic
Thiamin found in Root (1 ppm)
Antidysphagic
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Antieczemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Lecithin found in Root
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (91000 ppm)
Salicylic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antiedemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Glucose found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Umbelliferone found in Root ;found in Shoot
Antielastase
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antiencephalitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antiencephalopathic
Thiamin found in Root (1 ppm)
Valine found in Root
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antiendometriotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Antienteritic
Pectin found in Root (110000 ppm);found in Root (350000 ppm)
Antienterotic
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Antiepileptic
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Manganese found in Root (4.4 ppm);found in Root (4.4 ppm)
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antierythemic
Aesculin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Antiescherichic
Aesculetin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antiesherichic
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Antiestrogenic
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antifatigue
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Chromium found in Root (1.5 ppm);found in Root (1.5 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Potassium found in Root (12100 ppm);found in Root (12100 ppm)
Thiamin found in Root (1 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antifeedant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Antifertility
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Antifibrinolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (91000 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (16685 ppm)
Antifibromyalgic
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Antifibrosarcomic
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antifibrotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antiflu
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antifuruncular
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antigallstone
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Pectin found in Root (110000 ppm);found in Root (350000 ppm)
Antigastric
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antigastritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Betaine found in Root (40000 ppm)
Pectin found in Root (110000 ppm);found in Root (350000 ppm)
Thiamin found in Root (1 ppm)
Antigastrotic
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Antigenotoxic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Antigingivitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antiglaucomic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Antiglossitic
Riboflavin found in Root (0.5 ppm);found in Root (0.5 ppm)
Antiglycosuric
Chromium found in Root (1.5 ppm);found in Root (1.5 ppm)
Antigonadotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antigout
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Antigranular
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (91000 ppm)
Antihangover
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Thiamin found in Root (1 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antiheartburn
Thiamin found in Root (1 ppm)
Antihemolytic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Antihemorrhagic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Antihemorrhoidal
Aesculin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Paraffin found in Plant
Antihepatitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Antihepatoadenomic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antihepatomic
Saponins found in Root
Antihepatotoxic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Glucose found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Sinapic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Tannin found in Root (20000 ppm)
Antiherpetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Thiamin found in Root (1 ppm)
Antihiccup
Sucrose found in Plant
Antihistaminic
Aesculin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (91000 ppm)
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Umbelliferone found in Root ;found in Shoot
Antihomocysteine
Choline found in Plant
Antihomocystinuric
Betaine found in Root (40000 ppm)
Antihydrophobic
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antihyperactivity
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Antihypercholesterolemic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Antihyperkeratotic
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Antihyperkinetic
Calcium found in Root (8160 ppm);found in Root (8160 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Antihypertensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Calcium found in Root (8160 ppm);found in Root (8160 ppm)
Fiber found in Root (83000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Potassium found in Root (12100 ppm);found in Root (12100 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Tannin found in Root (20000 ppm)
Antihyperthyroid
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Antihypoglycemic
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Antiichthyosic
Salicylic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antiichythyotic
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Antiimplantation
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antiimpotence
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antiinfective
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antiinfertility
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antiinflammatory
Aesculetin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Aesculin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (91000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (52975 ppm)
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Salicylic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Umbelliferone found in Root ;found in Shoot
Vanillic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antiinsomniac
Calcium found in Root (8160 ppm);found in Root (8160 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antiinsomnic
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Antiischemic
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antikeratitic
Riboflavin found in Root (0.5 ppm);found in Root (0.5 ppm)
Antikeshan
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Antiketotic
Glucose found in Plant
Sorbitol found in Plant
Antileishmanic
Arabinogalactan found in Plant
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antilepric
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antileukemic
Astragalin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antileukonychic
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antileukoplakic
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Antileukotriene-D4
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (91000 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (52975 ppm)
Antileukotriene
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Antileukotrienogenic
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Antilipolytic
Tannin found in Root (20000 ppm)
Antilipoperoxidant
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antilithic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Lecithin found in Root
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Pectin found in Root (110000 ppm);found in Root (350000 ppm)
Antilupus
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Antilymphedemic
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Antilymphocytic
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antilymphomic
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antimaculitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antimalarial
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antimanic
Choline found in Plant
Lecithin found in Root
Antimastalgic
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Antimastitic
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Antimeasles
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Antimelanogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antimelanomic
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Antimenopausal
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Calcium found in Root (8160 ppm);found in Root (8160 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Antimenorrhagic
Iron found in Root (115 ppm);found in Root (115 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (91000 ppm)
Antimetastatic
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Pectin found in Root (110000 ppm);found in Root (350000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antimigraine
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Root (0.5 ppm);found in Root (0.5 ppm)
Thiamin found in Root (1 ppm)
Antimitotic
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Umbelliferone found in Root ;found in Shoot
Antimitral-valve-prolapse
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Antimononuccleotic
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Antimorphinistic
Lecithin found in Root
Antimutagenic
Aesculetin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Plant
Pectin found in Root (110000 ppm);found in Root (350000 ppm)
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Saponins found in Root
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Tannin found in Root (20000 ppm)
Umbelliferone found in Root ;found in Shoot
Antimyalgic
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Antimycoplasmotic
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Antimyoatrophic
Betaine found in Root (40000 ppm)
Antimyocarditic
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Thiamin found in Root (1 ppm)
Antineoplastic
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Antinephritic
Tannin found in Root (20000 ppm)
Antinephrolytic
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Antinesidioblastosic
Starch found in Root (380000 ppm);found in Root (370000 ppm)
Antineuralgic
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Salicylic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Thiamin found in Root (1 ppm)
Antineuramidase
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Antineurasthenic
Thiamin found in Root (1 ppm)
Antineuritic
Thiamin found in Root (1 ppm)
Antineuropathic
Thiamin found in Root (1 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antineurotic
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Antinitrosaminic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antinitrosic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Antinociceptive
Choline found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antinyctalopic
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antiobesity
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Calcium found in Root (8160 ppm);found in Root (8160 ppm)
Chromium found in Root (1.5 ppm);found in Root (1.5 ppm)
Fiber found in Root (83000 ppm)
Pectin found in Root (110000 ppm);found in Root (350000 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antioncychomycotic
Salicylic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antionychyotic
Silicon found in Root (3 ppm);found in Root (3 ppm)
Antiophidic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Tannin found in Root (20000 ppm)
Antiophthalmic
Sucrose found in Plant
Antiorchitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Antiosteoarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Antiosteoporotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Calcium found in Root (8160 ppm);found in Root (8160 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Manganese found in Root (4.4 ppm);found in Root (4.4 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Root (2560 ppm);found in Root (2560 ppm)
Silicon found in Root (3 ppm);found in Root (3 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antiototic
Manganese found in Root (4.4 ppm);found in Root (4.4 ppm)
Antioxidant
Aesculin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Alanine found in Root
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Manganese found in Root (4.4 ppm);found in Root (4.4 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Plant
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (16685 ppm)
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Riboflavin found in Root (0.5 ppm);found in Root (0.5 ppm)
Salicylic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Sinapic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Spiraeoside found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Sucrose found in Plant
Syringic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Tannin found in Root (20000 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antiozenic
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Antipancreatitic
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antipanniculopathic
Aesculin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Antipapillomic
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Antiparkinsonian
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Antiparotitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Antipellagric
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Root (0.5 ppm);found in Root (0.5 ppm)
Antiperiodic
Salicylic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antiperiodontal
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antiperiodontic
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antiperiodontitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Calcium found in Root (8160 ppm);found in Root (8160 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antiperistaltic
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antipermeability
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antiperoxidant
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Syringic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Vanillic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antiperoxynitrite
Sinapic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antipharyngitic
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antiphotophobic
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Riboflavin found in Root (0.5 ppm);found in Root (0.5 ppm)
Antipityriasic
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Antiplaque
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antiplasmodial
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antipneumonic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Antipodagric
Salicylic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antipodriac
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antipolio
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antipoliomyelitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Thiamin found in Root (1 ppm)
Antiporphyric
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Antiproctalgic
Paraffin found in Plant
Antiprolactin
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antiproliferant
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Antiprostaglandin
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Umbelliferone found in Root ;found in Shoot
Antiprostanoid
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antiprostatitic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (91000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antiprostatotic
Phytosterols found in Root
Antipsittacotic
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Antipsoriac
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Lecithin found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Salicylic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antipyretic
Aesculetin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Aesculin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Salicylic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antiradicular
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Syringic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Tannin found in Root (20000 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antirenitic
Tannin found in Root (20000 ppm)
Antiretinopathic
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Antiretinotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Antirheumatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Calcium found in Root (8160 ppm);found in Root (8160 ppm)
Salicylic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antirhinitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Antisclerodermic
Lecithin found in Root
Antiscorbutic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Antiscotomic
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Antiseborrheic
Aesculin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Lecithin found in Root
Salicylic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antiseptic
Aesculetin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Salicylic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Umbelliferone found in Root ;found in Shoot
Vanillic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antiserotonin
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antishingles
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Antisickling
Asparagine found in Root (20000 ppm)
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antisilicotic
Aluminum found in Root (680 ppm);found in Root (680 ppm)
Antispare-Tire
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antispasmodic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Herniarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Potassium found in Root (12100 ppm);found in Root (12100 ppm)
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Umbelliferone found in Root ;found in Shoot
Antispasmophilic
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Antisprue
Lecithin found in Root
Antistaphylococcic
Aesculetin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Herniarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Umbelliferone found in Root ;found in Shoot
Antisteatotic
Choline found in Plant
Antistomatitic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antistreptococcic
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antistress
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Calcium found in Root (8160 ppm);found in Root (8160 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Antistroke
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Potassium found in Root (12100 ppm);found in Root (12100 ppm)
Antisunburn
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Antisyndrome-X
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Chromium found in Root (1.5 ppm);found in Root (1.5 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Manganese found in Root (4.4 ppm);found in Root (4.4 ppm)
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antithiamin
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antithrombic
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antithyroid
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Antitic
Calcium found in Root (8160 ppm);found in Root (8160 ppm)
Antitinnitic
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antitoxoplasmotic
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Antitriglyceride
Chromium found in Root (1.5 ppm);found in Root (1.5 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antitrypanosomic
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antitumor-Promoter
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Tannin found in Root (20000 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antitumor
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Butyric-acid found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Erucic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Fiber found in Root (83000 ppm)
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Salicylic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Tannin found in Root (20000 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antitussive
Pectin found in Root (110000 ppm);found in Root (350000 ppm)
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antitympanitic
Salicylic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antiulcer
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Fiber found in Root (83000 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Pectin found in Root (110000 ppm);found in Root (350000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Tannin found in Root (20000 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Antiulcerogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Antivaccinia
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antivaginitic
Aluminum found in Root (680 ppm);found in Root (680 ppm)
Antivaricose
Glucose found in Plant
Antivertigo
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Antiviral
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Tannin found in Root (20000 ppm)
Antixerophthalmic
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Anxiolytic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Calcium found in Root (8160 ppm);found in Root (8160 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Root (2560 ppm);found in Root (2560 ppm)
Potassium found in Root (12100 ppm);found in Root (12100 ppm)
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Apoptotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Butyric-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Aromatase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Arteriodilator
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Ascaricide
Vanillic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Asthma-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Astringent
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Atherogenic
Sucrose found in Plant
Autotoxic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Bacteristat
Aesculin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Beta-Blocker
Fiber found in Root (83000 ppm)
Potassium found in Root (12100 ppm);found in Root (12100 ppm)
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Bradycardiac
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Bronchorelaxant
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Scopolin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Bruchifuge
Butyric-acid found in Plant
Bruchiphobe
Betaine found in Root (40000 ppm)
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
CNS-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
CNS-Depressant
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Scopolin found in Root ;found in Shoot
CNS-Stimulant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
COMT-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
COX-1-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
COX-2-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Salicylic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Calcium-Antagonist
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Calcium-Channel-Blocker
Calcium found in Root (8160 ppm);found in Root (8160 ppm)
Calmodulin-Antagonist
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Cancer-Preventive
Aesculetin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Aesculin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Alanine found in Root
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Fiber found in Root (83000 ppm)
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (91000 ppm)
Mucilage found in Leaf (157000 ppm);found in Plant (210000 ppm);found in Root (350000 ppm)
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (52975 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Plant
Pectin found in Root (110000 ppm);found in Root (350000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Riboflavin found in Root (0.5 ppm);found in Root (0.5 ppm)
Salicylic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Sinapic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Tannin found in Root (20000 ppm)
Umbelliferone found in Root ;found in Shoot
Vanillic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Candidicide
Aluminum found in Root (680 ppm);found in Root (680 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Herniarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Umbelliferone found in Root ;found in Shoot
Capillarigenic
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Capillariprotective
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (91000 ppm)
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Tannin found in Root (20000 ppm)
Cardiac
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Cardiodepressant
Aesculetin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Choline found in Plant
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Cardiomyopathogenic
Cobalt found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Cardioprotective
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Betaine found in Root (40000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Chromium found in Root (1.5 ppm);found in Root (1.5 ppm)
Fiber found in Root (83000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Potassium found in Root (12100 ppm);found in Root (12100 ppm)
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Silicon found in Root (3 ppm);found in Root (3 ppm)
Cardiotonic
Aesculin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Cardiotoxic
Potassium found in Root (12100 ppm);found in Root (12100 ppm)
Catabolic
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Cataractagenic
Sorbitol found in Plant
Cathartic
Sorbitol found in Plant
Cerebrotonic
Choline found in Plant
Chelator
Tannin found in Root (20000 ppm)
Chemopreventive
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Pectin found in Root (110000 ppm);found in Root (350000 ppm)
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Cholagogue
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Herniarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Choleretic
Aesculetin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Aesculin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Oleic-acid found in Seed (52975 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Umbelliferone found in Root ;found in Shoot
Vanillic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Cholinergic
Choline found in Plant
Lecithin found in Root
Circulotonic
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Clastogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Co-carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Cold-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Collagen-Sparing
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Collagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Collyrium
Sucrose found in Plant
Colorant
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Comedolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (91000 ppm)
Salicylic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Copper-Antagonist
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Copper-Chelator
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Cosmetic
Aesculetin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Aesculin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Stearic-acid found in Seed (16685 ppm)
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Salicylic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Tannin found in Root (20000 ppm)
Cytochrome-P450-1A2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Cytoprotective
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Cytotoxic
Aesculetin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
DME-Inhibitor
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
DNA-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
DNA-Protective
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Demulcent
Mucilage found in Leaf (157000 ppm);found in Plant (210000 ppm);found in Root (350000 ppm)
Pectin found in Root (110000 ppm);found in Root (350000 ppm)
Sucrose found in Plant
Deodorant
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Depressant
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Dermatitigenic
Aesculetin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Oleic-acid found in Seed (52975 ppm)
Salicylic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Detoxicant
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Diagnostic
Xylose found in Plant
Diaphoretic
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Tiliroside found in Flower (1900 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm)
Differentiator
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Diuretic
Aesculin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Asparagine found in Root (20000 ppm)
Betaine found in Root (40000 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Calcium found in Root (8160 ppm);found in Root (8160 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Fiber found in Root (83000 ppm)
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Potassium found in Root (12100 ppm);found in Root (12100 ppm)
Sorbitol found in Plant
Dye
Xylose found in Plant
Emetic
Calcium-oxalate found in Plant
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Emmenagogue
Betaine found in Root (40000 ppm)
Emollient
Paraffin found in Plant
Starch found in Root (380000 ppm);found in Root (370000 ppm)
Encephalopathic
Aluminum found in Root (680 ppm);found in Root (680 ppm)
Energizer
Chromium found in Root (1.5 ppm);found in Root (1.5 ppm)
Ergogenic
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Erythrocytogenic
Cobalt found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Essential
Valine found in Root
Estrogenic
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Ethanolytic
Betaine found in Root (40000 ppm)
Expectorant
Astragalin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Betaine found in Root (40000 ppm)
FLavor
Oleic-acid found in Seed (52975 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (16685 ppm)
Sorbitol found in Plant
Stearic-acid found in Seed (16685 ppm)
Valine found in Root
Fibrinolytic
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Fistula-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Flatugenic
Sucrose found in Plant
Fungicide
Aesculetin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Herniarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Pectin found in Root (110000 ppm);found in Root (350000 ppm)
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Salicylic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Sinapic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Umbelliferone found in Root ;found in Shoot
Vanillic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Fungistat
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Plant
Gastroprotective
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Tannin found in Root (20000 ppm)
Glutathione-Depleting
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
HIV-RT-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Hemolytic
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (16685 ppm)
Hemorrhagic
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Hemostat
Pectin found in Root (110000 ppm);found in Root (350000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Hepatocarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Hepatomagenic
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Hepatoprotective
Aesculetin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Betaine found in Root (40000 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Choline found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Herniarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Lecithin found in Root
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (91000 ppm)
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Tannin found in Root (20000 ppm)
Hepatotoxic
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Hepatotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Herbicide
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Histamine-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Humectant
Sorbitol found in Plant
Hydrocholerectic
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Hypercholesterolemic
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (16685 ppm)
Sucrose found in Plant
Hyperglycemic
Glucose found in Plant
Hypertensive
Aesculetin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Aesculin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Sodium found in Root (1370 ppm);found in Root (1370 ppm)
Hypnotic
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Hypocholesterolemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Calcium found in Root (8160 ppm);found in Root (8160 ppm)
Chromium found in Root (1.5 ppm);found in Root (1.5 ppm)
Fiber found in Root (83000 ppm)
Lecithin found in Root
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (91000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Mucilage found in Leaf (157000 ppm);found in Plant (210000 ppm);found in Root (350000 ppm)
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (52975 ppm)
Pectin found in Root (110000 ppm);found in Root (350000 ppm)
Phytosterols found in Root
Stearic-acid found in Seed (16685 ppm)
Hypoglycemic
Althaea-mucilage-o found in Root (2200 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Chromium found in Root (1.5 ppm);found in Root (1.5 ppm)
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Manganese found in Root (4.4 ppm);found in Root (4.4 ppm)
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Pectin found in Root (110000 ppm);found in Root (350000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Salicylic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Hypolipidemic
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Hypotensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Astragalin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Calcium found in Root (8160 ppm);found in Root (8160 ppm)
Choline found in Plant
Chromium found in Root (1.5 ppm);found in Root (1.5 ppm)
Fiber found in Root (83000 ppm)
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Potassium found in Root (12100 ppm);found in Root (12100 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Hypouricemic
Fiber found in Root (83000 ppm)
ICAM-1-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Ileorelaxant
Choline found in Plant
Immunomodulator
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Chromium found in Root (1.5 ppm);found in Root (1.5 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (91000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Saponins found in Root
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Immunostimulant
Arabinogalactan found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Astragalin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Phosphorus found in Root (2560 ppm);found in Root (2560 ppm)
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Immunosuppressant
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Root (20000 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Inflammatory
Calcium-oxalate found in Plant
Inotropic
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Insectifuge
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (91000 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (52975 ppm)
Salicylic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Thiamin found in Root (1 ppm)
Insectiphile
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Insulinogenic
Chromium found in Root (1.5 ppm);found in Root (1.5 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Interferon-Synergist
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Interferonogenic
Arabinogalactan found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Irritant
Oleic-acid found in Seed (52975 ppm)
JNK-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Juvabional
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Keratolytic
Salicylic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Larvistat
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Laxative
Calcium found in Root (8160 ppm);found in Root (8160 ppm)
Calcium-oxalate found in Plant
Fiber found in Root (83000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Paraffin found in Plant
Sorbitol found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Leptingenic
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Leukotriene-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Lipotropic
Betaine found in Root (40000 ppm)
Choline found in Plant
Lecithin found in Root
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Aesculetin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Aesculin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Tannin found in Root (20000 ppm)
Umbelliferone found in Root ;found in Shoot
Lithogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Calcium-oxalate found in Plant
Litholytic
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Lubricant
Erucic-acid found in Plant
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (16685 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed (16685 ppm)
Lyase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Lymphocytogenic
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Lymphokinetic
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
MAO-A-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
MAO-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Tannin found in Root (20000 ppm)
MMP-9-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Mast-Cell-Stabilizer
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Memorigenic
Choline found in Plant
Chromium found in Root (1.5 ppm);found in Root (1.5 ppm)
Memory-Enhancer
Glucose found in Plant
Metal-Chelator
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Metastatic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (91000 ppm)
Microvasculokinetic
Aesculin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Mitogenic
Arabinogalactan found in Plant
Mucogenic
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Betaine found in Root (40000 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Mucolytic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Musculotropic
Aesculetin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Mutagenic
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Myorelaxant
Aesculetin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
NEP-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
NO-Genic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
NO-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
NO-Synthase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Narcotic
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Natriuretic
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Nematicide
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (91000 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (16685 ppm)
Nematistat
Butyric-acid found in Plant
Nephrotoxic
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Neuroprotective
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Thiamin found in Root (1 ppm)
Neurotransmitter
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Tannin found in Root (20000 ppm)
Osteogenic
Phosphorus found in Root (2560 ppm);found in Root (2560 ppm)
Ovicide
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Oviposition-Stimulant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Oxidant
Alanine found in Root
P450-Inducer
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
P450-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
PAF-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
PGE2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
PTK-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Parasympathomimetic
Choline found in Plant
Percutaneostimulant
Oleic-acid found in Seed (52975 ppm)
Perfumery
Oleic-acid found in Seed (52975 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed (16685 ppm)
Umbelliferone found in Root ;found in Shoot
Peristaltic
Pectin found in Root (110000 ppm);found in Root (350000 ppm)
Phagocytotic
Arabinogalactan found in Plant
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Phospholipase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Photoactive
Herniarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Umbelliferone found in Root ;found in Shoot
Phytoalexin
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Phytohormonal
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Piscicide
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Plasmodicide
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Poultice
Starch found in Root (380000 ppm);found in Root (370000 ppm)
Preservative
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Sucrose found in Plant
Proliferant
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Prooxidant
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Iron found in Root (115 ppm);found in Root (115 ppm)
Propecic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (91000 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (52975 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (16685 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed (16685 ppm)
Prostaglandigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Prostaglandin-Sparer
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Aesculetin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Protisticide
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Tiliroside found in Flower (1900 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm)
Psychotropic
Tannin found in Root (20000 ppm)
Purgative
Sorbitol found in Plant
Quinone-Reductase-Inducer
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Spiraeoside found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Respirodepressant
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Rodenticide
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Secretogogue
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Sedative
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Coumarin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Serotoninergic
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Soap
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (16685 ppm)
Spermigenic
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Sunscreen
Aesculetin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Aesculin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Umbelliferone found in Root ;found in Shoot
Suppository
Stearic-acid found in Seed (16685 ppm)
Sweetener
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Sorbitol found in Plant
Sucrose found in Plant
TNF-alpha-Inhibitor
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Taenicide
Tin found in Root (29 ppm);found in Root (29 ppm)
Teratologic
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Testosteronigenic
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Thermogenic
Salicylic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Thymoprotective
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
Tineacide
Salicylic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Toxic
Aesculin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Tranquilizer
Calcium found in Root (8160 ppm);found in Root (8160 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Trichomonicide
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Triglycerigenic
Sucrose found in Plant
Tumorigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Leaf
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
UV-Screen
Aesculetin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Ubiquiot
Beta-carotene found in Root ;found in Root
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Syringic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Vanillic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Ulcerogenic
Salicylic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Uricogenic
Sucrose found in Plant
Uricosuric
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Urinary-Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Uterorelaxant
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Uterosedative
Ferulic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Root
Scopoletin found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Root
Uterotrophic
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
VEGF-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Selenium found in Root (3.3 ppm);found in Root (3.3 ppm)
Vasodilator
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Calcium found in Root (8160 ppm);found in Root (8160 ppm)
Fiber found in Root (83000 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Magnesium found in Root (5180 ppm);found in Root (5180 ppm)
Niacin found in Root (31 ppm);found in Root (31 ppm)
Potassium found in Root (12100 ppm);found in Root (12100 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Vasoprotective
Aesculin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Vulnerary
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (1640 ppm);found in Root (1640 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Root ;found in Plant
Sucrose found in Plant
Zinc found in Root ;found in Root
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Aesculetin found in Root ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
Tannin found in Root (20000 ppm)
Umbelliferone found in Root ;found in Shoot
cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root
iNOS-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf ;found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf ;found in Root

Search

Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
4-amino-butyric-acid Root
4-hydroxy-benzoic-acid Flower
Root
Leaf
8-hydroxy-3'-sulfo-8-o-beta-d-glucoside-diosmetin Leaf
8-hydroxy-diosmetin-8-glucoside Plant
8-hydroxy-luteolin-8-beta-gentiobioside Plant
8-hydroxy-luteolin-8-beta-glucoside Plant
8-o-gentiobioside-hypolaetin Flower
Aesculetin Root
Shoot
Aesculin Root
Shoot
Alanine Root
Alpha-l-arabinofuranosyl Plant
Althaea-d-glucan Leaf
Althaea-mucilage-o Root 2,200
Althaea-mucilage-ol Leaf 550
Althaea-mucilage-polysaccharide Root
Althaea-mucopolysaccharide Root
Althein Root 20,000
Aluminum Root 680
Root 73 680
Anthaea-mucilage Root
Arabinogalactan Plant
Arabinose Plant
Ascorbic-acid Root 177 1,640
Root 1,640
Ash Root 8,640 80,000
Root 80,000
Asparagine Root 10,000 20,000
Asparaginic-acid Root
Astragalin Flower
Leaf
Beta-carotene Root
Root
Betaine Root 40,000
Butyric-acid Plant
Caffeic-acid Flower
Leaf
Root
Calcium Root 8,160
Root 881 8,160
Calcium-oxalate Plant
Calcium-phosphate Plant
Carbohydrates Root 87,156 807,000
Root 807,000
Chlorogenic-acid Flower
Root
Plant
Choline Plant
Chromium Root 0.2 1.5
Root 1.5
Cichorin Root
Shoot
Cobalt Root 3.3
Root 0.4 3.3
Coumarin Root
Shoot
D-galactose Plant
D-galacturonic-acid Leaf
Plant
Root
D-glucosamines Plant
D-glucuronic-acid Leaf
Root
Dodecasaccharide Plant
Eo Flower 200
Leaf 200
Root 500 15,000
Root 54 2,000
Erucic-acid Plant
Fat Root 540 5,000
Seed 128,000 172,000
Root 5,000
Ferulic-acid Flower
Leaf
Plant
Root
Fiber Root 83,000
Fiber(crude) Root 83,000
Fiber(dietary) Root 523,000
Galacturonic-acid Plant
Galacturono-rhamnans Plant
Galacturonorhamnose Plant
Glucan Plant
Glucosan Plant
Glucose Plant
Hemicellulose Plant
Herniarin Root
Shoot
Hexasaccharide Plant
Hexose Plant
Hydroxycinnamic-acid Plant
Hypolaetin-4'-methyl-ether-8-o-glucoside-3'-sulphate Leaf
Hypolaetin-4'-o-methyl-ether-8-o-beta-d-glucoside Flower
Hypolaetin-8-gentiobioside Leaf 2,500 4,200
Hypolaetin-8-o-beta-d-glucoside Root 14
Iron Root 12 115
Root 115
Isoquercitrin Flower
Leaf
Isoscopoletin Root
Shoot
Kaempferol Leaf
Root
Kaempferol-3-0-glucoside Plant
Kaempferol-3-beta-d-(6"-o-p-hydroxycinnamoyl)-glucoside Plant
L-arabinan Plant
L-arabinofuranan Root
L-rhamnose Leaf
Plant
Lanolin Plant
Lecithin Root
Linoleic-acid Seed 67,710 91,000
Linolenic-acid Seed 3,200 4,300
Magnesium Root 5,180
Root 559 5,180
Malvalic-acid Plant
Manganese Root 0.5 4.4
Root 4.4
Mannose Plant
Methyl-pentose Plant
Mucilage Leaf 60,000 157,000
Plant 210,000
Root 50,000 350,000
Naringenin-4'-o-beta-d-glucoside Flower
Naringenin-4'-o-glucoside Flower
Niacin Root 3.4 31
Root 31
Nona-saccharide Plant
Oleic-acid Seed 39,425 52,975
P-coumaric-acid Flower
Root
Leaf
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid Plant
P-hydroxyacetic-acid Plant
P-hydroxyphenylacetic-acid Flower
Root
Leaf
Palmitic-acid Seed 12,415 16,685
Paraffin Plant
Pectin Root 11,880 110,000
Root 110,000 350,000
Pentosans Plant
Phosphorus Root 277 2,560
Root 2,560
Phytosterols Root
Polysaccharide Root
Polysaccharides Root 250,000 350,000
Populnin Flower
Potassium Root 12,100
Root 1,307 12,100
Protein Root 11,664 108,000
Seed 227,000 237,000
Root 108,000
Protocatechuic-acid Flower
Leaf
Quercetin Leaf
Root
Quercetin-3'-glucoside Plant
Rhamnogalacturonans Root
Riboflavin Root 0.5
Root 0.1 0.5
Salicylic-acid Flower
Leaf
Root
Saponins Root
Scopoletin Flower
Leaf
Shoot
Root
Scopolin Root
Shoot
Scopoline Plant
Scyllitol Leaf 800
Selenium Root 0.4 3.3
Root 3.3
Silicon Root 3
Root 0.3 3
Sinapic-acid Flower
Leaf
Sodium Root 148 1,370
Root 1,370
Sodium-borate Plant
Sorbitol Plant
Spiraeoside Flower
Leaf
Starch Root 300,000 380,000
Root 39,960 370,000
Stearic-acid Seed 12,415 16,685
Sterols Root
Sucrose Plant
Sugar Root 50,000 110,000
Sugars Root 11,880 110,000
Syringic-acid Flower
Leaf
Root
Tannin Root 20,000
Thiamin Root 1
Thiamine Root 0.1 1
Tiliroside Flower 1,900
Leaf 2,500
Tin Root 3 29
Root 29
Umbelliferone Root
Shoot
Uronic-acid Plant
Valine Root
Vanillic-acid Flower
Leaf
Root
Water Root 892,000
Root 892,000
Xylan Plant
Xylose Plant
Zinc Root
Root
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]