Allium schoenoprasum Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
chives giant garlic
Allium schoenoprasum

Medical use

Economic importance of Allium schoenoprasum

Food additives flavoring
Gene sources tertiary genetic relative of Welsh onion tertiary genetic relative of lek
Medicines folklore
Vertebrate poisons mamals

Gallery

Allium schoenoprasum Allium schoenoprasum Allium schoenoprasum Allium schoenoprasum Allium schoenoprasum Allium schoenoprasum Allium schoenoprasum Allium schoenoprasum Allium schoenoprasum Allium schoenoprasum Allium schoenoprasum Allium schoenoprasum Allium schoenoprasum

Geografical distribution

  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Western Asia: Iran; Iraq ; Turkey
    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation - Ciscaucasia, Dagestan
    • Siberia: Russian Federation - Altay, Buryatia, Chita, Gorno-Altay, Irkutsk, Kemerovo, Krasnoyarsk, Novosibirsk, Taymyr, Tomsk, Tuva, Tyumen, Yakutia-Sakha, Yamal Nenets
    • Middle Asia: Kazakhstan ; Kyrgyzstan
    • Mongolia: Mongolia
    • Russian Far East: Russian Federation - Kamchatka, Khabarovsk, Primorye
    • China: China - Xinjiang
    • Eastern Asia: Japan - Hokkaido, Honshu
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Native
    • Indian Subcontinent: Pakistan
  • EUROPE
    Native
    • Northern Europe: Denmark; Finland; Norway; Sweden; United Kingdom
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Czechoslovakia; Germany; Netherlands; Poland; Switzerland
    • East Europe: Russian Federation - Nenets
    • Southeastern Europe: Bulgaria; Greece; Italy; Romania
    • Southwestern Europe: France ; Portugal; Spain
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Native
    • Subarctic America: Canada - Northwest Territory, Yukon Territory; United States - Alaska
    • Eastern Canada: Canada - New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec
    • Western Canada: Canada - Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Nunavut, Saskatchewan
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Minnesota, Wisconsin
    • Northwestern U.S.A.: United States - Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon , Washington , Wyoming
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Maryland

Biological activities

11B-HSD-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Alpha-linolenic-acid found in Leaf (1625 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (27750 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (10500 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (11375 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Leaf (1000 ppm)
5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
ATPase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Acantholytic
Allyl-mercaptan found in Plant
Acaricide
Oxalic-acid found in Plant
Acetylcholinergic
Glucose found in Plant
Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Fumaric-acid found in Leaf
Additive
Succinic-acid found in Leaf
Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Allelochemic
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Allelopathic
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Allergenic
Allyl-disulfide found in Plant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Citric-acid found in Leaf
Mufa found in Leaf (10500 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (10500 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Alpha-Amylase-Inhibitor
Citric-acid found in Leaf
Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (10500 ppm)
Analgesic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3955 ppm)
Androgenic
Octacosanol found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Anemiagenic
Mufa found in Leaf (10500 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (10500 ppm)
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (137500 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (34500 ppm)
AntiADD
Phenylalanine found in Leaf (11250 ppm)
AntiAGE
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
AntiCFS
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
AntiCTS
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
AntiGTF
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
AntiHIV
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
AntiLegionella
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
AntiLyme
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (12 ppm)
AntiMS
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (27750 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Pufa found in Leaf (28555 ppm)
AntiPMS
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (11140 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (40 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antiacid
Glycine found in Leaf (17375 ppm)
Antiacne
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (27750 ppm)
Pufa found in Leaf (28555 ppm)
Antiacrodynic
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Antiadenoviral
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Antiaflatoxin
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antiaggregant
Alpha-linolenic-acid found in Leaf (1625 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Salicylates found in Leaf (5 ppm)
Antiaging
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antiakathisic
Iron found in Leaf (200 ppm)
Antialcoholic
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (40 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Antialdosteronic
Glycine found in Leaf (17375 ppm)
Antialkalotic
Lysine found in Leaf (17435 ppm)
Antiallergic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (11140 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Pantothenic-acid found in Leaf (40 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antialopecic
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (27750 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (10500 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (11375 ppm)
Antialzheimeran
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Antiamblyopic
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Antianaphylactic
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (27750 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antiandrogenic
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (27750 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (10500 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (11375 ppm)
Antianemic
Copper found in Leaf (24 ppm)
Iron found in Leaf (200 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (40 ppm)
Antianginal
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Antiangiogenic
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antianorectic
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Antianxiety
Calcium found in Leaf (11140 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3955 ppm)
Antiaphthic
Citric-acid found in Leaf
Antiarabiflavinotic
Riboflavin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Antiarrhythmic
Calcium found in Leaf (11140 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (34500 ppm)
Antiarteriosclerotic
Histidine found in Leaf (6090 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (27750 ppm)
Antiarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (11140 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (24 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (27750 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (40 ppm)
Pantothenic-acid found in Leaf (40 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antiatherogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Antiatherosclerotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (11140 ppm)
Citric-acid found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Malic-acid found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antibackache
Thiamin found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Antibacterial
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Citric-acid found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Malic-acid found in Leaf
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antiberiberi
Thiamin found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Anticalculic
Citric-acid found in Leaf
Anticancer
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Anticanker
Iron found in Leaf (200 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Anticarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Anticarcinomic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Anticardiospasmic
Thiamin found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Anticariogenic
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Anticarpal-Tunnel
Riboflavin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Anticataract
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Methionine found in Leaf (3850 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Anticephalagic
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Pantothenic-acid found in Leaf (40 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Anticervicaldysplasic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Anticheilitic
Iron found in Leaf (200 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Antichilblain
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Anticlastogen
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Anticlimacteric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (11140 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Anticoagulant
Citric-acid found in Leaf
Anticold
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Anticolitic
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Anticomplementary
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Anticonvulsant
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Anticoronary
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (27750 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Anticystitic
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antidecubitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Antideliriant
Thiamin found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Antidementia
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3955 ppm)
Antidepressant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (11140 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Phenylalanine found in Leaf (11250 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (34500 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3955 ppm)
Antidermatitic
Fumaric-acid found in Leaf
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Pantothenic-acid found in Leaf (40 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antidiabetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (24 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (137500 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (40 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antidiscotic
Manganese found in Leaf (40 ppm)
Antidyskinetic
Manganese found in Leaf (40 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3955 ppm)
Antidysmenorrheic
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Antidyspeptic
Thiamin found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Antidysphagic
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Antieczemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (27750 ppm)
Methionine found in Leaf (3850 ppm)
Pufa found in Leaf (28555 ppm)
Antiedemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Glucose found in Plant
Antielastase
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antiencephalitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antiencephalopathic
Arginine found in Leaf (25350 ppm)
Glycine found in Leaf (17375 ppm)
Leucine found in Leaf (20875 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Tyrosine found in Leaf (10160 ppm)
Valine found in Leaf (15500 ppm)
Antiendometriotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Antienterotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Antiepileptic
Glutamic-acid found in Leaf (72400 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (40 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Antiescherichic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antiestrogenic
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antifatigue
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (24 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Pantothenic-acid found in Leaf (40 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (34500 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Antifeedant
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Succinic-acid found in Leaf
Antifertility
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Antifibrinolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (27750 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (11375 ppm)
Antifibromyalgic
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Malic-acid found in Leaf
Antifibrosarcomic
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antifibrotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Antiflu
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antigallstone
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Antigastric
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antigastritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Glycine found in Leaf (17375 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Antigastrotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Antigiardial
Allyl-mercaptan found in Plant
Antigingivitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Antiglaucomic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Antiglossitic
Riboflavin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Antigonadotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antigranular
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (27750 ppm)
Antihangover
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Antiheartburn
Thiamin found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Antihemolytic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Antihemorrhagic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Antihepatitic
Arginine found in Leaf (25350 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Antihepatoadenomic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Antihepatocarcinogenic
Fumaric-acid found in Leaf
Antihepatotic
Methionine found in Leaf (3850 ppm)
Antihepatotoxic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Glucose found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Triacontanal found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Antiherpetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Lysine found in Leaf (17435 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Antihistaminic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (27750 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antihydrophobic
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antihyperactivity
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Antihyperammonemic
Glutamic-acid found in Leaf (72400 ppm)
Antihypercholesterolemic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Pantothenic-acid found in Leaf (40 ppm)
Antihyperkeratotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Antihyperkinetic
Calcium found in Leaf (11140 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Antihypertensive
Alpha-linolenic-acid found in Leaf (1625 ppm)
Arginine found in Leaf (25350 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (11140 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (137500 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (34500 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3955 ppm)
Antihyperthyroid
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Antihypoglycemic
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Antiichythyotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Antiimplantation
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Antiimpotence
Arginine found in Leaf (25350 ppm)
Antiinfertility
Arginine found in Leaf (25350 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Antiinflammatory
Alpha-linolenic-acid found in Leaf (1625 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (24 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (27750 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Mufa found in Leaf (10500 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (10500 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Salicylates found in Leaf (5 ppm)
Antiinsomniac
Calcium found in Leaf (11140 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3955 ppm)
Antiinsomnic
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Antikeratitic
Riboflavin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Antiketotic
Glucose found in Plant
Antileishmanic
Citric-acid found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antilepric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Antileukemic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antileukoplakic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Antileukotriene-D4
Alpha-linolenic-acid found in Leaf (1625 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (27750 ppm)
Mufa found in Leaf (10500 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (10500 ppm)
Antileukotriene
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antilipoperoxidant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antilithic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Glutamic-acid found in Leaf (72400 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Antilupus
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Antilymphocytic
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Antimaculitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Antimalarial
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antimanic
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3955 ppm)
Antimastalgic
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Antimastitic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Antimeasles
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Antimelanogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Antimelanomic
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antimenopausal
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (11140 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3955 ppm)
Antimenorrhagic
Alpha-linolenic-acid found in Leaf (1625 ppm)
Iron found in Leaf (200 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (27750 ppm)
Antimetastatic
Alpha-linolenic-acid found in Leaf (1625 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antimigraine
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3955 ppm)
Antimitotic
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Antimitral-valve-prolapse
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Antimorphinic
Aspartic-acid found in Leaf (32400 ppm)
Antimutagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Citric-acid found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antimyocarditic
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Antineoplastic
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Antinephritic
Histidine found in Leaf (6090 ppm)
Antinephrolytic
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Antineuralgic
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Antineuramidase
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Antineurasthenic
Thiamin found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Antineuritic
Thiamin found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Antineuropathic
Thiamin found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Antineurotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Antinitrosaminic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antinitrosic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Antinociceptive
Copper found in Leaf (24 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antiobesity
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (11140 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (137500 ppm)
Antiophidic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Antiorchitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Antiosteoarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Antiosteoporotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (11140 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (24 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (40 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (6670 ppm)
Antiototic
Manganese found in Leaf (40 ppm)
Antioxidant
Alanine found in Leaf (15830 ppm)
Allyl-mercaptan found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Campesterol found in Leaf (10 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Fumaric-acid found in Leaf
Histidine found in Leaf (6090 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (40 ppm)
Methionine found in Leaf (3850 ppm)
Myristic-acid found in Leaf (3635 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (11375 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3955 ppm)
Antiozenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Antipancreatitic
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antipapillomic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Antiparkinsonian
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Methionine found in Leaf (3850 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Octacosanol found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Phenylalanine found in Leaf (11250 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3955 ppm)
Tyrosine found in Leaf (10160 ppm)
Antiparotitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Antipellagric
Isoleucine found in Leaf (14875 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Antiperiodontal
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antiperiodontic
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Antiperiodontitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (11140 ppm)
Antiperistaltic
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antipermeability
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antiperoxidant
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antipharyngitic
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antiphenylketonuric
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3955 ppm)
Tyrosine found in Leaf (10160 ppm)
Antiphotophobic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Antipityriasic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Antiplaque
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antiplasmodial
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antipneumonic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Antipodriac
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antipolio
Cyanin found in Stem
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antipoliomyelitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Antipolyneuritic
Pufa found in Leaf (28555 ppm)
Antiporphyric
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Antiproliferant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antiprostaglandin
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3955 ppm)
Antiprostanoid
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antiprostatitic
Alpha-linolenic-acid found in Leaf (1625 ppm)
Glutamic-acid found in Leaf (72400 ppm)
Glycine found in Leaf (17375 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (27750 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antipruritic
Glycine found in Leaf (17375 ppm)
Antipsoriac
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Fumaric-acid found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antipsychotic
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3955 ppm)
Antipyretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Salicylates found in Leaf (5 ppm)
Antiradicular
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antiretardation
Glutamic-acid found in Leaf (72400 ppm)
Antiretinopathic
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Antiretinotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Antirheumatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (11140 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3955 ppm)
Antirhinitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Antiscoliotic
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3955 ppm)
Antiscorbutic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Antiscotomic
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Antiseborrheic
Citric-acid found in Leaf
Malic-acid found in Leaf
Antiseptic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Citric-acid found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Malic-acid found in Leaf
Oxalic-acid found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Antiserotonin
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Antishingles
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Antisickling
Glycine found in Leaf (17375 ppm)
Phenylalanine found in Leaf (11250 ppm)
Antispasmodic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (34500 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antispasmophilic
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Antistaphylococcic
Allyl-mercaptan found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Antistomatitic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Antistreptococcic
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antistress
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (11140 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Antistroke
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (34500 ppm)
Antisunburn
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Antisyndrome-X
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (40 ppm)
Antithiamin
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antithrombic
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antithyroid
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Dipropyl-disulfide found in Essential Oil
Antitic
Calcium found in Leaf (11140 ppm)
Antitrypanosomic
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antitubercular
Citric-acid found in Leaf
Malic-acid found in Leaf
Antitumor-Promoter
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antitumor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Citric-acid found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (137500 ppm)
Fumaric-acid found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Malic-acid found in Leaf
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antiulcer
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (137500 ppm)
Glycine found in Leaf (17375 ppm)
Histidine found in Leaf (6090 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Threonine found in Leaf (13875 ppm)
Tyrosine found in Leaf (10160 ppm)
Antiulcerogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Antiuremic
Histidine found in Leaf (6090 ppm)
Antiuricosuric
Salicylates found in Leaf (5 ppm)
Antivaccinia
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Antivaricose
Glucose found in Plant
Antivertigo
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Antiviral
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Cyanin found in Stem
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Octacosanol found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antivitiligic
Phenylalanine found in Leaf (11250 ppm)
Antixerophthalmic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Anxiolytic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (11140 ppm)
Glutamic-acid found in Leaf (72400 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (6670 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (34500 ppm)
Aphrodisiac
Arginine found in Leaf (25350 ppm)
Apoptotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Aromatase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Arteriodilator
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Asthma-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Bacteristat
Malic-acid found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Beta-Blocker
Fiber found in Leaf (137500 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (34500 ppm)
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Bradycardiac
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Bruchiphobe
Malic-acid found in Leaf
Succinic-acid found in Leaf
CNS-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
CNS-Depressant
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
CNS-Paralytic
Oxalic-acid found in Plant
COMT-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
COX-1-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
COX-2-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Calcium-Antagonist
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Calcium-Channel-Blocker
Calcium found in Leaf (11140 ppm)
Calmodulin-Antagonist
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Cancer-Preventive
Alanine found in Leaf (15830 ppm)
Alpha-linolenic-acid found in Leaf (1625 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (137500 ppm)
Glycine found in Leaf (17375 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (27750 ppm)
Methionine found in Leaf (3850 ppm)
Mufa found in Leaf (10500 ppm)
Myristic-acid found in Leaf (3635 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (10500 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Pantothenic-acid found in Leaf (40 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Serine found in Leaf (15830 ppm)
Succinic-acid found in Leaf
Tyrosine found in Leaf (10160 ppm)
Candidicide
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Capillariprotective
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (27750 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3955 ppm)
Cardiac
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Cardioprotective
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (24 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (137500 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (34500 ppm)
Cardiotoxic
Potassium found in Leaf (34500 ppm)
Catabolic
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Chemopreventive
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Cholagogue
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Choleretic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Mufa found in Leaf (10500 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (10500 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Quinic-acid found in Leaf
Circulotonic
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Clastogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Co-carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Cold-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Collagen-Sparing
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Collagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Colorant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Comedolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (27750 ppm)
Contraceptive
Copper found in Leaf (24 ppm)
Copper-Chelator
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Cosmetic
Myristic-acid found in Leaf (3635 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Leaf (1000 ppm)
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Cytochrome-P450-1A2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Cytoprotective
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Cytotoxic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
DNA-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
DNA-Protective
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Dermatitigenic
Mufa found in Leaf (10500 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (10500 ppm)
Detoxicant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Differentiator
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Disinfectant
Citric-acid found in Leaf
Diuretic
Arginine found in Leaf (25350 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (11140 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (137500 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (34500 ppm)
Dye
Succinic-acid found in Leaf
Emetic
Cyanin found in Stem
Methionine found in Leaf (3850 ppm)
Essential
Histidine found in Leaf (6090 ppm)
Isoleucine found in Leaf (14875 ppm)
Leucine found in Leaf (20875 ppm)
Lysine found in Leaf (17435 ppm)
Methionine found in Leaf (3850 ppm)
Threonine found in Leaf (13875 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3955 ppm)
Valine found in Leaf (15500 ppm)
Estrogenic
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
FLavor
Citric-acid found in Leaf
Dimethyl-sulfide found in Plant
Fumaric-acid found in Leaf
Mufa found in Leaf (10500 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (10500 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (11375 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Leaf (1000 ppm)
Threonine found in Leaf (13875 ppm)
Valine found in Leaf (15500 ppm)
Fatal
Oxalic-acid found in Plant
Fibrinolytic
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Fistula-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Fungicide
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Gastroprotective
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Glutathionigenic
Methionine found in Leaf (3850 ppm)
HIV-RT-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Hemolytic
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (11375 ppm)
Hemopoietic
Malic-acid found in Leaf
Hemostat
Citric-acid found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Hemostatic
Oxalic-acid found in Plant
Hepatocarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Hepatomagenic
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Hepatoprotective
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (27750 ppm)
Methionine found in Leaf (3850 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Hepatotoxic
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Hepatotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Herbicide
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Histamine-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Hormone
Triacontanal found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Hydrocholerectic
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Hypercholesterolemic
Myristic-acid found in Leaf (3635 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (11375 ppm)
Hyperglycemic
Glucose found in Plant
Salicylates found in Leaf (5 ppm)
Hypertensive
Sodium found in Leaf (750 ppm)
Hypnotic
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3955 ppm)
Hypoammonemic
Arginine found in Leaf (25350 ppm)
Hypoarginanemic
Lysine found in Leaf (17435 ppm)
Hypocholesterolemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (11140 ppm)
Campesterol found in Leaf (10 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (24 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (137500 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (27750 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Mufa found in Leaf (10500 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Octacosanol found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (10500 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Leaf (1000 ppm)
Hypoglycemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (40 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Salicylates found in Leaf (5 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3955 ppm)
Hypolipidemic
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Octacosanol found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Triacontanal found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Hypotensive
Alpha-linolenic-acid found in Leaf (1625 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (11140 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (137500 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (34500 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3955 ppm)
Hypouricemic
Fiber found in Leaf (137500 ppm)
ICAM-1-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Immunomodulator
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (24 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (27750 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Immunostimulant
Alpha-linolenic-acid found in Leaf (1625 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (6670 ppm)
Inotropic
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Insectifuge
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (27750 ppm)
Mufa found in Leaf (10500 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (10500 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Insectiphile
Dipropyl-disulfide found in Essential Oil
Insulinase-Inhibitor
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3955 ppm)
Insulinogenic
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Insulinotonic
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3955 ppm)
Interferon-Synergist
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Interferonogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Irritant
Allyl-mercaptan found in Plant
Citric-acid found in Leaf
Dimethyl-sulfide found in Plant
Mufa found in Leaf (10500 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (10500 ppm)
Oxalic-acid found in Plant
JNK-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Juvabional
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Larvistat
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Laxative
Calcium found in Leaf (11140 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (137500 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Leukotriene-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Lipolytic
Dipropyl-disulfide found in Essential Oil
Lipotropic
Methionine found in Leaf (3850 ppm)
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Lithogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Litholytic
Citric-acid found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Lubricant
Myristic-acid found in Leaf (3635 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (11375 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Leaf (1000 ppm)
Lyase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Lymphocytogenic
Alpha-linolenic-acid found in Leaf (1625 ppm)
MAO-A-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
MAO-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
MMP-9-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Mast-Cell-Stabilizer
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Memory-Enhancer
Glucose found in Plant
Metal-Chelator
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Metastatic
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (27750 ppm)
Monoamine-Precursor
Phenylalanine found in Leaf (11250 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3955 ppm)
Tyrosine found in Leaf (10160 ppm)
Mucogenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Mucolytic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Mutagenic
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Mycobactericide
Citric-acid found in Leaf
Malic-acid found in Leaf
Myorelaxant
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
NEP-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
NO-Genic
Arginine found in Leaf (25350 ppm)
NO-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
NO-Synthase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Natriuretic
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Nematicide
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (27750 ppm)
Myristic-acid found in Leaf (3635 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (11375 ppm)
Neuroexcitant
Aspartic-acid found in Leaf (32400 ppm)
Neuroinhibitor
Glycine found in Leaf (17375 ppm)
Neuroprotective
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Neurotoxic
Glutamic-acid found in Leaf (72400 ppm)
Neurotransmitter
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Odontolytic
Citric-acid found in Leaf
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Osteogenic
Phosphorus found in Leaf (6670 ppm)
Oxidant
Alanine found in Leaf (15830 ppm)
Histidine found in Leaf (6090 ppm)
P450-Inducer
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
P450-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
PAF-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
PGE2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
PTK-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Pemphigenic
Allyl-mercaptan found in Plant
Percutaneostimulant
Mufa found in Leaf (10500 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (10500 ppm)
Perfumery
Mufa found in Leaf (10500 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (10500 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Leaf (1000 ppm)
Succinic-acid found in Leaf
Pesticide
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Cyanin found in Stem
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Malic-acid found in Leaf
Oxalic-acid found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (11375 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Succinic-acid found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Leaf (12 ppm)
Phagocytotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Phospholipase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Pigment
Cyanin found in Stem
Pituitary-Stimulant
Arginine found in Leaf (25350 ppm)
Plasmodicide
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Preservative
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Prolactinogenic
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3955 ppm)
Proliferant
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Prooxidant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Iron found in Leaf (200 ppm)
Propecic
Alpha-linolenic-acid found in Leaf (1625 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Leaf (27750 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Leaf (10500 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (11375 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Leaf (1000 ppm)
Prostaglandigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Alpha-linolenic-acid found in Leaf (1625 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Protisticide
Allyl-mercaptan found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Quinone-Reductase-Inducer
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Refrigerant
Citric-acid found in Leaf
Renotoxic
Oxalic-acid found in Plant
Roborant
Aspartic-acid found in Leaf (32400 ppm)
Schizophrenigenic
Copper found in Leaf (24 ppm)
Sedative
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3955 ppm)
Serotoninergic
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3955 ppm)
Sialogogue
Malic-acid found in Leaf
Soap
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (11375 ppm)
Spermigenic
Arginine found in Leaf (25350 ppm)
Spice
Allyl-mercaptan found in Plant
Stimulant
Octacosanol found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Sunscreen
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Suppository
Stearic-acid found in Leaf (1000 ppm)
Sweetener
Galactose found in Plant
TNF-alpha-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Teratologic
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Thymoprotective
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Tranquilizer
Calcium found in Leaf (11140 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Tremorigenic
Phenylalanine found in Leaf (11250 ppm)
Triglycerolytic
Dipropyl-disulfide found in Essential Oil
Tumor-Promoter
Tryptophan found in Leaf (3955 ppm)
Tumorigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Ubiquiot
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (475 ppm)
Uricosuric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Glycine found in Leaf (17375 ppm)
Salicylates found in Leaf (5 ppm)
Urinary-Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Urine-Acidifier
Methionine found in Leaf (3850 ppm)
Urine-Deodorant
Methionine found in Leaf (3850 ppm)
Uterorelaxant
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Uterosedative
Ferulic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Uterotrophic
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
VEGF-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Varroacide
Oxalic-acid found in Plant
Vasodilator
Alpha-linolenic-acid found in Leaf (1625 ppm)
Arginine found in Leaf (25350 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (11140 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (137500 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (6875 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (88 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (34500 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Vulnerary
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (9875 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (0.5 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
iNOS-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf (55 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf (9 ppm)

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
1-o-feruloyl-beta-d-glucose Leaf
1-o-p-coumaroyl-beta-d-glucose Leaf
2-methyl-2-butenal Plant
2-methyl-2-pentenal Plant
3,5-diethyl-1,2,4-trithiolane Leaf
Alanine Leaf 1,260 15,830
Allithiamine Plant
Allium-lectin Latex Exudate
Allyl-disulfide Plant
Allyl-mercaptan Plant
Alpha-linolenic-acid Leaf 130 1,625
Arginine Leaf 2,020 25,350
Ascorbic-acid Leaf 57 9,875
Ash Leaf 4,000 128,000
Aspartic-acid Leaf 2,590 32,400
Beta-carotene Leaf 34 475
Caffeic-acid Leaf 0.5
Calcium Leaf 690 11,140
Campesterol Leaf 10
Carbohydrates Leaf 38,000 667,000
Chrysanthemin Stem
Cis-pentyl-hydro-disulfide Essential Oil
Cis-propenyl-propyl-disulfide Plant
Cis-propyl-2-propenyldisulfide Plant
Citric-acid Leaf
Copper Leaf 1 24
Cyanidin-3-o-beta-(3''-6''-dimalonyl-glucoside) Stem
Cyanidin-3-o-beta-(3''-o-beta-d-glucosyl-glucoside) Stem
Cyanidin-3-o-beta-(6''-malonyl-3''-o-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-glucopyranoside) Stem
Cyanidin-3-o-beta-(6''-malonyl-3''-o-beta-glucopyranosyl-glucopyranoside) Stem
Cyanidin-3-o-beta-(6''-malonyl-glucopyranoside) Stem
Cyanin Stem
Desoxyribonucleic-acid Plant
Dialanine Seed
Dimethyl-sulfide Plant
Dipropyl-disulfide Essential Oil
Dotriacontanal Leaf
Plant
Fat Leaf 3,000 89,518
Ferulic-acid Leaf 0.5
Fiber Leaf 7,000 137,500
Folate Leaf 1 11
Fumaric-acid Leaf
Galactose Plant
Gamma-glutamyl-peptidase Plant
Gamma-glutamyl-peptide Plant
Gamma-glutamyl-s-allylcysteine Plant
Gamma-glutamyl-tripeptide Plant
Gamma-l-glutamyl-s-(prop-1-enyl)-l-cysteine Seed
Gamma-l-glutamyl-s-propyl-l-cysteine Seed
Glucose Plant
Glutamic-acid Leaf 5,790 72,400
Glycine Leaf 1,390 17,375
Histidine Leaf 480 6,090
Iron Leaf 8 200
Isoleucine Leaf 1,190 14,875
Isorhamnetin-3-beta-d-glucoside Leaf
Isorhamnetin-glycoside Plant
Kaempferol Leaf 16 55
Kaempferol-3-beta-d-glucoside Leaf
Kaempferol-diglucoside Plant
Kaempferol-glucoside Plant
Kaempferol-triglucoside Plant
Kilocalories Leaf 300 3,210
Leucine Leaf 1,670 20,875
Linoleic-acid Leaf 2,220 27,750
Lysine Leaf 1,630 17,435
Magnesium Leaf 355 6,875
Malic-acid Leaf
Manganese Leaf 3 40
Methionine Leaf 300 3,850
Methyl-2-propenyldisulfide Plant
Methyl-allyl-allithiamine Plant
Methyl-disulfide Plant
Methyl-pentyl-disulfide Leaf Essent. Oil 16,000
Essential Oil
Methyl-propyl-disulfide Plant
Mufa Leaf 840 10,500
Myristic-acid Leaf 30 3,635
N,n'-bis-(gamma-glutamyl)-3,3'-(2-methyl-ethylene-1,2-dithiol)-dialanine Seed
N,n'-bis-(gamma-glutamyl)-l-cystine Seed
Niacin Leaf 5 88
Octacosanol Leaf
Plant
Oleic-acid Leaf 840 10,500
Oxalic-acid Plant
P-coumaric-acid Leaf 21
Palmitic-acid Leaf 910 11,375
Pantothenic-acid Leaf 2 40
Pentyl-hydro-disulfide Leaf Essent. Oil 25,000
Peonidin-3,5-diglucoside Stem
Phenylalanine Leaf 900 11,250
Phosphorus Leaf 410 6,670
Potassium Leaf 2,500 34,500
Proline Leaf 1,850 23,125
Propyl-allyl-allithiamine Plant
Protein Leaf 18,000 402,000
Pufa Leaf 2,670 28,555
Quercetin Leaf 9
Quercetin-3-beta-d-glucoside Leaf
Quinic-acid Leaf
Riboflavin Leaf 1 22
S-(propenyl-1-yl)-cysteine-sulfoxide Plant
Salicylates Leaf 0.3 5
Saponin Leaf
Scordinine Plant
Serine Leaf 1,260 15,830
Sfa Leaf 1,460 15,615
Sodium Leaf 20 750
Stearic-acid Leaf 80 1,000
Succinic-acid Leaf
Thiamin Leaf 0.5 12
Threonine Leaf 1,110 13,875
Trans-pentyl-hydro-disulfide Essential Oil
Trans-propenyl-propyl-disulfide Plant
Trans-propyl-2-propenyldisulfide Plant
Triacontanal Leaf
Plant
Tryptophan Leaf 310 3,955
Tyrosine Leaf 810 10,160
Valine Leaf 1,240 15,500
Vit-b-6 Leaf 1 22
Water Leaf 906,500 920,000
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]