Viburnum opulus subsp. var. opulus Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
American cranberry-bush crampbark European cranberry-bush Guelder-rose highbush cranberry snowballbush

Economic importance of Viburnum opulus subsp. var. opulus

Medicines folklore

Geografical distribution

  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation - Ciscaucasia, Dagestan
    • Siberia: Russian Federation - Eastern Siberia , Western Siberia
    • Middle Asia: Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan
    • Russian Far East: Russian Federation - Amur, Kurile Islands, Primorye
    • China: China - Anhui, Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Monggol, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang
    • Eastern Asia: Japan - Hokkaido, Honshu; Korea
  • EUROPE
    Native
    • Northern Europe: Denmark; Finland; Ireland; Norway; Sweden; United Kingdom
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czechoslovakia; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Switzerland
    • East Europe: Belarus; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Russian Federation - European part; Ukraine
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bulgaria; Former Yugoslavia; Italy; Romania
    • Southwestern Europe: France
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Native
    • Eastern Canada: Canada - New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario , Prince Edward Island, Quebec
    • Western Canada: Canada - Alberta , British Columbia , Manitoba
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Connecticut, Indiana , Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio , Pennsylvania, Vermont, West Virginia
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Illinois , Iowa , Minnesota, Nebraska , North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin
    • Northwestern U.S.A.: United States - Idaho , Washington, Wyoming
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Virginia

Biological activities

11B-HSD-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Linoleic-acid found in Bark ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark ;found in Fruit
Oleic-acid found in Fruit ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark
Palmitic-acid found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Aesculetin found in Bark
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
ACE-Inhibitor
Astragalin found in Flower (900 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
AP-1-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
ATPase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Acaricide
Formic-acid found in Root Bark
Acetylcholinergic
Glucose found in Root Bark
Acidulant
Acetic-acid found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Aggregant
Sucrose found in Fruit (16600 ppm);found in Root Bark
Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Aesculetin found in Bark
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Astragalin found in Flower (900 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Cinnamic-acid found in Fruit
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Allelochemic
Arbutin found in Leaf (200 ppm);found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Cyanidin found in Leaf
Epicatechin found in Bark
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Allergenic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Cinnamic-acid found in Fruit
Citric-acid found in Bark
Oleic-acid found in Fruit ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark
Quercetin found in Leaf
Alpha-Amylase-Inhibitor
Citric-acid found in Bark
Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Oleic-acid found in Fruit ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark
Anabolic
Epicatechin found in Bark
Analgesic
Aesculetin found in Bark
Alpha-amyrin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Beta-amyrin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Androgenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Anemiagenic
Oleic-acid found in Fruit ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark
Anesthetic
Cinnamic-acid found in Fruit
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Angiogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Potassium found in Bark (7360 ppm)
Anorexic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Anthelmintic
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
AntiAGE
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Chromium found in Bark (21 ppm)
AntiBPH
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
AntiCFS
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Chromium found in Bark (21 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
AntiCTS
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
AntiEBV
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Epicatechin found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
AntiGTF
Quercetin found in Leaf
AntiHIV
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Epicatechin found in Bark
Quercetin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
AntiLegionella
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
AntiLyme
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
AntiMS
Linoleic-acid found in Bark ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark ;found in Fruit
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
AntiNF-kB
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
AntiPMS
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Calcium found in Bark (23540 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Manganese found in Bark (49 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
AntiTGF-beta
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Antiacne
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Chromium found in Bark (21 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Bark ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark ;found in Fruit
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Tin found in Bark (18 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antiacrodermatitic
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antiadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Antiadenoviral
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Antiadrenergic
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Antiaflatoxin
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Antiaggregant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Epicatechin found in Bark
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Paeonoside found in Flower (1200 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Antiaging
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chromium found in Bark (21 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiakathisic
Iron found in Bark (880 ppm)
Antialcoholic
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Manganese found in Bark (49 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antiallergic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Calcium found in Bark (23540 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antialopecic
Linoleic-acid found in Bark ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark ;found in Fruit
Oleic-acid found in Fruit ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark
Palmitic-acid found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antialzheimeran
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antianaphylactic
Epicatechin found in Bark
Linoleic-acid found in Bark ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark ;found in Fruit
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiandrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Linoleic-acid found in Bark ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark ;found in Fruit
Oleic-acid found in Fruit ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark
Palmitic-acid found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Antianemic
Iron found in Bark (880 ppm)
Manganese found in Bark (49 ppm)
Antianginal
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Antiangiogenic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antianorectic
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Antianorexic
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antianxiety
Calcium found in Bark (23540 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Antiaphthic
Citric-acid found in Bark
Antiarrhythmic
Aesculetin found in Bark
Calcium found in Bark (23540 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Potassium found in Bark (7360 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Antiarteriosclerotic
Linoleic-acid found in Bark ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark ;found in Fruit
Silicon found in Bark (99 ppm)
Antiarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Calcium found in Bark (23540 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Bark ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark ;found in Fruit
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Manganese found in Bark (49 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Antiatherogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Antiatheromic
Pectin found in Bark ;found in Fruit (50000 ppm)
Antiatherosclerotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Calcium found in Bark (23540 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Chromium found in Bark (21 ppm)
Citric-acid found in Bark
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Malic-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Antibacterial
Acetic-acid found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Aesculetin found in Bark
Arbutin found in Leaf (200 ppm);found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Cinnamic-acid found in Fruit
Citric-acid found in Bark
Epicatechin found in Bark
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Malic-acid found in Bark
Pectin found in Bark ;found in Fruit (50000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
Tin found in Bark (18 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Antibronchoconstrictor
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Anticalculic
Citric-acid found in Bark
Anticancer
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Anticanker
Iron found in Bark (880 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Anticapillary-Fragility
Aesculetin found in Bark
Anticarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Anticarcinomic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Anticariogenic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Anticataract
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Anticephalagic
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Anticervicaldysplasic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Anticheilitic
Iron found in Bark (880 ppm)
Anticholestatic
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Anticholinergic
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Anticirrhotic
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Anticlimacteric
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Calcium found in Bark (23540 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Anticoagulant
Citric-acid found in Bark
Anticoeliac
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Anticold
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Anticolitic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Anticomplement
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Anticomplementary
Epicatechin found in Bark
Quercetin found in Leaf
Anticonvulsant
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Anticorneotic
Chromium found in Bark (21 ppm)
Anticoronary
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Bark ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark ;found in Fruit
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Anticystitic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antidandruff
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antidecubitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Antidementia
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antidepressant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Calcium found in Bark (23540 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Potassium found in Bark (7360 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Antidermatitic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antidiabetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Chromium found in Bark (21 ppm)
Epicatechin found in Bark
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Manganese found in Bark (49 ppm)
Pectin found in Bark ;found in Fruit (50000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antidiarrheic
Pectin found in Bark ;found in Fruit (50000 ppm)
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
Antidiscotic
Manganese found in Bark (49 ppm)
Antidysenteric
Aesculetin found in Bark
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
Antidysgeuzic
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antidyskinetic
Manganese found in Bark (49 ppm)
Antidysmenorrheic
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Antieczemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Bark ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark ;found in Fruit
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antiedemic
Alpha-amyrin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Arbutin found in Leaf (200 ppm);found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Beta-amyrin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Glucose found in Root Bark
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Antielastase
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiencephalitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiencephalopathic
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antiendometriotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Antienteritic
Pectin found in Bark ;found in Fruit (50000 ppm)
Antienterotic
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Antiepileptic
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Manganese found in Bark (49 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antiescherichic
Aesculetin found in Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Quercetin found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Antiestrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antifatigue
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Chromium found in Bark (21 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Potassium found in Bark (7360 ppm)
Antifeedant
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Epicatechin found in Bark
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Antifertility
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Antifibrinolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Bark ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark ;found in Fruit
Palmitic-acid found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Antifibromyalgic
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Malic-acid found in Bark
Antifibrosarcomic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Antifibrotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antiflu
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antifuruncular
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antigallstone
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Pectin found in Bark ;found in Fruit (50000 ppm)
Antigastric
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antigastritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Pectin found in Bark ;found in Fruit (50000 ppm)
Antigastrotic
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Antigenotoxic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Antigingivitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Antiglaucomic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Antiglycosuric
Chromium found in Bark (21 ppm)
Antigonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Antigonadotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antigout
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Antigranular
Linoleic-acid found in Bark ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark ;found in Fruit
Antihangover
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antihemolytic
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Antihemorrhagic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Antihepatitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Epicatechin found in Bark
Antihepatoadenomic
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Antihepatotoxic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Glucose found in Root Bark
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Antiherpetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antihiccup
Sucrose found in Fruit (16600 ppm);found in Root Bark
Antihistaminic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Linoleic-acid found in Bark ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark ;found in Fruit
Quercetin found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Antihydrophobic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antihypercholesterolemic
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Antihyperglycemic
Epicatechin found in Bark
Antihyperkeratotic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Antihyperkinetic
Calcium found in Bark (23540 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Antihyperlipidemic
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Antihyperlipoproteinaemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Antihypertensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Calcium found in Bark (23540 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Potassium found in Bark (7360 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
Antihyperthyroid
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Antihypoglycemic
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Antihysteric
Valeric-acid found in Root Bark
Antiichythyotic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Antiimplantation
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Antiimpotence
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antiinfective
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antiinfertility
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antiinflammatory
Aesculetin found in Bark
Alpha-amyrin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Beta-amyrin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Cinnamic-acid found in Fruit
Epicatechin found in Bark
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Linoleic-acid found in Bark ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark ;found in Fruit
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Neo-chlorogenic-acid found in Branches
Oleic-acid found in Fruit ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Antiinsomniac
Calcium found in Bark (23540 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Valeric-acid found in Root Bark
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antikeshan
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Antiketotic
Glucose found in Root Bark
Antileishmanic
Citric-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Antilepric
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antileukemic
Astragalin found in Flower (900 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Epicatechin found in Bark
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Antileukonychic
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antileukoplakic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Antileukotriene-D4
Linoleic-acid found in Bark ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark ;found in Fruit
Oleic-acid found in Fruit ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark
Antileukotriene
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Quercetin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Antileukotrienogenic
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Antilipolytic
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
Antilipoperoxidant
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Epicatechin found in Bark
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antilithic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Pectin found in Bark ;found in Fruit (50000 ppm)
Antilupus
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Antilymphocytic
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Antilymphomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antimaculitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antimalarial
Quercetin found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Antimastalgic
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Antimastitic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Antimeasles
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Antimelanogenic
Arbutin found in Leaf (200 ppm);found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Antimelanomic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Antimenopausal
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Calcium found in Bark (23540 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Antimenorrhagic
Iron found in Bark (880 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Bark ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark ;found in Fruit
Antimetastatic
Pectin found in Bark ;found in Fruit (50000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antimigraine
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Antimitral-valve-prolapse
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Antimutagenic
Aesculetin found in Bark
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Cinnamic-acid found in Fruit
Citric-acid found in Bark
Epicatechin found in Bark
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Pectin found in Bark ;found in Fruit (50000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Antimyalgic
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Antimyocarditic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antinephritic
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Antinephrolytic
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Antineuramidase
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Antineuropathic
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antineurotic
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Antinitrosaminic
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antinitrosic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Antinociceptive
Alpha-amyrin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Beta-amyrin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antinyctalopic
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antiobesity
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Calcium found in Bark (23540 ppm)
Chromium found in Bark (21 ppm)
Pectin found in Bark ;found in Fruit (50000 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antionychyotic
Silicon found in Bark (99 ppm)
Antiophidic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
Antiophthalmic
Sucrose found in Fruit (16600 ppm);found in Root Bark
Antiorchitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Antiosteoarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Antiosteoporotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Calcium found in Bark (23540 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Manganese found in Bark (49 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Bark (650 ppm)
Silicon found in Bark (99 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antiotitic
Acetic-acid found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Antiototic
Manganese found in Bark (49 ppm)
Antioxidant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Cyanidin found in Leaf
Epicatechin found in Bark
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Manganese found in Bark (49 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Sucrose found in Fruit (16600 ppm);found in Root Bark
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Antiozenic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Antipancreatitic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antipapillomic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Antiparkinsonian
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Antiparotitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Antiperiodontal
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiperiodontic
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Antiperiodontitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Calcium found in Bark (23540 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antiperistaltic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antipermeability
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiperoxidant
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Epicatechin found in Bark
Quercetin found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Antipharyngitic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiphotophobic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Antipityriasic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Antiplaque
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antiplasmodial
Quercetin found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Antipneumonic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Antipodriac
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antipolio
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antipoliomyelitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Antiporphyric
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Antiprogestational
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Antiprolactin
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antiproliferant
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Antiproliferative
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Antiprostaglandin
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Antiprostanoid
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiprostatadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Antiprostatitic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Linoleic-acid found in Bark ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark ;found in Fruit
Quercetin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antipsoriac
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antipyretic
Aesculetin found in Bark
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Antiradicular
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
Antirenitic
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
Antiretinopathic
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Antiretinotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Antirheumatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Calcium found in Bark (23540 ppm)
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antirhinitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Antisalmonella
Acetic-acid found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Antiscorbutic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Antiseborrheic
Citric-acid found in Bark
Malic-acid found in Bark
Antisecretory
D-glucose found in Fruit ;found in Leaf
Antiseptic
Aesculetin found in Bark
Arbutin found in Leaf (200 ppm);found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Caprylic-acid found in Root Bark
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Citric-acid found in Bark
Formic-acid found in Root Bark
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Malic-acid found in Bark
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antiserotonin
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Antishingles
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Antisilicotic
Aluminum found in Bark (702 ppm)
Antispare-Tire
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antispasmodic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Cinnamic-acid found in Fruit
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Potassium found in Bark (7360 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Valerianic-acid found in Plant
Valeric-acid found in Root Bark
Antispasmophilic
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Antistaphylococcic
Aesculetin found in Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Antistomatitic
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antistreptococcic
Arbutin found in Leaf (200 ppm);found in Plant
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antistress
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Calcium found in Bark (23540 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Antistroke
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Potassium found in Bark (7360 ppm)
Antisunburn
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Antisyncopic
Formic-acid found in Root Bark
Antisyndrome-X
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Chromium found in Bark (21 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Manganese found in Bark (49 ppm)
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antithiamin
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antithrombic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antithromboxane
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Antithyroid
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Antitic
Calcium found in Bark (23540 ppm)
Antitinnitic
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antitriglyceride
Chromium found in Bark (21 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antitrypanosomic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Antitubercular
Citric-acid found in Bark
Malic-acid found in Bark
Antitumor-Promoter
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Antitumor
Alpha-amyrin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Citric-acid found in Bark
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Malic-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Antitussive
Arbutin found in Leaf (200 ppm);found in Plant
Pectin found in Bark ;found in Fruit (50000 ppm)
Antiulcer
Alpha-amyrin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Beta-amyrin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Pectin found in Bark ;found in Fruit (50000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Antiulcerogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Antivaccinia
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Antivaginitic
Acetic-acid found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Aluminum found in Bark (702 ppm)
Antivaricose
Glucose found in Root Bark
Antiviral
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Epicatechin found in Bark
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Antixerophthalmic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Anxiolytic
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Calcium found in Bark (23540 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Bark (650 ppm)
Potassium found in Bark (7360 ppm)
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Apoptotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Aromatase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Artemicide
Arbutin found in Leaf (200 ppm);found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Asthma-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Astringent
Formic-acid found in Root Bark
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Atherogenic
Sucrose found in Fruit (16600 ppm);found in Root Bark
Autotoxic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Bacteristat
Malic-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Leaf
Beta-Blocker
Potassium found in Bark (7360 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Bradycardiac
Quercetin found in Leaf
Bronchorelaxant
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Bruchiphobe
Malic-acid found in Bark
CNS-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
CNS-Depressant
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
CNS-Stimulant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
COMT-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
COX-1-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
COX-2-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Calcium-Antagonist
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Calcium-Channel-Blocker
Calcium found in Bark (23540 ppm)
Calmodulin-Antagonist
Quercetin found in Leaf
Cancer-Preventive
Aesculetin found in Bark
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Cinnamic-acid found in Fruit
Epicatechin found in Bark
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Linoleic-acid found in Bark ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark ;found in Fruit
Oleic-acid found in Fruit ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark
Pectin found in Bark ;found in Fruit (50000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Candidicide
Aluminum found in Bark (702 ppm)
Arbutin found in Leaf (200 ppm);found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Caprylic-acid found in Root Bark
Quercetin found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Capillariprotective
Quercetin found in Leaf
Carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Linoleic-acid found in Bark ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark ;found in Fruit
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
Cardiodepressant
Aesculetin found in Bark
Cardiomyopathogenic
Cobalt found in Bark (115 ppm)
Cardioprotective
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Chromium found in Bark (21 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Potassium found in Bark (7360 ppm)
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Silicon found in Bark (99 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Cardiotonic
Epicatechin found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Cardiotoxic
Potassium found in Bark (7360 ppm)
Caspase-8-Inducer
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Catabolic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Chelator
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
Chemopreventive
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Pectin found in Bark ;found in Fruit (50000 ppm)
Cholagogue
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Choleretic
Aesculetin found in Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Cinnamic-acid found in Fruit
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Oleic-acid found in Fruit ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Choline-Sparing
Epicatechin found in Bark
Clastogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Co-carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Cold-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Collagen-Sparing
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Collagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Collyrium
Sucrose found in Fruit (16600 ppm);found in Root Bark
Colorant
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Comedolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Bark ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark ;found in Fruit
Copper-Antagonist
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Copper-Chelator
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Corrosive
Formic-acid found in Root Bark
Cosmetic
Aesculetin found in Bark
Counterirritant
Formic-acid found in Root Bark
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Cytochrome-P450-1A2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Cytoprotective
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Cytotoxic
Aesculetin found in Bark
Alpha-amyrin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
DNA-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
DNA-Protective
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Demulcent
Pectin found in Bark ;found in Fruit (50000 ppm)
Sucrose found in Fruit (16600 ppm);found in Root Bark
Deodorant
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Depressant
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Dermatitigenic
Aesculetin found in Bark
Cinnamic-acid found in Fruit
Oleic-acid found in Fruit ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark
Detoxicant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Differentiator
Quercetin found in Leaf
Disinfectant
Citric-acid found in Bark
Diuretic
Arbutin found in Leaf (200 ppm);found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Calcium found in Bark (23540 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Potassium found in Bark (7360 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Elastase-Inhibitor
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Encephalopathic
Aluminum found in Bark (702 ppm)
Energizer
Chromium found in Bark (21 ppm)
Ergogenic
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Erythrocytogenic
Cobalt found in Bark (115 ppm)
Estrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Expectorant
Acetic-acid found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Astragalin found in Flower (900 ppm)
FLavor
Cinnamic-acid found in Fruit
Citric-acid found in Bark
Formic-acid found in Root Bark
Oleic-acid found in Fruit ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark
Palmitic-acid found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Valeric-acid found in Root Bark
Febrifuge
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Fistula-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Flatugenic
Sucrose found in Fruit (16600 ppm);found in Root Bark
Fungicide
Acetic-acid found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Aesculetin found in Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Capric-acid found in Bark
Caprylic-acid found in Root Bark
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Cinnamic-acid found in Fruit
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Pectin found in Bark ;found in Fruit (50000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Fungistat
Formic-acid found in Root Bark
Fungitoxic
Formic-acid found in Root Bark
Gastroprotective
Alpha-amyrin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Beta-amyrin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
Gonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
HIV-RT-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Hemolytic
Palmitic-acid found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Hemopoietic
Malic-acid found in Bark
Hemostat
Citric-acid found in Bark
Pectin found in Bark ;found in Fruit (50000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Hepatocarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Hepatomagenic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Hepatoprotective
Aesculetin found in Bark
Alpha-amyrin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Beta-amyrin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Linoleic-acid found in Bark ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark ;found in Fruit
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Hepatotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Epicatechin found in Bark
Herbicide
Cinnamic-acid found in Fruit
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Histamine-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Hypercholesterolemic
Palmitic-acid found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Sucrose found in Fruit (16600 ppm);found in Root Bark
Hyperglycemic
Glucose found in Root Bark
Hypertensive
Aesculetin found in Bark
Sodium found in Bark (184 ppm)
Hypocholesterolemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Calcium found in Bark (23540 ppm)
Chromium found in Bark (21 ppm)
Epicatechin found in Bark
Linoleic-acid found in Bark ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark ;found in Fruit
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Fruit ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark
Pectin found in Bark ;found in Fruit (50000 ppm)
Hypoglycemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Chromium found in Bark (21 ppm)
Epicatechin found in Bark
Manganese found in Bark (49 ppm)
Pectin found in Bark ;found in Fruit (50000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Hypolipidemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Hypotensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Astragalin found in Flower (900 ppm)
Calcium found in Bark (23540 ppm)
Chromium found in Bark (21 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Potassium found in Bark (7360 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Valeric-acid found in Root Bark
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
ICAM-1-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Immunomodulator
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Chromium found in Bark (21 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Bark ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark ;found in Fruit
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Immunostimulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Astragalin found in Flower (900 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Phosphorus found in Bark (650 ppm)
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Immunosuppressant
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Inotropic
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Insectifuge
Alpha-amyrin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Linoleic-acid found in Bark ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark ;found in Fruit
Oleic-acid found in Fruit ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark
Insulin-Sparing
Arbutin found in Leaf (200 ppm);found in Plant
Insulinogenic
Chromium found in Bark (21 ppm)
Epicatechin found in Bark
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Interferon-Synergist
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Interferonogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Interleukin-1-alpha-Inhibitor
Epicatechin found in Bark
Interleukin-6-mRNA-Inhibitor
Epicatechin found in Bark
Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Irritant
Capric-acid found in Bark
Caproic-acid found in Root Bark
Caprylic-acid found in Root Bark
Citric-acid found in Bark
Formic-acid found in Root Bark
Oleic-acid found in Fruit ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark
JNK-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Juvabional
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Quercetin found in Leaf
Keratitigenic
Acetic-acid found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Larvicide
Beta-amyrin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Larvistat
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Quercetin found in Leaf
Laxative
Calcium found in Bark (23540 ppm)
Cinnamic-acid found in Fruit
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Leptingenic
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Leucocytogenic
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Leukotriene-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Aesculetin found in Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Cinnamic-acid found in Fruit
Epicatechin found in Bark
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Lithogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Litholytic
Citric-acid found in Bark
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Lubricant
Palmitic-acid found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Lyase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
MAO-A-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
MAO-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
MMP-9-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Mast-Cell-Stabilizer
Quercetin found in Leaf
Memorigenic
Chromium found in Bark (21 ppm)
Memory-Enhancer
Glucose found in Root Bark
Metal-Chelator
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Metastatic
Linoleic-acid found in Bark ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark ;found in Fruit
Mosquitocide
Beta-amyrin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Mucogenic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Mucolytic
Acetic-acid found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Musculotropic
Aesculetin found in Bark
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Mutagenic
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Mycobactericide
Citric-acid found in Bark
Malic-acid found in Bark
Mycoplasmistat
Arbutin found in Leaf (200 ppm);found in Plant
Myorelaxant
Aesculetin found in Bark
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Valeric-acid found in Root Bark
NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
NEP-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
NO-Genic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
NO-Inhibitor
Epicatechin found in Bark
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
NO-Synthase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Natriuretic
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Nematicide
Linoleic-acid found in Bark ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark ;found in Fruit
Palmitic-acid found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Neuroprotective
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Neurotransmitter
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Odontolytic
Citric-acid found in Bark
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Quercetin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Osteogenic
Phosphorus found in Bark (650 ppm)
Osteolytic
Acetic-acid found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Oviposition-Stimulant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
P450-Inducer
Quercetin found in Leaf
P450-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
PAF-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf
PGE2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
PTK-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Pancreatogenic
Epicatechin found in Bark
Percutaneostimulant
Oleic-acid found in Fruit ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark
Perfumery
Acetic-acid found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Oleic-acid found in Fruit ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark
Valeric-acid found in Root Bark
Peristaltic
Pectin found in Bark ;found in Fruit (50000 ppm)
Peroxynitrite-Scavenger
Epicatechin found in Bark
Pesticide
Acetic-acid found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Aesculetin found in Bark
Aluminum found in Bark (702 ppm)
Arbutin found in Leaf (200 ppm);found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Capric-acid found in Bark
Caprylic-acid found in Root Bark
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Cinnamic-acid found in Fruit
Cyanidin found in Leaf
Epicatechin found in Bark
Formic-acid found in Root Bark
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Malic-acid found in Bark
Palmitic-acid found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Pectin found in Bark ;found in Fruit (50000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
Tin found in Bark (18 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Phagocytotic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Phospholipase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Phytoalexin
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Phytohormonal
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Pigment
Cyanidin found in Leaf
Piscicide
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Plasmodicide
Quercetin found in Leaf
Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Potassium-Sparing
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Preservative
Formic-acid found in Root Bark
Sucrose found in Fruit (16600 ppm);found in Root Bark
Proliferant
Quercetin found in Leaf
Prooxidant
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Cyanidin found in Leaf
Iron found in Bark (880 ppm)
Propecic
Epicatechin found in Bark
Linoleic-acid found in Bark ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark ;found in Fruit
Oleic-acid found in Fruit ;found in Seed ;found in Root Bark
Palmitic-acid found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Prostaglandigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Prostaglandin-Sparer
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Aesculetin found in Bark
Quercetin found in Leaf
Protease-Inhibitor
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Protisticide
Acetic-acid found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Psychotropic
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
Quinone-Reductase-Inducer
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Refrigerant
Citric-acid found in Bark
Sedative
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Valeric-acid found in Root Bark
Sialogogue
Malic-acid found in Bark
Soap
Palmitic-acid found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Sodium-Sparing
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Spermicide
Acetic-acid found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Spermigenic
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Sunscreen
Aesculetin found in Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Sweetener
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Sucrose found in Fruit (16600 ppm);found in Root Bark
TNF-alpha-Inhibitor
Epicatechin found in Bark
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
TOPO-2-Inhibitor
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Taenicide
Tin found in Bark (18 ppm)
Teratologic
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Testosteronigenic
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Thymoprotective
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Toxic
Formic-acid found in Root Bark
Tranquilizer
Calcium found in Bark (23540 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Valeric-acid found in Root Bark
Trichomonicide
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Triglycerigenic
Sucrose found in Fruit (16600 ppm);found in Root Bark
Trypanocide
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Tumorigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
Arbutin found in Leaf (200 ppm);found in Plant
Cinnamic-acid found in Fruit
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
UV-Screen
Aesculetin found in Bark
Ubiquiot
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (6400 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Ulcerogenic
Acetic-acid found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Beta-sitosterol found in Fruit ;found in Root Bark
Uricogenic
Sucrose found in Fruit (16600 ppm);found in Root Bark
Uricosuric
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Urinary-Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Urinary-Antiseptic
Arbutin found in Leaf (200 ppm);found in Plant
Uterorelaxant
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Uterosedative
Scopoletin found in Bark ;found in Root Bark (7.5 ppm)
Uterotrophic
Kaempferol found in Leaf
VEGF-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Bark (23 ppm)
Vasodilator
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Calcium found in Bark (23540 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Bark (3110 ppm)
Potassium found in Bark (7360 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Vasopressor
Ursolic-acid found in Fruit
Vermifuge
Cinnamic-acid found in Fruit
Verrucolytic
Acetic-acid found in Bark ;found in Root Bark
Vulnerary
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (126100 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Chlorogenic-acid found in Branches ;found in Fruit
Neo-chlorogenic-acid found in Branches
Sucrose found in Fruit (16600 ppm);found in Root Bark
Zinc found in Bark (17 ppm)
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Aesculetin found in Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Branches
Epicatechin found in Bark
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Fruit (30000 ppm)
cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
iNOS-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
2-carboxyarabinitol Leaf 26
Acetic-acid Bark
Root Bark
Aesculetin Bark
Alpha-amyrin Bark
Root Bark
Aluminum Bark 702
Arbutin Leaf 200
Plant
Ascorbic-acid Fruit 126,100
Astragalin Flower 900
Baldrianic-acid Bark
Beta-amyrin Bark
Root Bark
Beta-carotene Fruit 6,400
Beta-sitosterol Fruit
Root Bark
Caffeic-acid Branches
Calcium Bark 23,540
Capric-acid Bark
Caproic-acid Root Bark
Caprylic-acid Root Bark
Cerotic-acid Root Bark
Chlorogenic-acid Branches
Fruit
Chromium Bark 21
Cinnamic-acid Fruit
Citric-acid Bark
Cobalt Bark 115
Cyanidin Leaf
D,l-catechin Bark
Root Bark 900
D-galactose Fruit
Leaf
D-galactouronic-acid Fruit
Leaf
D-glucose Fruit
Leaf
D-xylose Fruit
Leaf
Eo Bark 1,000 3,000
Epicatechin Bark
Formic-acid Root Bark
Glucose Root Bark
Hydroqionone Plant
Iron Bark 880
Kaempferol Leaf
L-arabinose Fruit
Leaf
L-rhamnose Fruit
Leaf
Linoleic-acid Bark
Seed
Root Bark
Fruit
Linolenic-acid Leaf
Magnesium Bark 3,110
Malic-acid Bark
Manganese Bark 49
Methyl-arbutin Plant
Myricyl-alcohol Bark
Root Bark
Neo-chlorogenic-acid Branches
Oleanolic acid glucoside Plant
Oleic-acid Fruit
Seed
Root Bark
Opulus iridoid i Leaf 3,000 7,300
Opulus iridoid ii Leaf 700
Opulus iridoid iii Leaf 800
Opulus iridoid iv Leaf 200
Paeoniside Fruit
Paeonoside Flower 1,200
Palmitic-acid Bark
Root Bark
Pectin Bark
Fruit 50,000
Phosphorus Bark 650
Potassium Bark 7,360
Protein Bark 86,000
Quercetin Leaf
Quercetin-glycosides Fruit
Scopoletin Bark
Root Bark 7.5
Scopoline Plant
Selenium Bark 23
Silicon Bark 99
Sodium Bark 184
Sucrose Fruit 16,600
Root Bark
Tannin Fruit 30,000
Tin Bark 18
Ursolic acid glucoside Plant
Ursolic-acid Fruit
Valerianic-acid Plant
Valeric-acid Root Bark
Viburnital Leaf
Water Bark 782,000
Zinc Bark 17
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]