Silybum marianum Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
blessed milk thistle bull thistle gundagai thistle holy thistle lady's thistle milk thistle variegated artichoke variegated thistle

Silybum marianum has other common names include cardus marianus, milk thistle, blessed milk thistle, Marian Thistle, Mary Thistle, Saint Mary's Thistle, Mediterranean milk thistle, variegated thistle and Scotch thistle. This species is an annual or biennial plant of the Asteraceae family. This fairly typical thistle has red to purple flowers and shiny pale green leaves with white veins. Originally a native of Southern Europe through to Asia, it is now found throughout the world.

Silybum marianum

Medical use

Economic importance of Silybum marianum

Food additives flavoring
Bee plants honey production
Medicines source of silymarin
Vertebrate poisons mamals
Weed potential sed contaminant

Gallery

Silybum marianum Silybum marianum Silybum marianum Silybum marianum Silybum marianum Silybum marianum Silybum marianum Silybum marianum Silybum marianum Silybum marianum Silybum marianum Silybum marianum Silybum marianum Silybum marianum

Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Native
    • Macaronesia: Portugal - Madeira Islands
    • Northern Africa: Algeria; Egypt; Libya; Morocco; Tunisia
    Naturalized
    • Macaronesia: Portugal - Azores; Spain - Canary Islands
    • Northeast Tropical Africa: Eritrea; Ethiopia
    • East Tropical Africa: Kenya
    • Southern Africa: South Africa - Eastern Cape, Gauteng
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Western Asia: Afghanistan; Cyprus; Egypt - Sinai; Iran; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey
    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Russian Federation - Ciscaucasia
    • Siberia: Russian Federation - Kurgan
    • Middle Asia: Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Native
    • Indian Subcontinent: India - Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh; Pakistan
  • AUSTRALASIA
    Naturalized
    • Australia: Australia
    • New Zealand: New Zealand
  • EUROPE
    Native
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Greece ; Italy ; Macedonia; Montenegro
    • Southwestern Europe: France ; Portugal; Spain
    Naturalized
    • Northern Europe: Denmark; Ireland; Norway; Sweden; United Kingdom
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium
    • East Europe: Belarus; Lithuania; Moldova; Russian Federation - European part; Ukraine
    • Southeastern Europe: Romania; Slovenia
    Adventive
    • Middle Europe: Czech Republic; Germany; Netherlands
    • East Europe: Estonia; Latvia
    • Southeastern Europe: Serbia
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Naturalized
    • Eastern Canada: Canada - New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Quebec
    • Western Canada: Canada - Alberta, British Columbia, Saskatchewan
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Connecticut, Indiana, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont, West Virginia
    • Northwestern U.S.A.: United States - Oregon, Washington
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia
    • South-Central U.S.A.: United States - New Mexico, Texas
    • Southwestern U.S.A.: United States - Arizona, California, Nevada
    • Northern Mexico: Mexico - Baja Norte
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Naturalized
    • Brazil: Brazil - Parana, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina
    • Western South America: Ecuador; Peru
    • Southern South America: Argentina; Chile; Uruguay

Biological activities

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Oil (700000 ppm);found in Seed
Oleic-acid found in Seed Oil (250000 ppm);found in Seed
Palmitic-acid found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed
Stearic-acid found in Seed Oil (178000 ppm);found in Seed
5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
ACE-Inhibitor
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
AP-1-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
ATPase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Abortifacient
Betaine found in Seed (80 ppm)
Acetylcholinergic
Glucose found in Seed
Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Fumaric-acid found in Leaf
Adrenergic
Tyramine found in Plant ;found in Seed
Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Chrysoeriol found in Seed
Cosmosiin found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Luteolin-7-glucoside found in Shoot
Naringenin found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Taxifolin found in Fruit (8000 ppm);found in Seed
Allelochemic
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Allergenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Histamine found in Seed
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed Oil (250000 ppm);found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Oleic-acid found in Seed Oil (250000 ppm);found in Seed
Analeptic
Gamma-aminobutyric-acid found in Seed
Analgesic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Androgenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Anemiagenic
Oleic-acid found in Seed Oil (250000 ppm);found in Seed
Anesthetic
Ethylene found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Angiogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (8330 ppm);found in Plant (8330 ppm)
Anorexic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
AntiADD
Apigenin found in Seed
AntiAGE
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (2.2 ppm);found in Plant (2.2 ppm)
AntiAddisonian
Cysteine found in Seed
AntiBPH
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
AntiCFS
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (2.2 ppm);found in Plant (2.2 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
AntiCTS
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
AntiGTF
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
AntiHIV
Apigenin found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Naringenin found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
AntiLyme
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (2 ppm)
AntiMS
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Oil (700000 ppm);found in Seed
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
AntiNF-kB
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
AntiPMS
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (6460 ppm);found in Plant (6460 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (14.7 ppm);found in Plant (14.7 ppm)
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antiacetylcholinesterase
Naringenin found in Seed
Antiacid
Glycine found in Seed
Antiacne
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (2.2 ppm);found in Plant (2.2 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Oil (700000 ppm);found in Seed
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Tin found in Leaf (42 ppm);found in Plant (42 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antiacrodermatitic
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antiacrodynic
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Antiadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Antiaflatoxin
Apigenin found in Seed
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Naringenin found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antiaggregant
Apigenin found in Seed
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Naringenin found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Tyramine found in Plant ;found in Seed
Antiaging
Apigenin found in Seed
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (2.2 ppm);found in Plant (2.2 ppm)
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antiakathisic
Iron found in Leaf (106 ppm);found in Plant (106 ppm)
Antialcoholic
Fructose found in Seed
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (14.7 ppm);found in Plant (14.7 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antialdosteronic
Glycine found in Seed
Antiallergic
Apigenin found in Seed
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (6460 ppm);found in Plant (6460 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antialopecic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Oil (700000 ppm);found in Seed
Oleic-acid found in Seed Oil (250000 ppm);found in Seed
Palmitic-acid found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antialzheimeran
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Naringenin found in Seed
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antiamblyopic
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Antiamnesic
Naringenin found in Seed
Antiamyloid-Beta
Naringenin found in Seed
Antianaphylactic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Oil (700000 ppm);found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antiandrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Oil (700000 ppm);found in Seed
Oleic-acid found in Seed Oil (250000 ppm);found in Seed
Palmitic-acid found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed
Antianemic
Iron found in Leaf (106 ppm);found in Plant (106 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (14.7 ppm);found in Plant (14.7 ppm)
Antianginal
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Antiangiogenic
Apigenin found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antianorectic
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Antianorexic
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antianxiety
Calcium found in Leaf (6460 ppm);found in Plant (6460 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Antiarabiflavinotic
Riboflavin found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Antiarrhythmic
Apigenin found in Seed
Calcium found in Leaf (6460 ppm);found in Plant (6460 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (8330 ppm);found in Plant (8330 ppm)
Antiarteriosclerotic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Oil (700000 ppm);found in Seed
Silicon found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Antiarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (6460 ppm);found in Plant (6460 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Oil (700000 ppm);found in Seed
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (14.7 ppm);found in Plant (14.7 ppm)
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Antiatherogenic
Luteolin found in Shoot
Antiatherosclerotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (6460 ppm);found in Plant (6460 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (2.2 ppm);found in Plant (2.2 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Antibacterial
5,7-dihydroxychromone found in Plant
Apigenin found in Seed
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Cnicin found in Plant
Cosmosiin found in Flower
Eriodictyol found in Seed
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Naringenin found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Taxifolin found in Fruit (8000 ppm);found in Seed
Tin found in Leaf (42 ppm);found in Plant (42 ppm)
Antibiotic
Cnicin found in Plant
Cysteine found in Seed
Anticancer
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Naringenin found in Seed
Anticanker
Iron found in Leaf (106 ppm);found in Plant (106 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Anticarcinogenic
Luteolin found in Shoot
Anticarcinomic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Luteolin found in Shoot
Anticariogenic
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Anticarpal-Tunnel
Riboflavin found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Anticataract
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Cysteine found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Riboflavin found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Anticephalagic
Gamma-aminobutyric-acid found in Seed
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Anticerebrotic
Gamma-aminobutyric-acid found in Seed
Anticervicaldysplasic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Anticheilitic
Iron found in Leaf (106 ppm);found in Plant (106 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Antichilblain
Histamine found in Seed
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Antichoreic
Gamma-aminobutyric-acid found in Seed
Anticirrhotic
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Silymarin found in Fruit (45000 ppm);found in Seed (60000 ppm)
Anticlimacteric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (6460 ppm);found in Plant (6460 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Anticoeliac
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Anticold
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Anticolitic
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Anticomplementary
Apigenin found in Seed
Apigenin-7-o-glucoside found in Shoot
Chrysoeriol found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Taxifolin found in Fruit (8000 ppm);found in Seed
Anticonvulsant
Gamma-aminobutyric-acid found in Seed
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Anticorneotic
Chromium found in Leaf (2.2 ppm);found in Plant (2.2 ppm)
Anticoronary
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Oil (700000 ppm);found in Seed
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Anticystitic
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Anticytotoxic
Cysteine found in Seed
Antidandruff
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antidecubitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Antidementia
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antidepressant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (6460 ppm);found in Plant (6460 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (8330 ppm);found in Plant (8330 ppm)
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Antidermatic
Luteolin found in Shoot
Luteolin-7-glucoside found in Shoot
Antidermatitic
Apigenin found in Seed
Fumaric-acid found in Leaf
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antidiabetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (2.2 ppm);found in Plant (2.2 ppm)
Fructose found in Seed
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (14.7 ppm);found in Plant (14.7 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Silymarin found in Fruit (45000 ppm);found in Seed (60000 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antidiscotic
Manganese found in Leaf (14.7 ppm);found in Plant (14.7 ppm)
Antidysgeuzic
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antidyskinetic
Manganese found in Leaf (14.7 ppm);found in Plant (14.7 ppm)
Antidysmenorrheic
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Antidysphagic
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Antieczemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Oil (700000 ppm);found in Seed
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antiedemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Glucose found in Seed
Antielastase
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antiencephalitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antiencephalopathic
Glycine found in Seed
Leucine found in Seed
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antiendometriotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Antienterotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Antiepileptic
Glutamic-acid found in Seed
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (14.7 ppm);found in Plant (14.7 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antierythemic
Silymarin found in Fruit (45000 ppm);found in Seed (60000 ppm)
Antiescherichic
Naringenin found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antiestrogenic
Apigenin found in Seed
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Luteolin found in Shoot
Naringenin found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antifatigue
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (2.2 ppm);found in Plant (2.2 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (8330 ppm);found in Plant (8330 ppm)
Antifeedant
5,7-dihydroxychromone found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Cnicin found in Plant
Eriodictyol found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antifertility
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Antifibrinolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Oil (700000 ppm);found in Seed
Palmitic-acid found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed
Antifibromyalgic
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Antifibrosarcomic
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antifibrotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Naringenin found in Seed
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antiflu
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antifuruncular
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antigallstone
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Antigastric
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antigastritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Betaine found in Seed (80 ppm)
Glycine found in Seed
Antigastrotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Antigingivitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Antiglaucomic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Antiglossitic
Riboflavin found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Antiglycosuric
Chromium found in Leaf (2.2 ppm);found in Plant (2.2 ppm)
Antigonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Antigonadotropic
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antigout
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Antigranular
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Oil (700000 ppm);found in Seed
Antihangover
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Fructose found in Seed
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antihemorrhagic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Antihepatitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Antihepatocarcinogenic
Fumaric-acid found in Leaf
Antihepatotic
Silymarin found in Fruit (45000 ppm);found in Seed (60000 ppm)
Antihepatotoxic
3-deoxysilychristin found in Plant ;found in Seed
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Glucose found in Seed
Naringenin found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Silandrin found in Fruit ;found in Seed ;found in Plant
Silybin found in Fruit (30000 ppm);found in Seed (17600 ppm);found in Plant
Taxifolin found in Fruit (8000 ppm);found in Seed
Antiherpetic
Apigenin found in Seed
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Luteolin-7-glucoside found in Shoot
Naringenin found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Taxifolin found in Fruit (8000 ppm);found in Seed
Antihistaminic
Apigenin found in Seed
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Oil (700000 ppm);found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antihomocystinuric
Betaine found in Seed (80 ppm)
Antihydrophobic
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antihyperactivity
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Antihyperammonemic
Glutamic-acid found in Seed
Antihyperkeratotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Antihyperkinetic
Calcium found in Leaf (6460 ppm);found in Plant (6460 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Antihyperlipoproteinaemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Antihypertensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (6460 ppm);found in Plant (6460 ppm)
Gamma-aminobutyric-acid found in Seed
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (8330 ppm);found in Plant (8330 ppm)
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antihypoglycemic
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Antiichythyotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Antiimplantation
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Antiimpotence
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antiinfective
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antiinfertility
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antiinflammatory
Apigenin found in Seed
Apigenin-7-o-glucoside found in Shoot
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Cnicin found in Plant
Eriodictyol found in Seed
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Oil (700000 ppm);found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Luteolin-7-glucoside found in Shoot
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Naringenin found in Seed
Oleic-acid found in Seed Oil (250000 ppm);found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Silymarin found in Fruit (45000 ppm);found in Seed (60000 ppm)
Taxifolin found in Fruit (8000 ppm);found in Seed
Antiinsomniac
Calcium found in Leaf (6460 ppm);found in Plant (6460 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antiinsomnic
Gamma-aminobutyric-acid found in Seed
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Antikeratitic
Riboflavin found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Antikeshan
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Antiketotic
Fructose found in Seed
Glucose found in Seed
Antileishmanic
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antilepric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antilethargic
Gamma-aminobutyric-acid found in Seed
Antileukemic
Apigenin found in Seed
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Naringenin found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Antileukonychic
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antileukoplakic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Antileukotriene-D4
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Oil (700000 ppm);found in Seed
Oleic-acid found in Seed Oil (250000 ppm);found in Seed
Antileukotriene
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Silymarin found in Fruit (45000 ppm);found in Seed (60000 ppm)
Antilithic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Glutamic-acid found in Seed
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Antilupus
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Antilymphocytic
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Antilymphomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Luteolin found in Shoot
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antimaculitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antimalarial
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antimastalgic
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Antimastitic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Antimeasles
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Antimelanomic
Apigenin found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Antimenopausal
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (6460 ppm);found in Plant (6460 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Antimenorrhagic
Iron found in Leaf (106 ppm);found in Plant (106 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Oil (700000 ppm);found in Seed
Antimetastatic
Apigenin found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antimigraine
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Histamine found in Seed
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Antimitral-valve-prolapse
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Antimutagenic
Apigenin found in Seed
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Chrysoeriol found in Seed
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Naringenin found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Taxifolin found in Fruit (8000 ppm);found in Seed
Antimyalgic
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Antimyoatrophic
Betaine found in Seed (80 ppm)
Antimyocarditic
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antinauseant
Fructose found in Seed
Antinephrolytic
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Antineuralgic
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Antineuramidase
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Antineuropathic
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antineurotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Antinitrosaminic
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antinitrosic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Antinociceptive
Luteolin found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antinyctalopic
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antiobesity
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (6460 ppm);found in Plant (6460 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (2.2 ppm);found in Plant (2.2 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antionychyotic
Silicon found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Antiophidic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Antiophthalmic
Cysteine found in Seed
Antiorchitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Antiosteoarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Antiosteoporotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (6460 ppm);found in Plant (6460 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (14.7 ppm);found in Plant (14.7 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (7060 ppm);found in Plant (7060 ppm)
Silicon found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antiototic
Manganese found in Leaf (14.7 ppm);found in Plant (14.7 ppm)
Antioxidant
Apigenin found in Seed
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Chrysoeriol found in Seed
Cysteine found in Seed
Eriodictyol found in Seed
Fumaric-acid found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Manganese found in Leaf (14.7 ppm);found in Plant (14.7 ppm)
Myristic-acid found in Seed
Naringenin found in Seed
Palmitic-acid found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Riboflavin found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Silybin found in Fruit (30000 ppm);found in Seed (17600 ppm);found in Plant
Silymarin found in Fruit (45000 ppm);found in Seed (60000 ppm)
Taxifolin found in Fruit (8000 ppm);found in Seed
Antiozenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Antipancreatitic
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antipapillomic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Antiparkinsonian
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Antiparotitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Antipellagric
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Antiperiodontal
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antiperiodontitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (6460 ppm);found in Plant (6460 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antiperistaltic
Apigenin found in Seed
Naringenin found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antipermeability
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antiperoxidant
Eriodictyol found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antiperoxidative
Naringenin found in Seed
Antipharyngitic
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antiphotophobic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Antipityriasic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Antiplaque
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antiplasmodial
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antipneumonic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Antipodriac
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antipolio
Luteolin found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antiporphyric
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Antiprogestational
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Antiprolactin
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antiproliferant
Apigenin found in Seed
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Luteolin found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Antiprostaglandin
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Antiprostanoid
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antiprostatadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Antiprostatitic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Glutamic-acid found in Seed
Glycine found in Seed
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Oil (700000 ppm);found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antipruritic
Glycine found in Seed
Antipsoriac
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Fumaric-acid found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antipyretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Antiradicular
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Naringenin found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Antiretardation
Glutamic-acid found in Seed
Antiretinopathic
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Antiretinotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Antirheumatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (6460 ppm);found in Plant (6460 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antirhinitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Antirhinoviral
Chrysoeriol found in Seed
Antiscorbutic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Antiscotomic
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Antiseptic
Aromadendrin found in Fruit (150 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antiserotonin
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Antishingles
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Antisickling
Glycine found in Seed
Antisilicotic
Aluminum found in Leaf (267 ppm);found in Plant (267 ppm)
Antisindhis
Naringenin found in Seed
Antispare-Tire
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antispasmodic
Apigenin found in Seed
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Naringenin found in Seed
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (8330 ppm);found in Plant (8330 ppm)
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antispasmophilic
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Antistaphylococcic
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Naringenin found in Seed
Antistomatitic
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antistreptococcic
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antistress
Apigenin found in Seed
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (6460 ppm);found in Plant (6460 ppm)
Gamma-aminobutyric-acid found in Seed
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Antistroke
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (8330 ppm);found in Plant (8330 ppm)
Antisyndrome-X
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (2.2 ppm);found in Plant (2.2 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (14.7 ppm);found in Plant (14.7 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antithiamin
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antithrombic
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antithyroid
Apigenin found in Seed
Antitic
Calcium found in Leaf (6460 ppm);found in Plant (6460 ppm)
Antitinnitic
Gamma-aminobutyric-acid found in Seed
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antitriglyceride
Chromium found in Leaf (2.2 ppm);found in Plant (2.2 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antitrypanosomic
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antitumor-Promoter
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Naringenin found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antitussive
Luteolin found in Shoot
Antiulcer
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Cysteine found in Seed
Glycine found in Seed
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Naringenin found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Silymarin found in Fruit (45000 ppm);found in Seed (60000 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Antiulcerogenic
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Antivaginitic
Aluminum found in Leaf (267 ppm);found in Plant (267 ppm)
Antivaricose
Glucose found in Seed
Antivertigo
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Antiviral
Apigenin found in Seed
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Chrysoeriol found in Seed
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Luteolin-7-glucoside found in Shoot
Naringenin found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Silymarin found in Fruit (45000 ppm);found in Seed (60000 ppm)
Taxifolin found in Fruit (8000 ppm);found in Seed
Antixerophthalmic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Anxiolytic
Apigenin found in Seed
Calcium found in Leaf (6460 ppm);found in Plant (6460 ppm)
Gamma-aminobutyric-acid found in Seed
Glutamic-acid found in Seed
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (7060 ppm);found in Plant (7060 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (8330 ppm);found in Plant (8330 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Aphidifuge
Eriodictyol found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Naringenin found in Seed
Apoptotic
Apigenin found in Seed
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Aromatase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Seed
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Naringenin found in Seed
Artemicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Asthma-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Astringent
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Bacteristat
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Beta-Blocker
Potassium found in Leaf (8330 ppm);found in Plant (8330 ppm)
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Seed
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Luteolin found in Shoot
Bradycardiac
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Bronchoconstrictor
Histamine found in Seed
Bronchostimulant
Histamine found in Seed
Bruchiphobe
Betaine found in Seed (80 ppm)
CNS-Depressant
Apigenin found in Seed
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
CNS-Inhibitor
Gamma-aminobutyric-acid found in Seed
COMT-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
COX-1-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Seed
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
COX-2-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Seed
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Calcium-Antagonist
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Luteolin found in Shoot
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Calcium-Channel-Blocker
Calcium found in Leaf (6460 ppm);found in Plant (6460 ppm)
Calmodulin-Antagonist
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Cancer-Preventive
Apigenin found in Seed
Aromadendrin found in Fruit (150 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Chrysoeriol found in Seed
Cysteine found in Seed
Eriodictyol found in Seed
Glycine found in Seed
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Oil (700000 ppm);found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Mucilage found in Seed
Myristic-acid found in Seed
Naringenin found in Seed
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed Oil (250000 ppm);found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Riboflavin found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Taxifolin found in Fruit (8000 ppm);found in Seed
Candidicide
Aluminum found in Leaf (267 ppm);found in Plant (267 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Cosmosiin found in Flower
Naringenin found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Capillariprotective
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Carcinogenic
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Oil (700000 ppm);found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Cardiomyopathogenic
Cobalt found in Leaf (4.1 ppm);found in Plant (4.1 ppm)
Cardioprotective
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Betaine found in Seed (80 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (2.2 ppm);found in Plant (2.2 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (8330 ppm);found in Plant (8330 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Silicon found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Cardiotoxic
Potassium found in Leaf (8330 ppm);found in Plant (8330 ppm)
Cardiovascular
Gamma-aminobutyric-acid found in Seed
Histamine found in Seed
Tyramine found in Plant ;found in Seed
Caspase-8-Inducer
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Catabolic
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Chemopreventive
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Luteolin found in Shoot
Choleretic
Apigenin found in Seed
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Naringenin found in Seed
Oleic-acid found in Seed Oil (250000 ppm);found in Seed
Cold-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Collagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Colorant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Comedolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Oil (700000 ppm);found in Seed
Copper-Antagonist
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Copper-Chelator
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Cosmetic
Behenic-acid found in Seed Oil ;found in Plant
Myristic-acid found in Seed
Stearic-acid found in Seed Oil (178000 ppm);found in Seed
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Seed
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Cytochrome-P450-1A1-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Seed
Cytochrome-P450-1A2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Cytochrome-P450-Inhibitor
Naringenin found in Seed
Cytoprotective
Silybin found in Fruit (30000 ppm);found in Seed (17600 ppm);found in Plant
Cytotoxic
Apigenin found in Seed
Cnicin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
DNA-Protective
Apigenin found in Seed
Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Naringenin found in Seed
Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Demulcent
Mucilage found in Seed
Detoxicant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Cysteine found in Seed
Differentiator
Apigenin found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Diuretic
Apigenin found in Seed
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Betaine found in Seed (80 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (6460 ppm);found in Plant (6460 ppm)
Gamma-aminobutyric-acid found in Seed
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (8330 ppm);found in Plant (8330 ppm)
Embryotoxic
Naringenin found in Seed
Emetic
Cnicin found in Plant
Emmenagogue
Betaine found in Seed (80 ppm)
Encephalopathic
Aluminum found in Leaf (267 ppm);found in Plant (267 ppm)
Energizer
Chromium found in Leaf (2.2 ppm);found in Plant (2.2 ppm)
Ergogenic
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Erythrocytogenic
Cobalt found in Leaf (4.1 ppm);found in Plant (4.1 ppm)
Essential
Leucine found in Seed
Estrogenic
Apigenin found in Seed
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Naringenin found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Ethanolytic
Betaine found in Seed (80 ppm)
Expectorant
Betaine found in Seed (80 ppm)
Eriodictyol found in Seed
FLavor
Fumaric-acid found in Leaf
Oleic-acid found in Seed Oil (250000 ppm);found in Seed
Palmitic-acid found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed
Stearic-acid found in Seed Oil (178000 ppm);found in Seed
Febrifuge
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Fibrinolytic
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Fistula-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Fungicide
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Naringenin found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Taxifolin found in Fruit (8000 ppm);found in Seed
Fungistat
Naringenin found in Seed
Gastroprotective
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Gastrostimulant
Histamine found in Seed
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Glutathionergic
Cysteine found in Seed
Glutathionigenic
Silymarin found in Fruit (45000 ppm);found in Seed (60000 ppm)
Gonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
HIF-1alpha-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Seed
HIV-RT-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Hemolytic
Palmitic-acid found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed
Hemostat
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Hepatomagenic
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Hepatoprotective
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Betaine found in Seed (80 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Oil (700000 ppm);found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Naringenin found in Seed
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Silychristin found in Fruit (147500 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Seed (1000 ppm)
Silydianin found in Fruit (21300 ppm);found in Seed ;found in Plant
Silymarin found in Fruit (45000 ppm);found in Seed (60000 ppm)
Silymonin found in Fruit ;found in Plant
Taxifolin found in Fruit (8000 ppm);found in Seed
Hepatotoxic
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Herbicide
5,7-dihydroxychromone found in Plant
Cnicin found in Plant
Histaminic
Histamine found in Seed
Hyaluronidase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Hypercholesterolemic
Myristic-acid found in Seed
Palmitic-acid found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed
Hyperglycemic
Glucose found in Seed
Hypertensive
Sodium found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Tyramine found in Plant ;found in Seed
Hypocholesterolemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (6460 ppm);found in Plant (6460 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (2.2 ppm);found in Plant (2.2 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Oil (700000 ppm);found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Mucilage found in Seed
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed Oil (250000 ppm);found in Seed
Stearic-acid found in Seed Oil (178000 ppm);found in Seed
Hypoglycemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (2.2 ppm);found in Plant (2.2 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (14.7 ppm);found in Plant (14.7 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Hypolipidemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Silymarin found in Fruit (45000 ppm);found in Seed (60000 ppm)
Hypotensive
Apigenin found in Seed
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (6460 ppm);found in Plant (6460 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (2.2 ppm);found in Plant (2.2 ppm)
Gamma-aminobutyric-acid found in Seed
Histamine found in Seed
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (8330 ppm);found in Plant (8330 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
ICAM-1-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Seed
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
IKK-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Immunomodulator
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (2.2 ppm);found in Plant (2.2 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Oil (700000 ppm);found in Seed
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Immunostimulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (7060 ppm);found in Plant (7060 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Immunosuppressant
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Inotropic
Apigenin found in Seed
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Insectifuge
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Oil (700000 ppm);found in Seed
Oleic-acid found in Seed Oil (250000 ppm);found in Seed
Tyramine found in Plant ;found in Seed
Insulinogenic
Chromium found in Leaf (2.2 ppm);found in Plant (2.2 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Interferon-Synergist
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Interferonogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Interleukin-6-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Seed
Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Irritant
Cnicin found in Plant
Histamine found in Seed
Oleic-acid found in Seed Oil (250000 ppm);found in Seed
JNK-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Juvabional
Eriodictyol found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Larvistat
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Laxative
Calcium found in Leaf (6460 ppm);found in Plant (6460 ppm)
Fructose found in Seed
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Silymarin found in Fruit (45000 ppm);found in Seed (60000 ppm)
Leptingenic
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Lipotropic
Betaine found in Seed (80 ppm)
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Taxifolin found in Fruit (8000 ppm);found in Seed
Lithogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Litholytic
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Lubricant
Myristic-acid found in Seed
Palmitic-acid found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed
Stearic-acid found in Seed Oil (178000 ppm);found in Seed
MAO-A-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
MAO-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Seed
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
MAPK-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
MMP-9-Inhibitor
Luteolin found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Mast-Cell-Stabilizer
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Memorigenic
Chromium found in Leaf (2.2 ppm);found in Plant (2.2 ppm)
Memory-Enhancer
Glucose found in Seed
Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor
Luteolin found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Metastatic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Oil (700000 ppm);found in Seed
Mucogenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Betaine found in Seed (80 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Mucolytic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Musculotropic
Apigenin found in Seed
Mutagenic
Apigenin found in Seed
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Myorelaxant
Apigenin found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Myostimulant
Histamine found in Seed
NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
NEP-Inhibitor
Luteolin found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
NO-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
NO-Synthase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Natriuretic
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Nematicide
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Oil (700000 ppm);found in Seed
Myristic-acid found in Seed
Palmitic-acid found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed
Neoplastic
Fructose found in Seed
Neuroinhibitor
Gamma-aminobutyric-acid found in Seed
Glycine found in Seed
Neuroprotective
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Naringenin found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Neurotoxic
Gamma-aminobutyric-acid found in Seed
Glutamic-acid found in Seed
Tyramine found in Plant ;found in Seed
Neurotransmitter
Gamma-aminobutyric-acid found in Seed
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Nodulation-Signal
Apigenin found in Seed
Ophthalmic-Antialkali
Cysteine found in Seed
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Osteogenic
Phosphorus found in Leaf (7060 ppm);found in Plant (7060 ppm)
Oxidase-Inhibitor
Taxifolin found in Fruit (8000 ppm);found in Seed
P21-Inducer
Apigenin found in Seed
P450-Inducer
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
P450-Inhibitor
Naringenin found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
PAF-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
PGE2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
PKC-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Seed
PTK-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Percutaneostimulant
Oleic-acid found in Seed Oil (250000 ppm);found in Seed
Perfumery
Oleic-acid found in Seed Oil (250000 ppm);found in Seed
Stearic-acid found in Seed Oil (178000 ppm);found in Seed
Pesticide
5,7-dihydroxychromone found in Plant
Aluminum found in Leaf (267 ppm);found in Plant (267 ppm)
Apigenin found in Seed
Aromadendrin found in Fruit (150 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Betaine found in Seed (80 ppm)
Cnicin found in Plant
Cysteine found in Seed
Eriodictyol found in Seed
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Luteolin-7-glucoside found in Shoot
Naringenin found in Seed
Palmitic-acid found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Taxifolin found in Fruit (8000 ppm);found in Seed
Tin found in Leaf (42 ppm);found in Plant (42 ppm)
Tyramine found in Plant ;found in Seed
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Phagocytotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Phospholipase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Plasmodicide
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Seed
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Progestational
Apigenin found in Seed
Proliferant
Luteolin found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Prooxidant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Iron found in Leaf (106 ppm);found in Plant (106 ppm)
Propecic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Oil (700000 ppm);found in Seed
Oleic-acid found in Seed Oil (250000 ppm);found in Seed
Palmitic-acid found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed
Stearic-acid found in Seed Oil (178000 ppm);found in Seed
Prostaglandin-Sparer
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Prostaglandin-Synthetase-Inhibitor
Luteolin found in Shoot
Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Proteinogenic
Silymarin found in Fruit (45000 ppm);found in Seed (60000 ppm)
Protisticide
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Quinone-Reductase-Inducer
Apigenin found in Seed
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
RNA-genic
Silybin found in Fruit (30000 ppm);found in Seed (17600 ppm);found in Plant
Taxifolin found in Fruit (8000 ppm);found in Seed
Radioprotective
Apigenin found in Seed
Histamine found in Seed
Secretogogue
Histamine found in Seed
Sedative
Apigenin found in Seed
Gamma-aminobutyric-acid found in Seed
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Serotonin-Inhibitor
Naringenin found in Seed
Serotoninergic
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Soap
Palmitic-acid found in Seed Oil ;found in Seed
Spasmogenic
Histamine found in Seed
Spermicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Spermigenic
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Succinoxidase-Inhibitor
Luteolin found in Shoot
Sunscreen
Apigenin found in Seed
Silymarin found in Fruit (45000 ppm);found in Seed (60000 ppm)
Suppository
Stearic-acid found in Seed Oil (178000 ppm);found in Seed
Sweetener
Fructose found in Seed
Sympathomimetic
Tyramine found in Plant ;found in Seed
TNF-alpha-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Seed
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Naringenin found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Tachycardic
Histamine found in Seed
Taenicide
Tin found in Leaf (42 ppm);found in Plant (42 ppm)
Teratogenic
Naringenin found in Seed
Teratologic
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Testosteronigenic
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Thymoprotective
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Seed
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Naringenin found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Seed
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Tranquilizer
Calcium found in Leaf (6460 ppm);found in Plant (6460 ppm)
Gamma-aminobutyric-acid found in Seed
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Trichomonicide
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Ubiquiot
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (31 ppm);found in Plant (31 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Ulcerogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed (100 ppm)
Histamine found in Seed
Uricosuric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Glycine found in Seed
Urinary-Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Uterorelaxant
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Uterotrophic
Apigenin found in Seed
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Naringenin found in Seed
VEGF-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Selenium found in Leaf (7.1 ppm);found in Plant (7.1 ppm)
Vasoconstrictor
Tyramine found in Plant ;found in Seed
Vasodilator
Apigenin found in Seed
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (6460 ppm);found in Plant (6460 ppm)
Histamine found in Seed
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Magnesium found in Leaf (4030 ppm);found in Plant (4030 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (10 ppm);found in Plant (10 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (8330 ppm);found in Plant (8330 ppm)
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Vasopressor
Tyramine found in Plant ;found in Seed
Vulnerary
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (3.3 ppm);found in Plant (3.3 ppm)
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Naringenin found in Seed
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed
iNOS-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Seed
Kaempferol found in Flower ;found in Seed
Luteolin found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Fruit ;found in Seed

Search

Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
(+)-taxifolin Fruit
(-)-silandrin Fruit
1-2-epoxy-tridec-3-ene-5-7-9-11-tetrayne Root 0.2
2,3-dehydrosilychristin Plant
Seed
2,3-dehydrosilymarin Plant
Seed
3-deoxysilychristin Plant
Seed
3-deoxysilydianin Seed
4'-5-7-trihydroxy-3'-5'-dimethoxy-flavanone Fruit
Seed
5,7-dihydroxychromone Plant
Aluminum Leaf 59 267
Plant 267
Apigenin Seed
Apigenin-7-o-beta-d-(2''-o-alpha-l-rhamnosyl)-galacturonide Flower
Apigenin-7-o-beta-d-glucuronide-6''-ethyl-ester Flower
Apigenin-7-o-beta-galactoside Flower
Apigenin-7-o-glucoside Shoot
Apigenin-7-o-glucuronide Shoot
Arachidic-acid Seed Oil
Plant
Aromadendrin Fruit 150
Ascorbic-acid Leaf 26 120
Ash Leaf 13,860 63,000
Plant 63,000
Behenic-acid Seed Oil
Plant
Beta-carotene Leaf 7 31
Plant 31
Beta-sitosterol Seed 100
Betaine Seed 80
Calcium Leaf 1,421 6,460
Plant 6,460
Chromium Leaf 0.5 2.2
Plant 2.2
Chrysoeriol Seed
Cnicin Plant
Cobalt Leaf 1 4.1
Plant 4.1
Cosmosiin Flower
Cysteine Seed
Dehydroconiferyl-alcohol Seed
Dehydrodiconiferyl-alcohol Seed 800
Dehydrosilybin Fruit 100
Seed 0.55
Dihydrosilybin Seed
Dodeca-1-11-diene-3-5-7-9-tetrayne Essential Oil 10,000
Eo Seed 1,000
Eriodictyol Seed
Ethylene Leaf 800
Fat Leaf 12,760 58,000
Plant 58,000
Seed 160,000 450,000
Fiber(crude) Leaf 120,000
Fiber(dietary) Leaf 390,000
Fixed-oil Seed
Flavones Seed Coat 36,600
Fructose Seed
Fumaric-acid Leaf
Gamma-aminobutyric-acid Seed
Glucose Seed
Glutamic-acid Seed
Glycine Seed
Heptadeca-1-8-15-triene-11-13-diyn-10-ol Root 800
Heptadeca-1-8-15-triene-11-13-diyne Root 1,400
Heptadeca-1-cis-8-cis-15-triene-11-13-diyn-10-ol Root 5
Heptadeca-cis-2-cis-9-16-triene-4-6-diyne Root 5
Heptadecatrien-(1,8,15)-diin-(11,13) Root 1.4
Heptadecatrien-(1,8,15)-diin-(11,13)-ol-(10) Root 0.8
Histamine Seed
Iron Leaf 23 106
Plant 106
Isosilybin Fruit 4,000
Plant
Isosilybin-a Fruit 42,800
Isosilybin-b Fruit 42,800
Isosilychristin Fruit 100
Kaempferol Flower
Seed
Kaempferol-3-o-alpha-l-rhamnoside-7-o-beta-d-galacturonide Flower
Kaempferol-3-o-alpha-rhamnoside Flower
Kardollin-22 Plant
Kardollin-35 Plant
Kardollin-75 Plant
Kardollin-95 Plant
Leucine Seed
Linoleic-acid Seed Oil 600,000 700,000
Seed
Linolenic-acid Seed Oil
Seed
Luteolin Shoot
Luteolin-7-glucoside Shoot
Magnesium Leaf 887 4,030
Plant 4,030
Manganese Leaf 3.2 14.7
Plant 14.7
Mucilage Seed
Myristic-acid Seed
Naringenin Seed
Neosilyhermin Seed
Niacin Leaf 2.2 10
Plant 10
Nitrates Shoot
Octadecadienoic-acid Seed
Octadecatrienoic-acid Seed
Octadecenoic-acid Seed
Oleic-acid Seed Oil 180,000 250,000
Seed
Palmitic-acid Seed Oil
Seed
Peroxidase-isoenzymes Fruit
Root
Stem
Leaf
Phosphorus Leaf 1,553 7,060
Plant 7,060
Potassium Leaf 1,833 8,330
Plant 8,330
Proline Tissue Culture
Protein Leaf 31,460 143,000
Seed 186,000 280,000
Plant 143,000
Quercetin Fruit
Seed
Riboflavin Leaf 0.4 2
Selenium Leaf 2 7.1
Plant 7.1
Silandrin Fruit
Seed
Plant
Silandrin-3-desoxy-isosilybin Shoot
Silicon Leaf
Plant
Silybin Fruit 500 30,000
Seed 5,000 17,600
Plant
Silybin-a Fruit 86,400
Silybin-b Fruit 86,400
Silybinin Fruit
Silybinome Seed
Silybonol Seed 10,200
Silybum-marianum-polyacetylene-ix Root 100
Shoot
Silybum-marianum-polyacetylene-vii Root 15
Silybum-marianum-polyacetylene-viii Shoot
Silybum-marianum-polyacetylene-x Root 10
Silybum-marianum-polyacetylene-xi Root 10
Silybum-marianum-polyacetylene-xii Root 10
Silybum-marianum-polyacetylene-xiii Root 12
Silychristin Fruit 7,000 147,500
Plant
Seed 1,000
Silydianin Fruit 100 21,300
Seed
Plant
Silyhermin Seed
Silymarin Fruit 7,000 45,000
Seed 7,000 60,000
Silymonin Fruit
Plant
Sodium Leaf
Plant
Stearic-acid Seed Oil 178,000
Seed
Taxifolin Fruit 100 8,000
Seed
Thiamine Leaf 0.7 3
Tin Leaf 9 42
Plant 42
Triamine Seed
Tridec-1-ene-3-5-7-9-11-pentayne Root 1 1,000
Shoot
Tridec-12-ene-4-6-8-10-tetrayn-1-al Root 400
Trideca-1-11-diene-3-5-7-9-tetrayne Root 3 3,000
Shoot
Trideca-1-3-11-triene-5-7-9-triyne Root 15
Shoot
Trideca-3,5-diene-7,9,11-triyn-1-ol-acetate Root 100
Tridecadien-(1,11)-tetrain-(3,5,7,9) Root 3
Tridecadien-(3,5)-triin-(7,9,11)-ol-(1)-acetate Root 0.1
Tridecatrien-(1,3,11)-triin-(5,7,9) Root 0.015
Tridecen-(1)-pentain(3,5,7,9,11) Root 1
Tridecen-(12)-tetrain-(4,6,8,10)-al-(1) Root 0.4
Tyramine Plant
Seed
Water Leaf 780,000
Plant 882,000
Zinc Leaf 0.7 3.3
Plant 3.3
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]