Salix alba Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
blue willow cricket-bat willow golden willow silver willow white willow

Salix alba is a species of willow native to Europe and western and central Asia. The name derives from the white tone to the undersides of the leaves. It is a medium-sized to large deciduous tree growing up to 10–30 m tall, with a trunk up to 1 m diameter and an irregular, often-leaning crown. The bark is grey-brown, and deeply fissured in older trees. The shoots in the typical species are grey-brown to green-brown. The leaves are paler than most other willows, due to a covering of very fine, silky white hairs, in particular on the underside; they are 5–10 cm long and 0.5–1.5 cm wide. The flowers are produced in catkins in early spring, and pollinated by insects. It is dioecious, with male and female catkins on separate trees; the male catkins are 4–5 cm long, the female catkins 3–4 cm long at pollination, lengthening as the fruit matures. When mature in midsummer, the female catkins comprise numerous small capsules, each containing numerous minute seeds embedded in white down, which aids wind dispersal.

Salix alba

Medical use

Economic importance of Salix alba

Bee plants honey production
Medicines source of salicin
Weed potential sed contaminant

Gallery

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Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Native
    • Northern Africa: Algeria ; Libya; Morocco
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Western Asia: Cyprus; Iran; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey
    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation - Ciscaucasia, Dagestan
    • Siberia: Russian Federation - Western Siberia
    • Middle Asia: Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
    • China: China - Gansu, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Xizang
  • EUROPE
    Native
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czech Republic; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Slovakia; Switzerland
    • East Europe: Belarus; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Russian Federation - European part; Ukraine
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Greece; Italy ; Macedonia; Montenegro; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia
    • Southwestern Europe: France ; Portugal; Spain

Biological activities

11B-HSD-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark
5-HT-Inhibitor
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark
AP-1-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
ATPase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark
Acetylcholinergic
Glucose found in Wood
Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Amentoflavone found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Astragalin found in Pollen Or Spore
Isoquercitrin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Bark
Quercimeritrin found in Bark ;found in Pollen Or Spore
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Salicylic-acid found in Plant
Allelochemic
Catechin found in Plant
Cyanidin found in Leaf
Delphinidin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Allelopathic
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Allergenic
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Delphinidin found in Leaf
Niacin found in Bark (99 ppm);found in Bark (99 ppm)
Quercetin found in Bark
Analgesic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Quercetin found in Bark
Salicin found in Bark (110000 ppm);found in Leaf (0.09 ppm);found in Bark (110000 ppm)
Salicortin found in Bark ;found in Leaf (0.27 ppm)
Salicylic-acid found in Plant
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Thiamin found in Bark (0 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Fiber found in Bark (94000 ppm)
Potassium found in Bark (9830 ppm);found in Bark (9830 ppm)
Anorexic
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Anthelmintic
Tannin found in Bark (70000 ppm);found in Bark (120000 ppm)
AntiADD
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
AntiAGE
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Chromium found in Bark (0 ppm);found in Bark (0 ppm)
AntiBPH
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
AntiCFS
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Chromium found in Bark (0 ppm);found in Bark (0 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
AntiCTS
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
AntiCVI
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
AntiGTF
Quercetin found in Bark
AntiLyme
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Niacin found in Bark (99 ppm);found in Bark (99 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Bark (1.7 ppm);found in Bark (1.7 ppm)
Thiamin found in Bark (0 ppm)
AntiMS
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
AntiNF-kB
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
AntiPMS
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Calcium found in Bark (14100 ppm);found in Bark (14100 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Manganese found in Bark (6.6 ppm);found in Bark (6.6 ppm)
Quercetin found in Bark
Antiacne
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Chromium found in Bark (0 ppm);found in Bark (0 ppm)
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Tin found in Bark (12 ppm);found in Bark (12 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antiacrodermatitic
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antiacrodynic
Niacin found in Bark (99 ppm);found in Bark (99 ppm)
Antiaflatoxin
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark
Antiaging
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Chromium found in Bark (0 ppm);found in Bark (0 ppm)
Quercetin found in Bark
Antiakathisic
Iron found in Bark (21 ppm);found in Bark (21 ppm)
Antialcoholic
Catechin found in Plant
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Manganese found in Bark (6.6 ppm);found in Bark (6.6 ppm)
Thiamin found in Bark (0 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antiallergic
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Calcium found in Bark (14100 ppm);found in Bark (14100 ppm)
Niacin found in Bark (99 ppm);found in Bark (99 ppm)
Quercetin found in Bark
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antialopecic
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antialzheimeran
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Niacin found in Bark (99 ppm);found in Bark (99 ppm)
Quercetin found in Bark
Thiamin found in Bark (0 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antiamblyopic
Niacin found in Bark (99 ppm);found in Bark (99 ppm)
Antianaphylactic
Quercetin found in Bark
Antianemic
Iron found in Bark (21 ppm);found in Bark (21 ppm)
Manganese found in Bark (6.6 ppm);found in Bark (6.6 ppm)
Antianginal
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Niacin found in Bark (99 ppm);found in Bark (99 ppm)
Antiangiogenic
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antianorectic
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Thiamin found in Bark (0 ppm)
Antianorexic
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antianxiety
Calcium found in Bark (14100 ppm);found in Bark (14100 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Antiapoplectic
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antiarabiflavinotic
Riboflavin found in Bark (1.7 ppm);found in Bark (1.7 ppm)
Antiarrhythmic
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Calcium found in Bark (14100 ppm);found in Bark (14100 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Potassium found in Bark (9830 ppm);found in Bark (9830 ppm)
Antiarteriosclerotic
Silicon found in Bark (2.9 ppm);found in Bark (2.9 ppm)
Antiarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Calcium found in Bark (14100 ppm);found in Bark (14100 ppm)
Catechin found in Plant
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Manganese found in Bark (6.6 ppm);found in Bark (6.6 ppm)
Quercetin found in Bark
Salicylic-acid found in Plant
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Quercetin found in Bark
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Antiatherogenic
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antiatheromic
Pectin found in Bark
Antiatherosclerotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Calcium found in Bark (14100 ppm);found in Bark (14100 ppm)
Chromium found in Bark (0 ppm);found in Bark (0 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Quercetin found in Bark
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Antibackache
Thiamin found in Bark (0 ppm)
Antibacterial
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Catechin found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Lignin found in Wood (255000 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Pectin found in Bark
Quercetin found in Bark
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Salicylic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Bark (70000 ppm);found in Bark (120000 ppm)
Tin found in Bark (12 ppm);found in Bark (12 ppm)
Antiberiberi
Thiamin found in Bark (0 ppm)
Antibradykinic
Amentoflavone found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Anticancer
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Isoquercitrin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Lignin found in Wood (255000 ppm)
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Tannin found in Bark (70000 ppm);found in Bark (120000 ppm)
Anticanker
Iron found in Bark (21 ppm);found in Bark (21 ppm)
Thiamin found in Bark (0 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Anticapillary-Fragility
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Anticarcinomic
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Anticardiospasmic
Thiamin found in Bark (0 ppm)
Anticariogenic
Catechin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Bark
Tannin found in Bark (70000 ppm);found in Bark (120000 ppm)
Anticarpal-Tunnel
Riboflavin found in Bark (1.7 ppm);found in Bark (1.7 ppm)
Anticataract
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Niacin found in Bark (99 ppm);found in Bark (99 ppm)
Quercetin found in Bark
Riboflavin found in Bark (1.7 ppm);found in Bark (1.7 ppm)
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Thiamin found in Bark (0 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Anticephalagic
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Bark (1.7 ppm);found in Bark (1.7 ppm)
Anticervicaldysplasic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Riboflavin found in Bark (1.7 ppm);found in Bark (1.7 ppm)
Anticheilitic
Iron found in Bark (21 ppm);found in Bark (21 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Bark (1.7 ppm);found in Bark (1.7 ppm)
Antichilblain
Niacin found in Bark (99 ppm);found in Bark (99 ppm)
Anticirrhotic
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Anticlastogen
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Anticlimacteric
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Calcium found in Bark (14100 ppm);found in Bark (14100 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Anticoeliac
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Anticold
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Anticolitic
Quercetin found in Bark
Thiamin found in Bark (0 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Anticonvulsant
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Niacin found in Bark (99 ppm);found in Bark (99 ppm)
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Anticorneotic
Chromium found in Bark (0 ppm);found in Bark (0 ppm)
Anticoronary
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Lignin found in Wood (255000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Anticystitic
Quercetin found in Bark
Antidandruff
Salicylic-acid found in Plant
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antidecubitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Bark (1.7 ppm);found in Bark (1.7 ppm)
Thiamin found in Bark (0 ppm)
Antideliriant
Thiamin found in Bark (0 ppm)
Antidementia
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Niacin found in Bark (99 ppm);found in Bark (99 ppm)
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Bark (0 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antidepressant
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Calcium found in Bark (14100 ppm);found in Bark (14100 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Potassium found in Bark (9830 ppm);found in Bark (9830 ppm)
Quercetin found in Bark
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Antidermatitic
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Niacin found in Bark (99 ppm);found in Bark (99 ppm)
Quercetin found in Bark
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antidermatotic
Salicylic-acid found in Plant
Antidiabetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Chromium found in Bark (0 ppm);found in Bark (0 ppm)
Fiber found in Bark (94000 ppm)
Glucomannan found in Bark ;found in Bark (80000 ppm);found in Wood
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Manganese found in Bark (6.6 ppm);found in Bark (6.6 ppm)
Niacin found in Bark (99 ppm);found in Bark (99 ppm)
Pectin found in Bark
Quercetin found in Bark
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Xylose found in Wood
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antidiarrheic
Lignin found in Wood (255000 ppm)
Pectin found in Bark
Tannin found in Bark (70000 ppm);found in Bark (120000 ppm)
Antidiscotic
Manganese found in Bark (6.6 ppm);found in Bark (6.6 ppm)
Antidysenteric
Tannin found in Bark (70000 ppm);found in Bark (120000 ppm)
Antidysgeuzic
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antidyskinetic
Manganese found in Bark (6.6 ppm);found in Bark (6.6 ppm)
Antidysmenorrheic
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Antidyspeptic
Thiamin found in Bark (0 ppm)
Antidysphagic
Niacin found in Bark (99 ppm);found in Bark (99 ppm)
Antieczemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Salicylic-acid found in Plant
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antiedemic
Amentoflavone found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Catechin found in Plant
Glucose found in Wood
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antielastase
Isoquercitrin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark
Antiencephalitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Quercetin found in Bark
Antiencephalopathic
Thiamin found in Bark (0 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antiendometriotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Antiendotoxic
Catechin found in Plant
Antienteritic
Pectin found in Bark
Antienterotic
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Antiepileptic
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Manganese found in Bark (6.6 ppm);found in Bark (6.6 ppm)
Niacin found in Bark (99 ppm);found in Bark (99 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antierythemic
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antiescherichic
Quercetin found in Bark
Antiestrogenic
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark
Antifatigue
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Chromium found in Bark (0 ppm);found in Bark (0 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Potassium found in Bark (9830 ppm);found in Bark (9830 ppm)
Thiamin found in Bark (0 ppm)
Antifeedant
Catechin found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Salicin found in Bark (110000 ppm);found in Leaf (0.09 ppm);found in Bark (110000 ppm)
Antifertility
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Antifibromyalgic
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Antifibrosarcomic
Quercetin found in Bark
Antifibrotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antiflu
Catechin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Bark
Antifuruncular
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antigallstone
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Pectin found in Bark
Antigastric
Quercetin found in Bark
Antigastritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Pectin found in Bark
Thiamin found in Bark (0 ppm)
Antigastrotic
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Antigingivitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Antiglaucomic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antiglossitic
Riboflavin found in Bark (1.7 ppm);found in Bark (1.7 ppm)
Antiglycosuric
Chromium found in Bark (0 ppm);found in Bark (0 ppm)
Antigonadotropic
Quercetin found in Bark
Antigout
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Antihangover
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Niacin found in Bark (99 ppm);found in Bark (99 ppm)
Thiamin found in Bark (0 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antiheartburn
Thiamin found in Bark (0 ppm)
Antihematuric
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antihemorrhagic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Antihepatitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Catechin found in Plant
Antihepatotoxic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Catechin found in Plant
Glucose found in Wood
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Bark
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Tannin found in Bark (70000 ppm);found in Bark (120000 ppm)
Antiherpetic
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Catechin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Bark
Quercimeritrin found in Bark ;found in Pollen Or Spore
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Bark (0 ppm)
Antihistaminic
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Catechin found in Plant
Niacin found in Bark (99 ppm);found in Bark (99 ppm)
Quercetin found in Bark
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antihydrophobic
Quercetin found in Bark
Antihyperactivity
Niacin found in Bark (99 ppm);found in Bark (99 ppm)
Antihyperkeratotic
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Antihyperkinetic
Calcium found in Bark (14100 ppm);found in Bark (14100 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Antihyperlipidemic
Catechin found in Plant
Antihypertensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Calcium found in Bark (14100 ppm);found in Bark (14100 ppm)
Fiber found in Bark (94000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Potassium found in Bark (9830 ppm);found in Bark (9830 ppm)
Quercetin found in Bark
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Tannin found in Bark (70000 ppm);found in Bark (120000 ppm)
Antihypnotic
Triandrin found in Bark ;found in Plant ;found in Leaf (0.09 ppm)
Antihypoglycemic
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Antiichthyosic
Salicylic-acid found in Plant
Antiichythyotic
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Antiimpotence
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antiinfective
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antiinfertility
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antiinsomniac
Calcium found in Bark (14100 ppm);found in Bark (14100 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antiinsomnic
Niacin found in Bark (99 ppm);found in Bark (99 ppm)
Antikeratitic
Riboflavin found in Bark (1.7 ppm);found in Bark (1.7 ppm)
Antikeshan
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Antiketotic
Glucose found in Wood
Antileishmanic
Quercetin found in Bark
Antilepric
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antileukemic
Amentoflavone found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Astragalin found in Pollen Or Spore
Catechin found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Bark
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Antileukonychic
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antileukoplakic
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Antileukotriene
Quercetin found in Bark
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Antilipolytic
Tannin found in Bark (70000 ppm);found in Bark (120000 ppm)
Antilipoperoxidant
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Catechin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Bark
Antilithic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Pectin found in Bark
Antilupus
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Antilymphomic
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antimaculitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antimalarial
Quercetin found in Bark
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antimastalgic
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Antimastitic
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Antimeasles
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Antimelanomic
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Antimenopausal
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Calcium found in Bark (14100 ppm);found in Bark (14100 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Antimenorrhagic
Iron found in Bark (21 ppm);found in Bark (21 ppm)
Antimetastatic
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Pectin found in Bark
Quercetin found in Bark
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antimigraine
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Bark (1.7 ppm);found in Bark (1.7 ppm)
Thiamin found in Bark (0 ppm)
Antimitral-valve-prolapse
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Antimyalgic
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Antimyocarditic
Quercetin found in Bark
Thiamin found in Bark (0 ppm)
Antinephritic
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Tannin found in Bark (70000 ppm);found in Bark (120000 ppm)
Antinephrolytic
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Antinesidioblastosic
Starch found in Bark
Antineuralgic
Niacin found in Bark (99 ppm);found in Bark (99 ppm)
Salicin found in Bark (110000 ppm);found in Leaf (0.09 ppm);found in Bark (110000 ppm)
Salicylic-acid found in Plant
Thiamin found in Bark (0 ppm)
Antineuramidase
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Antineurasthenic
Thiamin found in Bark (0 ppm)
Antineuropathic
Thiamin found in Bark (0 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antineurotic
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Antinitrosaminic
Lignin found in Wood (255000 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Bark
Antinitrosic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Antinyctalopic
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antiobesity
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Calcium found in Bark (14100 ppm);found in Bark (14100 ppm)
Chromium found in Bark (0 ppm);found in Bark (0 ppm)
Fiber found in Bark (94000 ppm)
Pectin found in Bark
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antioncychomycotic
Salicylic-acid found in Plant
Antionychyotic
Silicon found in Bark (2.9 ppm);found in Bark (2.9 ppm)
Antiophidic
Tannin found in Bark (70000 ppm);found in Bark (120000 ppm)
Antiorchitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Antiosteoarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Antiosteoporotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Calcium found in Bark (14100 ppm);found in Bark (14100 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Manganese found in Bark (6.6 ppm);found in Bark (6.6 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Bark (4100 ppm);found in Bark (4100 ppm)
Silicon found in Bark (2.9 ppm);found in Bark (2.9 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antiosteotic
Catechin found in Plant
Antiototic
Manganese found in Bark (6.6 ppm);found in Bark (6.6 ppm)
Antiozenic
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Antipancreatitic
Quercetin found in Bark
Antipapillomic
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Antiparkinsonian
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Niacin found in Bark (99 ppm);found in Bark (99 ppm)
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Antiparotitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Antipellagric
Niacin found in Bark (99 ppm);found in Bark (99 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Bark (1.7 ppm);found in Bark (1.7 ppm)
Antiperiodic
Salicin found in Bark (110000 ppm);found in Leaf (0.09 ppm);found in Bark (110000 ppm)
Salicylic-acid found in Plant
Antiperiodontal
Catechin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Bark
Antiperiodontitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Calcium found in Bark (14100 ppm);found in Bark (14100 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antiperistaltic
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark
Antipermeability
Quercetin found in Bark
Antipharyngitic
Quercetin found in Bark
Antiphotophobic
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Riboflavin found in Bark (1.7 ppm);found in Bark (1.7 ppm)
Antipityriasic
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Antiplaque
Catechin found in Plant
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Quercetin found in Bark
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antiplasmodial
Quercetin found in Bark
Antiplatelet
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antipneumonic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Antipodagric
Salicin found in Bark (110000 ppm);found in Leaf (0.09 ppm);found in Bark (110000 ppm)
Salicylic-acid found in Plant
Antipodriac
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Quercetin found in Bark
Antipolio
Quercetin found in Bark
Antipoliomyelitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Thiamin found in Bark (0 ppm)
Antiporphyric
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Antiprolactin
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antiproliferant
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Quercetin found in Bark
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Antiprostanoid
Quercetin found in Bark
Antiprostatitic
Quercetin found in Bark
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antiprotozoal
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antipsoriac
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Quercetin found in Bark
Salicylic-acid found in Plant
Antipurpuric
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antipyretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Salicin found in Bark (110000 ppm);found in Leaf (0.09 ppm);found in Bark (110000 ppm)
Salicylic-acid found in Plant
Antirenitic
Tannin found in Bark (70000 ppm);found in Bark (120000 ppm)
Antiretinopathic
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Antirheumatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Calcium found in Bark (14100 ppm);found in Bark (14100 ppm)
Salicin found in Bark (110000 ppm);found in Leaf (0.09 ppm);found in Bark (110000 ppm)
Salicylic-acid found in Plant
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antirhinitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Antisclerodermic
Catechin found in Plant
Antiscorbutic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Antiscotomic
Niacin found in Bark (99 ppm);found in Bark (99 ppm)
Antiseborrheic
Salicylic-acid found in Plant
Antiseptic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Salicylic-acid found in Plant
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antishingles
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Antisilicotic
Aluminum found in Bark (67 ppm);found in Bark (67 ppm)
Antispare-Tire
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antispasmodic
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Niacin found in Bark (99 ppm);found in Bark (99 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Potassium found in Bark (9830 ppm);found in Bark (9830 ppm)
Quercetin found in Bark
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antispasmophilic
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Antistomatitic
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antistreptococcic
Quercetin found in Bark
Antistress
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Calcium found in Bark (14100 ppm);found in Bark (14100 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Antistroke
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Potassium found in Bark (9830 ppm);found in Bark (9830 ppm)
Antisunburn
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antisyndrome-X
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Chromium found in Bark (0 ppm);found in Bark (0 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Manganese found in Bark (6.6 ppm);found in Bark (6.6 ppm)
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antithiamin
Quercetin found in Bark
Antithrombic
Quercetin found in Bark
Antithrombogenic
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antithyroid
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antitic
Calcium found in Bark (14100 ppm);found in Bark (14100 ppm)
Antitinnitic
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antitriglyceride
Chromium found in Bark (0 ppm);found in Bark (0 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Antitrypanosomic
Quercetin found in Bark
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antitumor-Promoter
Isoquercitrin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Tannin found in Bark (70000 ppm);found in Bark (120000 ppm)
Antitumor
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Fiber found in Bark (94000 ppm)
Isoquercitrin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Lignin found in Wood (255000 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Bark
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Salicylic-acid found in Plant
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Tannin found in Bark (70000 ppm);found in Bark (120000 ppm)
Antitussive
Pectin found in Bark
Antitympanitic
Salicylic-acid found in Plant
Antiulcerogenic
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Antivaginitic
Aluminum found in Bark (67 ppm);found in Bark (67 ppm)
Antivaricose
Glucose found in Wood
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Antivertigo
Niacin found in Bark (99 ppm);found in Bark (99 ppm)
Antiviral
Amentoflavone found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Catechin found in Plant
Lignin found in Wood (255000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Bark
Quercimeritrin found in Bark ;found in Pollen Or Spore
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Tannin found in Bark (70000 ppm);found in Bark (120000 ppm)
Antixerophthalmic
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Anxiolytic
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Calcium found in Bark (14100 ppm);found in Bark (14100 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Bark (4100 ppm);found in Bark (4100 ppm)
Potassium found in Bark (9830 ppm);found in Bark (9830 ppm)
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Apoptotic
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Quercetin found in Bark
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Aromatase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Asthma-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Bacteristat
Quercetin found in Bark
Beta-Blocker
Fiber found in Bark (94000 ppm)
Potassium found in Bark (9830 ppm);found in Bark (9830 ppm)
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Bradycardiac
Quercetin found in Bark
CNS-Depressant
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
CNS-Stimulant
Salidroside found in Leaf
COMP-Inhibitor
Catechin found in Plant
COMT-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark
Calcium-Antagonist
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Calcium-Channel-Blocker
Calcium found in Bark (14100 ppm);found in Bark (14100 ppm)
Calmodulin-Antagonist
Quercetin found in Bark
Candidicide
Aluminum found in Bark (67 ppm);found in Bark (67 ppm)
Quercetin found in Bark
Capillarigenic
Isoquercitrin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Capillariprotective
Quercetin found in Bark
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Carcinogenic
Catechin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Bark
Tannin found in Bark (70000 ppm);found in Bark (120000 ppm)
Cardiomyopathogenic
Cobalt found in Bark (9.8 ppm);found in Bark (9.8 ppm)
Cardioprotective
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Chromium found in Bark (0 ppm);found in Bark (0 ppm)
Fiber found in Bark (94000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Niacin found in Bark (99 ppm);found in Bark (99 ppm)
Potassium found in Bark (9830 ppm);found in Bark (9830 ppm)
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Silicon found in Bark (2.9 ppm);found in Bark (2.9 ppm)
Cardiotoxic
Potassium found in Bark (9830 ppm);found in Bark (9830 ppm)
Catabolic
Quercetin found in Bark
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Chelator
Lignin found in Wood (255000 ppm)
Tannin found in Bark (70000 ppm);found in Bark (120000 ppm)
Chemopreventive
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Pectin found in Bark
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Choleretic
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Circulotonic
Niacin found in Bark (99 ppm);found in Bark (99 ppm)
Cold-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Collagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Colorant
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Comedolytic
Salicylic-acid found in Plant
Copper-Chelator
Quercetin found in Bark
Cytochrome-P450-1A1-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Cytochrome-P450-1A2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark
Cytoprotective
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark
Demulcent
Pectin found in Bark
Deodorant
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Depressant
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Detoxicant
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Diagnostic
Xylose found in Wood
Diaphoretic
Isoquercitrin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Differentiator
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark
Diuretic
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Calcium found in Bark (14100 ppm);found in Bark (14100 ppm)
Fiber found in Bark (94000 ppm)
Isoquercitrin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Potassium found in Bark (9830 ppm);found in Bark (9830 ppm)
Dye
Xylose found in Wood
Emollient
Starch found in Bark
Encephalopathic
Aluminum found in Bark (67 ppm);found in Bark (67 ppm)
Energizer
Chromium found in Bark (0 ppm);found in Bark (0 ppm)
Ergogenic
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Erythrocytogenic
Cobalt found in Bark (9.8 ppm);found in Bark (9.8 ppm)
Estrogenic
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark
Expectorant
Astragalin found in Pollen Or Spore
Fibrinolytic
Niacin found in Bark (99 ppm);found in Bark (99 ppm)
Fistula-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Fungicide
Amentoflavone found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Catechin found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Pectin found in Bark
Quercetin found in Bark
Salicylic-acid found in Plant
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Gastroprotective
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark
Tannin found in Bark (70000 ppm);found in Bark (120000 ppm)
HIF-1alpha-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
HIV-RT-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark
Hyaluronidase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Hyperglycemic
Glucose found in Wood
Hypertensive
Sodium found in Bark (120 ppm);found in Bark (120 ppm)
Hypocholesterolemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Calcium found in Bark (14100 ppm);found in Bark (14100 ppm)
Catechin found in Plant
Chromium found in Bark (0 ppm);found in Bark (0 ppm)
Fiber found in Bark (94000 ppm)
Glucomannan found in Bark ;found in Bark (80000 ppm);found in Wood
Lignin found in Wood (255000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Niacin found in Bark (99 ppm);found in Bark (99 ppm)
Pectin found in Bark
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Hypotensive
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Astragalin found in Pollen Or Spore
Calcium found in Bark (14100 ppm);found in Bark (14100 ppm)
Chromium found in Bark (0 ppm);found in Bark (0 ppm)
Fiber found in Bark (94000 ppm)
Isoquercitrin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Potassium found in Bark (9830 ppm);found in Bark (9830 ppm)
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Hypouricemic
Fiber found in Bark (94000 ppm)
ICAM-1-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
IKK-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Immunomodulator
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Chromium found in Bark (0 ppm);found in Bark (0 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Immunosuppressant
Tannin found in Bark (70000 ppm);found in Bark (120000 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Inotropic
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark
Insecticide
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Insectifuge
Salicylic-acid found in Plant
Thiamin found in Bark (0 ppm)
Insectiphile
Isoquercitrin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Quercimeritrin found in Bark ;found in Pollen Or Spore
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Insulinogenic
Chromium found in Bark (0 ppm);found in Bark (0 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Quercetin found in Bark
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Interferon-Synergist
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Interferonogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Interleukin-6-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Juvabional
Quercetin found in Bark
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Keratolytic
Salicylic-acid found in Plant
Larvistat
Quercetin found in Bark
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Laxative
Calcium found in Bark (14100 ppm);found in Bark (14100 ppm)
Fiber found in Bark (94000 ppm)
Lignin found in Wood (255000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Leptingenic
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Catechin found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Bark
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Tannin found in Bark (70000 ppm);found in Bark (120000 ppm)
Lithogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Litholytic
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
MAO-A-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark
MAO-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Tannin found in Bark (70000 ppm);found in Bark (120000 ppm)
MAPK-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
MMP-9-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark
Mast-Cell-Stabilizer
Quercetin found in Bark
Memorigenic
Chromium found in Bark (0 ppm);found in Bark (0 ppm)
Memory-Enhancer
Glucose found in Wood
Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark
Mucogenic
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Mucolytic
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Musculotropic
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Mutagenic
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Myoprotective
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Myorelaxant
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark
NEP-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
NO-Synthase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark
Neurotransmitter
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Nodulation-Signal
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Tannin found in Bark (70000 ppm);found in Bark (120000 ppm)
Osteogenic
Phosphorus found in Bark (4100 ppm);found in Bark (4100 ppm)
Oviposition-Stimulant
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
P21-Inducer
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
P450-Inducer
Quercetin found in Bark
P450-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark
PAF-Inhibitor
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
PGE2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark
PKC-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
PTK-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark
Peristaltic
Pectin found in Bark
Pesticide
Aluminum found in Bark (67 ppm);found in Bark (67 ppm)
Amentoflavone found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Catechin found in Plant
Cyanidin found in Leaf
Delphinidin found in Leaf
Isoquercitrin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Lignin found in Wood (255000 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Pectin found in Bark
Quercetin found in Bark
Quercimeritrin found in Bark ;found in Pollen Or Spore
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Salicin found in Bark (110000 ppm);found in Leaf (0.09 ppm);found in Bark (110000 ppm)
Salicylic-acid found in Plant
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Tannin found in Bark (70000 ppm);found in Bark (120000 ppm)
Thiamin found in Bark (0 ppm)
Tin found in Bark (12 ppm);found in Bark (12 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor
Amentoflavone found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Phospholipase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark
Pigment
Cyanidin found in Leaf
Delphinidin found in Leaf
Plasmodicide
Quercetin found in Bark
Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Poultice
Starch found in Bark
Progestational
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Proliferant
Quercetin found in Bark
Prooxidant
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Cyanidin found in Leaf
Delphinidin found in Leaf
Iron found in Bark (21 ppm);found in Bark (21 ppm)
Propecic
Catechin found in Plant
Prostaglandigenic
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Prostaglandin-Sparer
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Bark
Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Protisticide
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Psychotropic
Tannin found in Bark (70000 ppm);found in Bark (120000 ppm)
Quinone-Reductase-Inducer
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark
Radioprotective
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Sedative
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Niacin found in Bark (99 ppm);found in Bark (99 ppm)
Salicin found in Bark (110000 ppm);found in Leaf (0.09 ppm);found in Bark (110000 ppm)
Serotoninergic
Niacin found in Bark (99 ppm);found in Bark (99 ppm)
Spermigenic
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Stimulant
Triandrin found in Bark ;found in Plant ;found in Leaf (0.09 ppm)
Stomachic
Salicin found in Bark (110000 ppm);found in Leaf (0.09 ppm);found in Bark (110000 ppm)
Sunscreen
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Sweetener
Galactose found in Wood
TNF-alpha-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Isoquercitrin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark
Taenicide
Tin found in Bark (12 ppm);found in Bark (12 ppm)
Teratogenic
Salicin found in Bark (110000 ppm);found in Leaf (0.09 ppm);found in Bark (110000 ppm)
Teratologic
Quercetin found in Bark
Testosteronigenic
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Thermogenic
Salicylic-acid found in Plant
Thymoprotective
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Tineacide
Salicylic-acid found in Plant
Tonic
Salicin found in Bark (110000 ppm);found in Leaf (0.09 ppm);found in Bark (110000 ppm)
Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark
Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Isoquercitrin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Tranquilizer
Calcium found in Bark (14100 ppm);found in Bark (14100 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Trichomonicide
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
Tumorigenic
Quercetin found in Bark
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Bark
Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Bark
Ubiquiot
Beta-carotene found in Bark ;found in Bark
Ulcerogenic
Salicylic-acid found in Plant
Uricosuric
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Urinary-Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Uterorelaxant
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Salicin found in Bark (110000 ppm);found in Leaf (0.09 ppm);found in Bark (110000 ppm)
Uterotrophic
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
VEGF-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark
Selenium found in Bark (1.1 ppm);found in Bark (1.1 ppm)
Vasodilator
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Calcium found in Bark (14100 ppm);found in Bark (14100 ppm)
Fiber found in Bark (94000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Bark (5600 ppm);found in Bark (5600 ppm)
Niacin found in Bark (99 ppm);found in Bark (99 ppm)
Potassium found in Bark (9830 ppm);found in Bark (9830 ppm)
Quercetin found in Bark
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Vasopressor
Rutin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Vulnerary
Ascorbic-acid found in Bark (68 ppm);found in Bark (68 ppm)
Zinc found in Bark (2.1 ppm);found in Bark (2.1 ppm)
iNOS-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Bark ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Bark

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
(+)-catechin Bark
Leaf
(+)-gallocatechin Leaf
4-o-methyl-glucuronoxylan Wood
5-hydroxy-pipecolic-acid Leaf
Alboside Bark
Leaf
Alkanes Leaf
Alpha-cellulose Wood 444,000
Alpha-glucan Wood
Aluminum Bark 67
Bark 11 67
Amentoflavone Leaf 120
Apigenin Bark
Leaf
Apigenin-7-o-(4-coumaroyl-glucoside) Leaf
Arabinose Wood
Ascorbic-acid Bark 11 68
Bark 68
Ash Bark 110,000
Bark 18,480 110,000
Wood 8,700
Astragalin Pollen Or Spore
Beta-carotene Bark
Bark
Calcium Bark 14,100
Bark 2,369 14,100
Carbohydrates Bark 789,000
Bark 132,552 789,000
Catechin Plant
Catechin-tannins Bark 30,000 100,000
Cellulose Bark
Chromium Bark 0
Bark 0
Cobalt Bark 9.8
Bark 1.6 9.8
Cupressuflavone Leaf 76
Cyanidin Leaf
Cyanidin-3-glucoside Bark
Delphinidin Leaf
Fat Bark 5,000
Bark 840 5,000
Fiber Bark 94,000
Fiber(crude) Bark 94,000
Fiber(dietary) Bark 342,000
Fragilin Bark
Galactose Wood
Glucomannan Bark
Bark 13,440 80,000
Wood
Glucose Wood
Grandidentatin Bark
Grandidentatum Leaf
Hemicellulose Wood
Holocellulose Wood 752,000
Iron Bark 21
Bark 3.5 21
Isoquercitrin Bark
Leaf
Kilocalories Bark 2,820
L-arabinofuranan Bark
Lignin Wood 255,000
Magnesium Bark 5,600
Bark 941 5,600
Manganese Bark 6.6
Bark 1 6.6
Narcissin Leaf
Niacin Bark 99
Bark 17 99
P-coumaric-acid Plant
Pectin Bark
Pentosans Wood 205,000
Phosphorus Bark 4,100
Bark 689 4,100
Picein Leaf 0.09
Plant
Potassium Bark 9,830
Bark 1,651 9,830
Protein Bark 96,000
Bark 16,128 96,000
Quercetin Bark
Quercetin-3',7-diemthyl-ether-3-o-beta-d-glucoside Leaf
Quercetin-3,7-di-o-beta-d-glucoside Pollen Or Spore
Quercimeritrin Bark
Pollen Or Spore
Resin Bark
Rhamnose Wood
Riboflavin Bark 0.3 1.7
Bark 1.7
Rutin Bark
Leaf
Salicase Bark
Salicin Bark 25,000 110,000
Leaf 0.09
Bark 4,200 110,000
Salicortin Bark
Leaf 0.27
Salicyl-alcohol Plant
Salicylic-acid Plant
Salidroside Leaf
Salireposide Bark
Selenium Bark 0.2 1.1
Bark 1.1
Silicon Bark 2.9
Bark 0.5 2.9
Sodium Bark 120
Bark 20 120
Starch Bark
Syringoside Shoot
Tannin Bark 50,000 70,000
Bark 20,160 120,000
Terniflorin Leaf
Thiamin Bark 0
Thiamine Bark 0
Tin Bark 12
Bark 2 12
Tremuloidin Leaf 0.2
Triandrin Bark
Plant
Leaf 0.09
Vimalin Leaf
Water Bark 832,000
Bark 832,000
Xylose Wood
Zinc Bark 2.1
Bark 0.4 2.1
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]