Rosa gallica Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
apothecary rose French rose Hungarian rose officinal rose red rose red-rose-of-Lancaster

Rosa gallica is a species of flowering plant in the rose family, native to southern and central Europe eastwards to Turkey and the Caucasus.

Rosa gallica

Medical use

Economic importance of Rosa gallica

Environmental ornamental
Materials esential oils
Medicines folklore

Gallery

Rosa gallica Rosa gallica Rosa gallica Rosa gallica Rosa gallica Rosa gallica Rosa gallica Rosa gallica Rosa gallica Rosa gallica Rosa gallica Rosa gallica Rosa gallica

Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Native
    • Northern Africa: Libya
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Western Asia: Turkey
    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia
  • EUROPE
    Native
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czech Republic; Germany; Hungary; Poland; Slovakia; Switzerland
    • East Europe: Moldova; Ukraine
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Greece; Italy; Macedonia; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia
    • Southwestern Europe: France

Biological activities

ACE-Inhibitor
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Myrcene found in Essential Oil
Quercitrin found in Flower
Acaricide
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Acidifier
Tartaric-acid found in Flower
Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Additive
Tartaric-acid found in Flower
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Myrcene found in Essential Oil
Quercitrin found in Flower
Allelochemic
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil
Allergenic
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Essential Oil
Citral found in Flower
Citronellol found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Farnesol found in Flower
Geraniol found in Flower (275 ppm)
Myrcene found in Essential Oil
Analgesic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Myrcene found in Essential Oil
Androgenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Anesthetic
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Angiogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Anorexic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Anthelmintic
Geraniol found in Flower (275 ppm)
AntiAGE
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
AntiCFS
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
AntiCTS
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
AntiHIV
Gallic-acid found in Flower
AntiLyme
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
AntiMRSA
Gallic-acid found in Flower
AntiPMS
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
AntiTNF
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Antiacne
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Antiadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Farnesol found in Flower
Antiadenovirus
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Antiaggregant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Antiaging
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Antiallergenic
Citral found in Flower
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Antiallergic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Citral found in Flower
Antialopecic
Inositol found in Flower
Antialzheimeran
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antianaphylactic
Citral found in Flower
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Antiandrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Antiangiogenic
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Antiarachidonate
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Antiarrhythmic
Quercitrin found in Flower
Antiarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Antiatheromic
Pectin found in Flower
Antiatherosclerotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Malic-acid found in Flower
Antibacterial
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Citral found in Flower
Citronellol found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Geraniol found in Flower (275 ppm)
Malic-acid found in Flower
Myrcene found in Essential Oil
Nerol found in Flower (36 ppm)
Pectin found in Flower
Quercitrin found in Flower
Antibronchitic
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Anticancer
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Citral found in Flower
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Anticarcinomic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Anticariogenic
Geraniol found in Flower (275 ppm)
Anticataract
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Quercitrin found in Flower
Anticervicaldysplasic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Anticirrhotic
Inositol found in Flower
Anticlimacteric
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Anticold
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Anticonvulsant
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Myrcene found in Essential Oil
Anticoronary
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Antidecubitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antidementia
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antidepressant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antidiabetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Pectin found in Flower
Antidiarrheic
Pectin found in Flower
Antieczemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antiedemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Quercitrin found in Flower
Antiencephalitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antiendometriotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antienteritic
Pectin found in Flower
Antiescherichic
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Antiestrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Antifatigue
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antifeedant
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Quercitrin found in Flower
Antifertility
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Antifibrinolytic
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Antifibromyalgic
Malic-acid found in Flower
Antifibrotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antiflu
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Quercitrin found in Flower
Antigallstone
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Pectin found in Flower
Antigastritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Pectin found in Flower
Antigenotoxic
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Antigingivitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antiglaucomic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antigonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Antihangover
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antihelicobacter
Citral found in Flower
Nerol found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antihemorrhagic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Quercitrin found in Flower
Antihepatitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antihepatotoxic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Quercitrin found in Flower
Antiherpetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Citral found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Quercitrin found in Flower
Antihistaminic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Citral found in Flower
Antihyperkeratotic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Antihyperlipoproteinaemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Antihypertensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antiichythyotic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Antiinfertility
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antiinflammatory
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Essential Oil
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Citral found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Quercitrin found in Flower
Antikeratotic
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Antileishmanic
Citral found in Flower
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Antilepric
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antileukemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Farnesol found in Flower
Antileukoplakic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Antilipoperoxidant
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Antilithic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Pectin found in Flower
Antilupus
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Antilymphomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Antimaculitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Antimastitic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Antimeasles
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antimelanomic
Farnesol found in Flower
Geraniol found in Flower (275 ppm)
Antimenopausal
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antimetastatic
Pectin found in Flower
Antimigraine
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antimitotic
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Antimutagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Myrcene found in Essential Oil
Pectin found in Flower
Quercitrin found in Flower
Antineuramidase
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antinitrosaminic
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Myrcene found in Essential Oil
Antinitrosating
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Antinitrosic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antinociceptive
Myrcene found in Essential Oil
Antiobesity
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Pectin found in Flower
Antiophidic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Antiorchitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antiosteoarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antiosteoporotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antioxidant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Citral found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Myrcene found in Essential Oil
Quercitrin found in Flower
Antiozenic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Antipapillomic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Antiparkinsonian
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antiparotitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antiperiodontitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Antiperoxidant
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Antiphotophobic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Antipityriasic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Antipneumonic
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antipodriac
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antipolio
Cyanin found in Flower
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Antipoliomyelitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antiporphyric
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Antiprogestational
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Antiproliferant
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Antiprostaglandin
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Antiprostatadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Antiprostatitic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Antiproteolytic
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Antipsoriac
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Antipurpuric
Quercitrin found in Flower
Antipyretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Antiradicular
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Antiretinotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antirheumatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Antirhinitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antisalmonella
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Geraniol found in Flower (275 ppm)
Antiscorbutic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antiseborrheic
Malic-acid found in Flower
Antiseptic
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Essential Oil
Citral found in Flower
Citronellol found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Geraniol found in Flower (275 ppm)
Malic-acid found in Flower
Nerol found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antishingles
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antishock
Citral found in Flower
Antispasmodic
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Essential Oil
Citral found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Farnesol found in Flower
Geraniol found in Flower (275 ppm)
Myrcene found in Essential Oil
Quercitrin found in Flower
Antistaphylococcic
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil
Citronellol found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Quercitrin found in Flower
Antistreptococcic
Citronellol found in Flower
Antistress
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Antisyndrome-X
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Antithrombogenic
Quercitrin found in Flower
Antithromboxane
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Antitubercular
Geraniol found in Flower (275 ppm)
Malic-acid found in Flower
Antitumor-Promoter
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Antitumor
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Citral found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Geraniol found in Flower (275 ppm)
Malic-acid found in Flower
Quercitrin found in Flower
Antitussive
Pectin found in Flower
Antiulcer
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Citral found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Nerol found in Flower (36 ppm)
Pectin found in Flower
Quercitrin found in Flower
Antiviral
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Citral found in Flower
Cyanin found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Quercitrin found in Flower
Antixerophthalmic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Apifuge
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Apoptotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Citral found in Flower
Farnesol found in Flower
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Artemicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Ascaricide
Geraniol found in Flower (275 ppm)
Asthma-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Astringent
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Bacteristat
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Malic-acid found in Flower
Barbituate-Synergist
Citral found in Flower
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Bronchodilator
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Bronchorelaxant
Citral found in Flower
Bruchiphobe
Malic-acid found in Flower
CNS-Depressant
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Quercitrin found in Flower
CNS-Stimulant
Geraniol found in Flower (275 ppm)
COX-1-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
COX-2-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Calcium-Antagonist
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Citral found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Cancer-Preventive
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Citral found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Geraniol found in Flower (275 ppm)
Pectin found in Flower
Quercitrin found in Flower
Candidicide
Beta-pinene found in Essential Oil
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Citronellol found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Geraniol found in Flower (275 ppm)
Carcinogenic
Citral found in Flower
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Cardioprotective
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Cardiotonic
Quercitrin found in Flower
Carminative
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Caspase-3-Inducer
Citral found in Flower
Caspase-8-Inducer
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Chemopreventive
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Citral found in Flower
Myrcene found in Essential Oil
Pectin found in Flower
Choleretic
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Quercitrin found in Flower
Cholesterolytic
Inositol found in Flower
Cold-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Coleoptophile
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil
Collagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Colorant
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Cyclooxygenase-Activator
Quercitrin found in Flower
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Cytochrome-P450-Inhibitor
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Cytotoxic
Citral found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Demulcent
Pectin found in Flower
Dermatitigenic
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Detoxicant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Quercitrin found in Flower
Diuretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Quercitrin found in Flower
Dye
Quercitrin found in Flower
Embryotoxic
Geraniol found in Flower (275 ppm)
Emetic
Cyanin found in Flower
Geraniol found in Flower (275 ppm)
Enterorelaxant
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Estrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Citral found in Flower
Nerol found in Flower (36 ppm)
Expectorant
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil
Citral found in Flower
Geraniol found in Flower (275 ppm)
FLavor
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil
Beta-pinene found in Essential Oil
Citral found in Flower
Citronellol found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Farnesol found in Flower
Geraniol found in Flower (275 ppm)
Myrcene found in Essential Oil
Nerol found in Flower (36 ppm)
Tartaric-acid found in Flower
Febrifuge
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Fistula-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Floral-Inhibitor
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Fungicide
Citral found in Flower
Citronellol found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Geraniol found in Flower (275 ppm)
Myrcene found in Essential Oil
Pectin found in Flower
Gastroprotective
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Glaucomagenic
Citral found in Flower
Glutathionigenic
Citral found in Flower
Gonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Hemopoietic
Malic-acid found in Flower
Hemostat
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Pectin found in Flower
Quercitrin found in Flower
Hepatoprotective
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Hepatotonic
Quercitrin found in Flower
Herbicide
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil
Beta-pinene found in Essential Oil
Citral found in Flower
Citronellol found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Geraniol found in Flower (275 ppm)
Hypocholesterolemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Pectin found in Flower
Hypoglycemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Pectin found in Flower
Quercitrin found in Flower
Hypolipidemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Hypotensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Quercitrin found in Flower
Hypothermic
Myrcene found in Essential Oil
Immunomodulator
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Immunostimulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Immunosuppressant
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Insecticide
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Insectifuge
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil
Beta-pinene found in Essential Oil
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Geraniol found in Flower (275 ppm)
Myrcene found in Essential Oil
Insectiphile
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil
Geraniol found in Flower (275 ppm)
Quercitrin found in Flower
Insulin-Sparing
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Interferon-Synergist
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Interferonogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Irritant
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil
Beta-pinene found in Essential Oil
Citronellol found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Myrcene found in Essential Oil
Tartaric-acid found in Flower
Juvabional
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Farnesol found in Flower
Larvicide
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Lipotropic
Inositol found in Flower
Lithogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
MAO-A-Inhibitor
Quercitrin found in Flower
MAO-Inhibitor
Quercitrin found in Flower
Motor-Depressant
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Mucogenic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Mucolytic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Mycobactericide
Geraniol found in Flower (275 ppm)
Malic-acid found in Flower
Myorelaxant
Citral found in Flower
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Myrcene found in Essential Oil
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Citral found in Flower
NO-Inhibitor
Citral found in Flower
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Nematicide
Citral found in Flower
Citronellol found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Farnesol found in Flower
Geraniol found in Flower (275 ppm)
Nephrotoxic
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Neurotoxic
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
P450-2B1-Inhibitor
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil
Citral found in Flower
Myrcene found in Essential Oil
Paralytic
Quercitrin found in Flower
Perfumery
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil
Beta-pinene found in Essential Oil
Citral found in Flower
Citronellol found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Farnesol found in Flower
Geraniol found in Flower (275 ppm)
Myrcene found in Essential Oil
Nerol found in Flower (36 ppm)
Peristaltic
Pectin found in Flower
Pesticide
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Essential Oil
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Citral found in Flower
Citronellol found in Flower
Cyanin found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Farnesol found in Flower
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Geraniol found in Flower (275 ppm)
Malic-acid found in Flower
Myrcene found in Essential Oil
Nerol found in Flower (36 ppm)
Pectin found in Flower
Quercitrin found in Flower
Phagocytotic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Pheromonal
Farnesol found in Flower
Pigment
Cyanin found in Flower
Prooxidant
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Prostatitigenic
Citral found in Flower
Sedative
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil
Citral found in Flower
Citronellol found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Farnesol found in Flower
Geraniol found in Flower (275 ppm)
Nerol found in Flower (36 ppm)
Sequestrant
Tartaric-acid found in Flower
Sialogogue
Malic-acid found in Flower
Spasmogenic
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil
Beta-pinene found in Essential Oil
Spermicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Styptic
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Sweetener
Inositol found in Flower
Teratogenic
Citral found in Flower
Termiticide
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Thymoprotective
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor
Gallic-acid found in Flower
Tranquilizer
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil
Transdermal
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil
Beta-pinene found in Essential Oil
Trichomonicide
Citral found in Flower
Citronellol found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Farnesol found in Flower
Geraniol found in Flower (275 ppm)
Nerol found in Flower (36 ppm)
Trichomonistat
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Trypanocide
Citral found in Flower
Trypsin-Enhancer
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
Citral found in Flower
Ubiquiot
Beta-carotene found in Flower (17 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Inositol found in Flower
Ulcerogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Uricosuric
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Urinary-Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Varroacide
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Vasodilator
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Vasopressor
Quercitrin found in Flower
Vermifuge
Eugenol found in Flower (4 ppm)
Vulnerary
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (8470 ppm)
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Gallic-acid found in Flower

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
Alpha-pinene Essential Oil
Ascorbic-acid Fruit 5,450 8,470
Beta-carotene Flower 16 17
Beta-pinene Essential Oil
Beta-sitosterol Flower
Citral Flower
Citronellol Flower
Cyanin Flower
Eo Flower 270 360
Eugenol Flower 2 4
Farnesol Flower
Gallic-acid Flower
Gallicosides Flower
Geranic-acid Essential Oil
Geraniol Flower 100 275
Geraniol-aldehyde Essential Oil
Inositol Flower
L-citronellol Flower 40 130
L-linalol Flower
Malic-acid Flower
Methionine-sulfoxide Flower
Myrcene Essential Oil
Nerol Flower 15 36
Nonyl-aldehyde Flower
Pectin Flower
Phenyl-ethyl-alcohol Flower 8 32
Quercitrin Flower
Resin Flower
Rosatannic-acid Flower 100,000 240,000
Saponin Flower 13,000
Leaf 85,000
Shisonin-a Flower
Stearoptenes Flower 40 105
Sugar Flower 30,000 140,000
Tannins Flower 100,000 240,000
Tartaric-acid Flower
Wax Flower
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]