Rhus glabra Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
red sumac scarlet sumac scarlet sumach smooth sumac smooth sumach upland sumach vinegar-bush vinegar-tree

Rhus glabra is a species of sumac in the family Anacardiaceae, native to North America, from southern Quebec west to southern British Columbia in Canada, and south to northern Florida and Arizona in the United States and Tamaulipas in northeastern Mexico. One of the easiest shrubs to identify throughout the year smooth sumac has a spreading, open-growing shrub growing up to 3 metres tall, rarely to 5 metres. The leaves are alternate, 30–50 cm long, compound with 11-31 leaflets, each leaflet 5–11 cm long, with a serrated margin. The leaves turn scarlet in the fall. The flowers are tiny, green, produced in dense erect panicles 10–25 centimetres tall, in the spring, later followed by large panicles of edible crimson berries that remain throughout the winter. The buds are small, covered with brown hair and borne on fat, hairless twigs. The bark on older wood is smooth and grey to brown. In late summer it sometimes forms galls on the underside of leaves, caused by the parasitic sumac leaf gall aphid, Melaphis rhois. The galls are not harmful to the tree.

Rhus glabra

Medical use

Economic importance of Rhus glabra

Environmental erosion control ornamental
Medicines folklore

Gallery

Rhus glabra Rhus glabra Rhus glabra Rhus glabra Rhus glabra Rhus glabra Rhus glabra Rhus glabra Rhus glabra Rhus glabra Rhus glabra Rhus glabra Rhus glabra Rhus glabra Rhus glabra Rhus glabra

Geografical distribution

  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Native
    • Eastern Canada: Canada - Ontario , Quebec
    • Western Canada: Canada - British Columbia , Manitoba , Saskatchewan
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Illinois, Iowa, Kansas , Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska , North Dakota , Oklahoma, South Dakota , Wisconsin
    • Northwestern U.S.A.: United States - Colorado , Idaho , Montana , Oregon , Washington , Wyoming
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida , Georgia , Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina , South Carolina , Tennessee, Virginia
    • South-Central U.S.A.: United States - Texas
    • Southwestern U.S.A.: United States - Arizona , Nevada , Utah
    • Northern Mexico: Mexico - Chihuahua, Sonora , Tamaulipas

Biological activities

5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Fisetin found in Leaf
ACE-Inhibitor
Fisetin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
AP-1-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Acidifier
Tartaric-acid found in Plant
Acnegenic
Iodine found in Stem (6 ppm)
Additive
Tartaric-acid found in Plant
Allergenic
Fisetin found in Leaf
Analgesic
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Androgenic
Boron found in Stem (34 ppm)
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Potassium found in Stem (14740 ppm)
Anorexic
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Anthelmintic
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)
AntiAGE
Chromium found in Stem (10.05 ppm)
AntiBPH
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
AntiCFS
Chromium found in Stem (10.05 ppm)
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
AntiHIV
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
AntiLyme
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
AntiMS
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
AntiNF-kB
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
AntiPMS
Calcium found in Stem (24790 ppm)
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Manganese found in Stem (134 ppm)
Antiacne
Chromium found in Stem (10.05 ppm)
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antiacrodermatitic
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antiadrenalinic
Nickel found in Stem (6.7 ppm)
Antiaggregant
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Antiaging
Chromium found in Stem (10.05 ppm)
Antialcoholic
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Manganese found in Stem (134 ppm)
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antiallergic
Calcium found in Stem (24790 ppm)
Antialopecic
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antialzheimeran
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antianemic
Copper found in Stem (20 ppm)
Manganese found in Stem (134 ppm)
Antianginal
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Antiangiogenic
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antianorectic
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Antianorexic
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antianxiety
Calcium found in Stem (24790 ppm)
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Antiarrhythmic
Calcium found in Stem (24790 ppm)
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Potassium found in Stem (14740 ppm)
Antiarthritic
Calcium found in Stem (24790 ppm)
Copper found in Stem (20 ppm)
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Manganese found in Stem (134 ppm)
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Antiatherosclerotic
Calcium found in Stem (24790 ppm)
Chromium found in Stem (10.05 ppm)
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Antibacterial
Iodine found in Stem (6 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)
Anticancer
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)
Anticanker
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Anticariogenic
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)
Anticataract
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Anticephalagic
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Anticirrhotic
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Anticlimacteric
Calcium found in Stem (24790 ppm)
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Anticoeliac
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Anticold
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Anticolitic
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Anticonvulsant
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Anticorneotic
Chromium found in Stem (10.05 ppm)
Anticoronary
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antidandruff
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antidementia
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antidepressant
Calcium found in Stem (24790 ppm)
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Potassium found in Stem (14740 ppm)
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Antidiabetic
Chromium found in Stem (10.05 ppm)
Copper found in Stem (20 ppm)
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Manganese found in Stem (134 ppm)
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antidiarrheic
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)
Antidiscotic
Manganese found in Stem (134 ppm)
Antidysenteric
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)
Antidysgeuzic
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antidyskinetic
Manganese found in Stem (134 ppm)
Antidysmenorrheic
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Antieczemic
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antiencephalopathic
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antiendometriotic
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Antienterotic
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Antiepileptic
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Manganese found in Stem (134 ppm)
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antifatigue
Chromium found in Stem (10.05 ppm)
Copper found in Stem (20 ppm)
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Potassium found in Stem (14740 ppm)
Antifibromyalgic
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Antifibrotic
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antifuruncular
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antigastrotic
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Antiglaucomic
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Antiglycosuric
Chromium found in Stem (10.05 ppm)
Antigoiter
Iodine found in Stem (6 ppm)
Antigout
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Antihangover
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antihepatotoxic
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)
Antiherpetic
Dihydrofisetin found in Leaf
Antihistaminic
Fisetin found in Leaf
Antihyperkinetic
Calcium found in Stem (24790 ppm)
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Antihypertensive
Calcium found in Stem (24790 ppm)
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Potassium found in Stem (14740 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)
Antihypoglycemic
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Antiimpotence
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antiinfective
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antiinfertility
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antiinflammatory
Copper found in Stem (20 ppm)
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Antiinsomniac
Calcium found in Stem (24790 ppm)
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antikeshan
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Antilepric
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antileukemic
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Antileukonychic
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antileukotriene
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Antilipolytic
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)
Antilithic
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Antilymphomic
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antimaculitic
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antimastalgic
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Antimelanomic
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Antimenopausal
Calcium found in Stem (24790 ppm)
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Antimetastatic
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antimigraine
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Antimitral-valve-prolapse
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Antimutagenic
Fisetin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)
Antimyalgic
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Antinephritic
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)
Antinephrolytic
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Antineuropathic
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antineurotic
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Antinociceptive
Copper found in Stem (20 ppm)
Antinyctalopic
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antiobesity
Calcium found in Stem (24790 ppm)
Chromium found in Stem (10.05 ppm)
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antiophidic
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)
Antiosteoarthritic
Boron found in Stem (34 ppm)
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Antiosteoporotic
Boron found in Stem (34 ppm)
Calcium found in Stem (24790 ppm)
Copper found in Stem (20 ppm)
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Manganese found in Stem (134 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Stem (2412 ppm)
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antiototic
Manganese found in Stem (134 ppm)
Antioxidant
Fisetin found in Leaf
Manganese found in Stem (134 ppm)
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)
Antiparkinsonian
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Antiperiodontitic
Calcium found in Stem (24790 ppm)
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antiplaque
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antiprolactin
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antiproliferant
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Antiprostatitic
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antiradicular
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)
Antirenitic
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)
Antiretinopathic
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Antirheumatic
Calcium found in Stem (24790 ppm)
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antiseptic
Iodine found in Stem (6 ppm)
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antisilicotic
Aluminum found in Stem (1005 ppm)
Antispare-Tire
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antispasmodic
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Potassium found in Stem (14740 ppm)
Antispasmophilic
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Antistomatitic
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antistress
Calcium found in Stem (24790 ppm)
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Antistroke
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Potassium found in Stem (14740 ppm)
Antisyndrome-X
Chromium found in Stem (10.05 ppm)
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Manganese found in Stem (134 ppm)
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antithyrotoxic
Iodine found in Stem (6 ppm)
Antitic
Calcium found in Stem (24790 ppm)
Antitinnitic
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antitriglyceride
Chromium found in Stem (10.05 ppm)
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antitumor-Promoter
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)
Antitumor
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)
Antiulcer
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Antiulcerogenic
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Antivaginitic
Aluminum found in Stem (1005 ppm)
Antiviral
Dihydrofisetin found in Leaf
Fisetin found in Leaf
Iodine found in Stem (6 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)
Anxiolytic
Calcium found in Stem (24790 ppm)
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Stem (2412 ppm)
Potassium found in Stem (14740 ppm)
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Apoptotic
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Astringent
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Beta-Blocker
Potassium found in Stem (14740 ppm)
CNS-Depressant
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Calcium-Antagonist
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Calcium-Channel-Blocker
Calcium found in Stem (24790 ppm)
Cancer-Preventive
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)
Candidicide
Aluminum found in Stem (1005 ppm)
Carcinogenic
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)
Cardiomyopathogenic
Cobalt found in Stem (0.47 ppm)
Cardioprotective
Chromium found in Stem (10.05 ppm)
Copper found in Stem (20 ppm)
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Potassium found in Stem (14740 ppm)
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Cardiotoxic
Potassium found in Stem (14740 ppm)
Chelator
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)
Collagenic
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Contraceptive
Copper found in Stem (20 ppm)
Copper-Antagonist
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Fisetin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)
Deodorant
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Depressant
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Dermatitigenic
Iodine found in Stem (6 ppm)
Diuretic
Calcium found in Stem (24790 ppm)
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Potassium found in Stem (14740 ppm)
Encephalopathic
Aluminum found in Stem (1005 ppm)
Energizer
Chromium found in Stem (10.05 ppm)
Ergogenic
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Erythrocytogenic
Cobalt found in Stem (0.47 ppm)
Estrogenic
Boron found in Stem (34 ppm)
FLavor
Tartaric-acid found in Plant
Fungicide
Iodine found in Stem (6 ppm)
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)
Goitrogenic
Iodine found in Stem (6 ppm)
Hepatoprotective
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)
Hypertensive
Cadmium found in Stem (4 ppm)
Sodium found in Stem (107 ppm)
Hyperthyroid
Iodine found in Stem (6 ppm)
Hypocholesterolemic
Calcium found in Stem (24790 ppm)
Chromium found in Stem (10.05 ppm)
Copper found in Stem (20 ppm)
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Hypoglycemic
Chromium found in Stem (10.05 ppm)
Manganese found in Stem (134 ppm)
Hypotensive
Calcium found in Stem (24790 ppm)
Chromium found in Stem (10.05 ppm)
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Potassium found in Stem (14740 ppm)
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Immunomodulator
Chromium found in Stem (10.05 ppm)
Copper found in Stem (20 ppm)
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Immunostimulant
Phosphorus found in Stem (2412 ppm)
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Immunosuppressant
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Insulin-Sparing
Nickel found in Stem (6.7 ppm)
Insulinogenic
Chromium found in Stem (10.05 ppm)
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Fisetin found in Leaf
Irritant
Tartaric-acid found in Plant
Laxative
Calcium found in Stem (24790 ppm)
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Leptingenic
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Fisetin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)
Lithogenic
Cadmium found in Stem (4 ppm)
Litholytic
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
MAO-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)
Memorigenic
Chromium found in Stem (10.05 ppm)
Mucogenic
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Myorelaxant
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Nephrotoxic
Cadmium found in Stem (4 ppm)
Neurotransmitter
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)
Osteogenic
Phosphorus found in Stem (2412 ppm)
Oxidase-Inhibitor
Fisetin found in Leaf
Pesticide
Aluminum found in Stem (1005 ppm)
Dihydrofisetin found in Leaf
Fisetin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Prostaglandin-Sparer
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Protisticide
Iodine found in Stem (6 ppm)
Psychotropic
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)
Schizophrenigenic
Copper found in Stem (20 ppm)
Sequestrant
Tartaric-acid found in Plant
Spermigenic
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Testosteronigenic
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Thyrotropic
Iodine found in Stem (6 ppm)
Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor
Fisetin found in Leaf
Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor
Fisetin found in Leaf
Tranquilizer
Calcium found in Stem (24790 ppm)
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Trichomonicide
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Uterorelaxant
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
VEGF-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Stem (0.25 ppm)
Vasodilator
Calcium found in Stem (24790 ppm)
Magnesium found in Stem (4690 ppm)
Potassium found in Stem (14740 ppm)
Vulnerary
Zinc found in Stem (208 ppm)
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Leaf (270000 ppm)

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
Aluminum Stem 2 1,005
Ash Stem 21,000 67,000
Barium Stem 1 335
Boron Stem 2 34
Cadmium Stem 0 4
Calcium Stem 2,520 24,790
Calcium-malate Fruit
Chromium Stem 0 10.05
Cobalt Stem 0 0.47
Copper Stem 0.6 20
Dihydrofisetin Leaf
Fat Seed 87,000 120,000
Fisetin Leaf
Fluorine Stem 0 0.134
Gallic-acid-methylester Plant
Iodine Stem 3 6
Lead Stem 0.4 20
Magnesium Stem 147 4,690
Manganese Stem 3 134
Molybdenum Stem 0 4.69
Nickel Stem 0 6.7
Phosphorus Stem 126 2,412
Potassium Stem 1,176 14,740
Protein Seed 100,000
Selenium Stem 0 0.25
Sodium Stem 2 107
Strontium Stem 4 670
Tannin Leaf 270,000
Tartaric-acid Plant
Titanium Stem 0.2 100
Zinc Stem 3 208
Zirconium Stem 0.4 3.4
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]