Pteridium aquilinum Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
bracken bracken fern brake northern bracken fern

Pteridium aquilinum, also known as "eagle fern," is a species of fern occurring in temperate and subtropical regions in both hemispheres. The extreme lightness of its spores has led to its global distribution. Common bracken was first described as Pteris aquilina by the father of taxonomy, Carl Linnaeus, in Volume 2 of his Species Plantarum in 1753. The origin of the specific epithet derived from the Latin aquila "eagle", but what it pertains to has been a matter of some debate. It is generally held to be the shape of the mature fronds appearing akin to an eagle's wing. However, medieval scholars, including Erasmus, thought the pattern of the fibres seen in a transverse section of the stipe resembled a double-headed eagle or oak tree. It was given its current binomial name by Friedrich Adalbert Maximilian Kuhn in 1879. It was traditionally treated as the sole species in the genus Pteridium; authorities have split and recognised up to 11 species in the genus, however. It is a herbaceous perennial plant, deciduous in winter.

Pteridium aquilinum

Medical use

Economic importance of Pteridium aquilinum

Human food starch vegetable
Medicines folklore
Vertebrate poisons mamals

Gallery

Pteridium aquilinum Pteridium aquilinum Pteridium aquilinum Pteridium aquilinum Pteridium aquilinum Pteridium aquilinum Pteridium aquilinum Pteridium aquilinum Pteridium aquilinum Pteridium aquilinum Pteridium aquilinum Pteridium aquilinum Pteridium aquilinum

Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Native
    • Macaronesia: Portugal - Azores, Madeira Islands; Spain - Canary Islands
    • Northern Africa: Algeria; Morocco
    • Northeast Tropical Africa: Ethiopia; Sudan
    • East Tropical Africa: Kenya; Tanzania; Uganda
    • West-Central Tropical Africa: Cameroon; Zaire
    • West Tropical Africa: Liberia; Sierra Leone
    • South Tropical Africa: Angola; Malawi; Mozambique; Zambia; Zimbabwe
    • Southern Africa: Lesotho; South Africa; Swaziland
    • Western Indian Ocean: Madagascar; Mauritius; Reunion
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Arabian Peninsula: Yemen
    • Western Asia: Turkey
    • Siberia: Russian Federation - Altay, Buryatia, Chita, Gorno-Altay, Irkutsk, Kemerovo, Krasnoyarsk, Kurgan, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Tomsk, Tuva, Tyumen, Yakutia-Sakha
    • Mongolia: Mongolia
    • Russian Far East: Russian Federation - Amur, Kamchatka, Primorye, Sakhalin
    • China: China
    • Eastern Asia: Japan - Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Ryukyu Islands, Shikoku; Korea, North; Korea, South; Taiwan
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Native
    • Indian Subcontinent: India; Sri Lanka
    • Indo-China: Cambodia; Thailand; Vietnam
    • Malesia: Indonesia; Malaysia; Papua New Guinea; Philippines
  • EUROPE
    Native
    • Northern Europe: Denmark; Finland; Ireland; Norway; Sweden; United Kingdom
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czech Republic; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Slovakia; Switzerland
    • East Europe: Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Russian Federation - European part
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Greece ; Italy ; Macedonia; Montenegro; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia
    • Southwestern Europe: France ; Portugal; Spain
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Native
    • Subarctic America: United States - Alaska
    • Eastern Canada: Canada - New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec; St. Pierre and Miquelon
    • Western Canada: Canada - Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin
    • Northwestern U.S.A.: United States - Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee
    • South-Central U.S.A.: United States - New Mexico, Texas
    • Southwestern U.S.A.: United States - Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah
    • Northern Mexico: Mexico - Baja Norte, Baja Sur, Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa
    • Southern Mexico: Mexico - Aguascalientes, Chiapas, Federal District, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Veracruz

Biological activities

11B-HSD-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
5-HT-Inhibitor
Rutin found in Plant
5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
ACE-Inhibitor
Isoquercitrin found in Plant
ATPase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Absorbent
Starch found in Rhizome (450000 ppm)
Acetylcholinergic
Glucose found in Plant
Acidulant
Fumaric-acid found in Leaf
Acnegenic
Iodine found in Leaf (0.9 ppm)
Additive
Succinic-acid found in Plant
Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Prunasin found in Leaf (1580 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Allelochemic
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Allelopathic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Allergenic
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Alpha-Glucosidase-Inhibitor
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Analgesic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Anesthetic
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Fiber found in Leaf (160919 ppm);found in Rhizome (222222 ppm)
Anthelmintic
Tannin found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
AntiCVI
Rutin found in Plant
AntiGTF
Quercetin found in Plant
AntiHIV-Integrase
Cichoric-acid found in Plant
AntiHIV
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cichoric-acid found in Plant
Procyanidin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Tiliroside found in Plant
AntiLegionella
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
AntiPMS
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
AntiUTI
Mannose found in Plant
Antiacne
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Antiadenoviral
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antiadhesive
Mannose found in Plant
Antiaflatoxin
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiaggregant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antiaging
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiallergic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Procyanidin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antialzheimeran
Quercetin found in Plant
Antianaphylactic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiangiogenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiapoplectic
Rutin found in Plant
Antiarrhythmic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Antiarthritic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiasthmatic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Hcn found in Leaf (560 ppm);found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiatherogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antiatherosclerotic
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antibacterial
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Iodine found in Leaf (0.9 ppm)
Isoquercitrin found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Procyanidin found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Antibiotic
Procyanidin found in Plant
Prodelphinidin found in Plant
Anticancer
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Anticapillary-Fragility
Rutin found in Plant
Anticarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Anticarcinomic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Anticariogenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Anticataract
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Anticervicaldysplasic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Anticlastogen
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Anticolitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Anticomplementary
Quercetin found in Plant
Anticonvulsant
Rutin found in Plant
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Anticoronary
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Anticystitic
Mannose found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antidementia
Rutin found in Plant
Antidepressant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antidermatitic
Fumaric-acid found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antidiabetic
Fiber found in Leaf (160919 ppm);found in Rhizome (222222 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Xylose found in Plant
Antidiarrheic
Tannin found in Plant
Antidote
Hcn found in Leaf (560 ppm);found in Plant
Antidysenteric
Tannin found in Plant
Antidysmenorrheic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Antiedemic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Glucose found in Plant
Procyanidin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antielastase
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiencephalitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antierythemic
Rutin found in Plant
Antiescherichic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiestrogenic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiexudative
Procyanidin found in Plant
Antifatigue
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Antifeedant
20-hydroxyecdysone found in Leaf
Isoquercitrin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Succinic-acid found in Plant
Antifertility
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Antifibrosarcomic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiflu
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cichoric-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antigastric
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiglaucomic
Rutin found in Plant
Antigoiter
Iodine found in Leaf (0.9 ppm)
Antigonadotrophic
20-hydroxyecdysone found in Leaf
Antigonadotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antihematuric
Rutin found in Plant
Antihemolytic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antihemorrhoidal
Rutin found in Plant
Antihepatoadenomic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antihepatocarcinogenic
Fumaric-acid found in Leaf
Antihepatotoxic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Glucose found in Plant
Glucuronic-acid found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Antiherpetic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antihistaminic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antihydrophobic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antihypercholesterolemic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antihyperkeratotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Antihypertensive
Fiber found in Leaf (160919 ppm);found in Rhizome (222222 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Antihyperthyroid
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antiichythyotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Antiinflammatory
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Antiischemic
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Antiketotic
Glucose found in Plant
Antileishmanic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antileukemic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Antileukoplakic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Antileukotriene
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antilipolytic
Tannin found in Plant
Antilipoperoxidant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antilupus
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Antimaculitic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Antimalarial
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antimastitic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Antimelanogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Antimelanomic
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antimetastatic
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antimitotic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Antimutagenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Antimyocarditic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antineoplastic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Antinephritic
Rutin found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Antinesidioblastosic
Starch found in Rhizome (450000 ppm)
Antinitrosaminic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antinociceptive
Isoquercitrin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antiobesity
Fiber found in Leaf (160919 ppm);found in Rhizome (222222 ppm)
Antiophidic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Antiotitic
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Cichoric-acid found in Plant
Antioxidant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Fumaric-acid found in Leaf
Isoquercitrin found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Antiozenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Antipancreatitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipapillomic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Antiperiodontal
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiperistaltic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipermeability
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiperoxidant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Antipharyngitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiphotophobic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Antipityriasic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Antiplaque
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiplasmodial
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiplatelet
Rutin found in Plant
Antipodriac
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipolio
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiporphyric
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Antiproliferant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antiprostaglandin
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antiprostanoid
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiprostatitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiprotozoal
Rutin found in Plant
Antipsoriac
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Fumaric-acid found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipurpuric
Rutin found in Plant
Antipyretic
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Antiradicular
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cichoric-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Antirenitic
Tannin found in Plant
Antirheumatic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Antisalmonella
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Antiseptic
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Iodine found in Leaf (0.9 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Antiserotonin
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Antisickling
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Antispasmodic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Antistaphylococcic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antistomatitic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cichoric-acid found in Plant
Antistreptococcic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antistress
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Antisunburn
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cichoric-acid found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antithiamin
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antithrombic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antithrombogenic
Rutin found in Plant
Antithyroid
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antithyrotoxic
Iodine found in Leaf (0.9 ppm)
Antitrypanosomic
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antitumor-Promoter
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Antitumor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Fiber found in Leaf (160919 ppm);found in Rhizome (222222 ppm)
Fumaric-acid found in Leaf
Isoquercitrin found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Antitussive
Hcn found in Leaf (560 ppm);found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Antiulcer
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (160919 ppm);found in Rhizome (222222 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Antiulcerogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antivaccinia
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antivaricose
Glucose found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Antiviral
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cichoric-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Iodine found in Leaf (0.9 ppm)
Procyanidin found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Antixerophthalmic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Antiyeast
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Anxiolytic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Apoptotic
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Arteriodilator
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Ascaricide
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Bacteristat
Cichoric-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Beta-Blocker
Fiber found in Leaf (160919 ppm);found in Rhizome (222222 ppm)
Bradycardiac
Quercetin found in Plant
Bronchosedative
Hcn found in Leaf (560 ppm);found in Plant
Bruchifuge
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Bruchiphobe
Succinic-acid found in Plant
CNS-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
COMT-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
COX-1-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
COX-2-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Calcium-Antagonist
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Calmodulin-Antagonist
Quercetin found in Plant
Cancer-Preventive
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Fiber found in Leaf (160919 ppm);found in Rhizome (222222 ppm)
Isoquercitrin found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Succinic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Candidicide
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Capillarigenic
Isoquercitrin found in Plant
Capillariprotective
Procyanidin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Carcinogenic
Aquilide-a found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Ptaquiloside found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Cardiac
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Cardioprotective
Fiber found in Leaf (160919 ppm);found in Rhizome (222222 ppm)
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Catabolic
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Chelator
Tannin found in Plant
Chemopreventive
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Cholagogue
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Choleretic
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Clastogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Co-carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Collagen-Sparing
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cichoric-acid found in Plant
Colorant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Copper-Chelator
Quercetin found in Plant
Cyanogenic
Prunasin found in Leaf (1580 ppm)
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Cytochrome-P450-1A2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Cytoprotective
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Cytotoxic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
DNA-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
DNA-Protective
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Dermatitigenic
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Iodine found in Leaf (0.9 ppm)
Detoxicant
Glucuronic-acid found in Plant
Diagnostic
Xylose found in Plant
Diaphoretic
Isoquercitrin found in Plant
Tiliroside found in Plant
Differentiator
Quercetin found in Plant
Diuretic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Fiber found in Leaf (160919 ppm);found in Rhizome (222222 ppm)
Isoquercitrin found in Plant
Dye
Succinic-acid found in Plant
Xylose found in Plant
Emollient
Starch found in Rhizome (450000 ppm)
Estrogenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Expectorant
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
FLavor
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Fumaric-acid found in Leaf
Fungicide
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Iodine found in Leaf (0.9 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Gastroprotective
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Glutathione-Depleting
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Goitrogenic
Iodine found in Leaf (0.9 ppm)
HIV-RT-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Hemostat
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Hepatocarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Hepatomagenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Hepatoprotective
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Hepatotoxic
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Hepatotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Herbicide
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Histamine-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Hyaluronidase-Inhibitor
Cichoric-acid found in Plant
Procyanidin found in Plant
Hydrocholerectic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Hyperglycemic
Glucose found in Plant
Hyperthyroid
Iodine found in Leaf (0.9 ppm)
Hypocholesterolemic
Fiber found in Leaf (160919 ppm);found in Rhizome (222222 ppm)
Rutin found in Plant
Hypoglycemic
Quercetin found in Plant
Hypolipidemic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Hypotensive
Fiber found in Leaf (160919 ppm);found in Rhizome (222222 ppm)
Isoquercitrin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Hypouricemic
Fiber found in Leaf (160919 ppm);found in Rhizome (222222 ppm)
Ileorelaxant
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Immunomodulator
Rutin found in Plant
Immunostimulant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cichoric-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Immunosuppressant
Tannin found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Inotropic
Quercetin found in Plant
Insecticide
Hcn found in Leaf (560 ppm);found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Insectifuge
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Insectiphile
Isoquercitrin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Insulinogenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Interferon-Synergist
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Juvabional
20-hydroxyecdysone found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Larvistat
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Laxative
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Fiber found in Leaf (160919 ppm);found in Rhizome (222222 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Leucocyte-Depressant
Leukotriene-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Lyase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
MAO-A-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
MAO-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Plant
MMP-9-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Mast-Cell-Stabilizer
Quercetin found in Plant
Memory-Enhancer
Glucose found in Plant
Metal-Chelator
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Mucogenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Mutagenic
Aquilide-a found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Myoprotective
Rutin found in Plant
Myorelaxant
Rutin found in Plant
NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
NEP-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
NO-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
NO-Synthase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Nephrotoxic
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Neuroprotective
Quercetin found in Plant
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Oviposition-Stimulant
Rutin found in Plant
P450-Inducer
Quercetin found in Plant
P450-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
PAF-Inhibitor
Rutin found in Plant
PGE2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
PTK-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Perfumery
Succinic-acid found in Plant
Pesticide
20-hydroxyecdysone found in Leaf
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cichoric-acid found in Plant
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Hcn found in Leaf (560 ppm);found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Procyanidin found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Pteridine found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Succinic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Phagocytotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Cichoric-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Phospholipase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Phytoalexin
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Plasmodicide
Quercetin found in Plant
Poultice
Starch found in Rhizome (450000 ppm)
Preservative
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Proliferant
Quercetin found in Plant
Prooxidant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Prostaglandigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Protisticide
Iodine found in Leaf (0.9 ppm)
Rutin found in Plant
Tiliroside found in Plant
Psychotropic
Tannin found in Plant
Purgative
Quinone-Reductase-Inducer
Quercetin found in Plant
Radioprotective
Rutin found in Plant
Respirastimulant
Hcn found in Leaf (560 ppm);found in Plant
Rodenticide
Hcn found in Leaf (560 ppm);found in Plant
Secretogogue
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Sedative
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Sunscreen
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Sweetener
Galactose found in Plant
TNF-alpha-Inhibitor
Isoquercitrin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Taenifuge
Pteridine found in Plant
Teratologic
Quercetin found in Plant
Thymoprotective
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Thyrotropic
Iodine found in Leaf (0.9 ppm)
Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor
Isoquercitrin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Tumorigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Ubiquiot
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (1 ppm)
Protocatechuic-acid found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Uricosuric
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Uterosedative
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
VEGF-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Vasodilator
Fiber found in Leaf (160919 ppm);found in Rhizome (222222 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
Vasomotor-Stimulant
Hcn found in Leaf (560 ppm);found in Plant
Vasopressor
Rutin found in Plant
Vermifuge
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Vulnerary
Benzoic-acid found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Procyanidin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Plant
iNOS-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
2,4,6-trimethyl-3-oxo-5-indanacetic-acid Plant
20-hydroxyecdysone Leaf
5-o-caffeoylshikimic-acid Leaf
Acetylpterosins Leaf
Alpha-ecdysone Leaf
Aneurinase Plant
Aquilide-a Plant
Arabinose Plant
Ash Leaf 6,000 68,965
Rhizome 83,000 92,222
Benzoic-acid Plant
Benzoylpterosins Rhizome
Beta-carotene Leaf 1
Caffeic-acid Plant
Caoutchouc Plant
Carbohydrates Leaf 56,000 643,678
Rhizome 510,000 566,666
Catechol-tannin Rhizome 66,000
Cichoric-acid Plant
Cinnamic-acid Plant
D-caffeyl-tartaric-acid Plant
Eo Rhizome 1,800
Fat Leaf 1,000 11,494
Rhizome 12,000 13,333
Ferulic-acid Plant
Fiber Leaf 14,000 160,919
Rhizome 200,000 222,222
Fucose Plant
Fumaric-acid Leaf
Galactose Plant
Galacturonic-acid Plant
Glucose Plant
Glucuronic-acid Plant
Hcn Leaf 560
Plant
Iodine Leaf 0.9
Isocrotonylpterosins Leaf
Isoquercitrin Plant
Kaempferol-3-0-glucoside Plant
Kaempferol-3-rhamnoglucoside Plant
Mannose Plant
P-coumaric-acid Leaf
Plant
Palmitylpterosins Leaf
Petroside-a Rhizome
Phenylacetylpterosins Leaf
Phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase Plant
Ponasteroside-a Plant
Procyanidin Plant
Prodelphinidin Plant
Protein Leaf 10,000 114,942
Rhizome 95,000 105,555
Protocatechuic-acid Plant
Prunasin Leaf 1,580
Ptaquiloside Plant
Pteraquilin Rhizome
Pteridine Plant
Pterolactam Plant
Pteroside-a Leaf
Pterosides Plant
Pterosins Plant
Quercetin Plant
Rhamnose Plant
Rutin Plant
Shikimic-acid Plant
Starch Rhizome 450,000
Succinic-acid Plant
Sugars Rhizome 67,000 213,000
Sulphoquinovose Plant
Tannin Plant
Thiaminase-i Plant
Tiliroside Plant
Vanillic-acid Plant
Water Leaf 913,000
Xylose Plant
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]