Prunus serotina subsp. serotina Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
black cherry rum cherry wild cherry

Economic importance of Prunus serotina subsp. serotina

Environmental ornamental
Gene sources potential for cold hardines in swet chery potential for disease resistance in swet chery
Materials wod
Medicines folklore
Vertebrate poisons mamals

Geografical distribution

  • EUROPE
    Naturalized
    • Europe
    Cultivated
    • Europe
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Native
    • Eastern Canada: Canada - New Brunswick , Quebec
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Indiana, Maine , Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont, West Virginia
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Oklahoma, Wisconsin
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia
    • South-Central U.S.A.: United States - Texas
    • Northern Mexico: Mexico - Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Sonora
    • Southern Mexico: Mexico - Veracruz
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Native
    • Mesoamerica: Guatemala
    Naturalized
    • South America
    Cultivated
    • South America

Biological activities

11B-HSD-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
ACE-Inhibitor
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
ATPase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Vanadium found in Leaf (4.8 ppm);found in Stem (1.6 ppm)
Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Bark
Prunasin found in Bark (15000 ppm);found in Leaf (562 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Bark
Allelochemic
Cyanidin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Bark
Allelopathic
P-coumaric-acid found in Bark
Allergenic
Acetyl-choline found in Leaf (1.72 ppm);found in Plant
Benzaldehyde found in Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Analgesic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Quercetin found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Androgenic
Boron found in Leaf (48 ppm);found in Stem (54 ppm)
Anesthetic
Benzaldehyde found in Bark
Scopoletin found in Bark
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Potassium found in Leaf (26880 ppm);found in Stem (15120 ppm)
Anthelmintic
Tannin found in Bark
AntiAGE
Chromium found in Leaf (2.88 ppm);found in Stem (0.81 ppm)
AntiBPH
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
AntiCFS
Chromium found in Leaf (2.88 ppm);found in Stem (0.81 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
AntiEBV
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
AntiGTF
Quercetin found in Plant
AntiHIV
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
AntiLegionella
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
AntiLyme
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
AntiMRSA
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
AntiMS
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
AntiPMS
Calcium found in Leaf (32640 ppm);found in Stem (18360 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
AntiTGF-beta
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Antiacne
Chromium found in Leaf (2.88 ppm);found in Stem (0.81 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antiacrodermatitic
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antiadenoviral
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antiadenovirus
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Antiadrenalinic
Nickel found in Leaf (6.7 ppm);found in Stem (2.7 ppm)
Antiadrenergic
Scopoletin found in Bark
Antiaflatoxin
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Bark
Antiaggregant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiaging
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chromium found in Leaf (2.88 ppm);found in Stem (0.81 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiakathisic
Iron found in Leaf (1440 ppm);found in Stem (810 ppm)
Antialcoholic
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antiallergenic
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Antiallergic
Calcium found in Leaf (32640 ppm);found in Stem (18360 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antialopecic
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antialzheimeran
Choline found in Leaf (356 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antiamblyopic
Acetyl-choline found in Leaf (1.72 ppm);found in Plant
Antianaphylactic
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Quercetin found in Plant
Antianemic
Copper found in Leaf (29 ppm);found in Stem (378 ppm)
Iron found in Leaf (1440 ppm);found in Stem (810 ppm)
Antianginal
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Antiangiogenic
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Quercetin found in Plant
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antianorectic
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Antianorexic
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antianxiety
Calcium found in Leaf (32640 ppm);found in Stem (18360 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Antiarrhythmic
Calcium found in Leaf (32640 ppm);found in Stem (18360 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (26880 ppm);found in Stem (15120 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Antiarthritic
Calcium found in Leaf (32640 ppm);found in Stem (18360 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (29 ppm);found in Stem (378 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Hcn found in Bark (3400 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Bark
Antiatherogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antiatherosclerotic
Calcium found in Leaf (32640 ppm);found in Stem (18360 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (2.88 ppm);found in Stem (0.81 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Vanadium found in Leaf (4.8 ppm);found in Stem (1.6 ppm)
Antibacterial
Benzaldehyde found in Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Kaempferol found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Bark
Silver found in Leaf (0.48 ppm);found in Stem (0.1 ppm)
Tannin found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Antibronchitic
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Antibronchoconstrictor
Scopoletin found in Bark
Anticancer
Benzaldehyde found in Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Kaempferol found in Plant
Tannin found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Anticanker
Iron found in Leaf (1440 ppm);found in Stem (810 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Anticarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Anticarcinomic
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Anticariogenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Anticataract
Quercetin found in Plant
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Anticephalagic
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Anticheilitic
Iron found in Leaf (1440 ppm);found in Stem (810 ppm)
Anticholestatic
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Anticholinergic
Scopoletin found in Bark
Antichoreic
Choline found in Leaf (356 ppm)
Anticirrhotic
Choline found in Leaf (356 ppm)
Anticlastogen
P-coumaric-acid found in Bark
Anticlimacteric
Calcium found in Leaf (32640 ppm);found in Stem (18360 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Anticoeliac
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Anticold
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Anticolitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Anticomplement
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Anticomplementary
Quercetin found in Plant
Anticonvulsant
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Anticorneotic
Chromium found in Leaf (2.88 ppm);found in Stem (0.81 ppm)
Anticoronary
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Anticystinuric
Choline found in Leaf (356 ppm)
Anticystitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antidandruff
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antidementia
Choline found in Leaf (356 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antidepressant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Calcium found in Leaf (32640 ppm);found in Stem (18360 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (26880 ppm);found in Stem (15120 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antidermatitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antidiabetic
Choline found in Leaf (356 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (2.88 ppm);found in Stem (0.81 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (29 ppm);found in Stem (378 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Vanadium found in Leaf (4.8 ppm);found in Stem (1.6 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antidiarrheic
Tannin found in Bark
Antidiuretic
Acetyl-choline found in Leaf (1.72 ppm);found in Plant
Antidote
Hcn found in Bark (3400 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm)
Antidysenteric
Tannin found in Bark
Antidysgeuzic
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antidyskinetic
Choline found in Leaf (356 ppm)
Antidysmenorrheic
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Antieczemic
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antiedemic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Antielastase
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiencephalitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiencephalopathic
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antiendometriotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Antienterotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Antiepileptic
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antiescherichic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Antiestrogenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antifatigue
Chromium found in Leaf (2.88 ppm);found in Stem (0.81 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (29 ppm);found in Stem (378 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (26880 ppm);found in Stem (15120 ppm)
Antifeedant
Quercetin found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Bark
Antifertility
Kaempferol found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Bark
Antifibrinolytic
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Antifibromyalgic
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Antifibrosarcomic
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Antifibrotic
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antiflu
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Quercetin found in Plant
Antifuruncular
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antigastric
Quercetin found in Plant
Antigastrotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Antigingivitic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antiglaucomic
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Antiglycosuric
Chromium found in Leaf (2.88 ppm);found in Stem (0.81 ppm)
Antigonadotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antihangover
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antihemolytic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antihepatoadenomic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antihepatotoxic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
P-coumaric-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Bark
Tannin found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Antiherpetic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antihistaminic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Antihomocysteine
Choline found in Leaf (356 ppm)
Antihydrophobic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antihypercholesterolemic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antihyperkinetic
Calcium found in Leaf (32640 ppm);found in Stem (18360 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Antihyperlipidemic
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Antihypertensive
Calcium found in Leaf (32640 ppm);found in Stem (18360 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (26880 ppm);found in Stem (15120 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Bark
Antihyperthyroid
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antihypoglycemic
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Antiileus
Acetyl-choline found in Leaf (1.72 ppm);found in Plant
Antiimplantation
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antiimpotence
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antiinfective
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antiinfertility
Vanadium found in Leaf (4.8 ppm);found in Stem (1.6 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antiinflammatory
Amygdalin found in Stem Bark (41200 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Copper found in Leaf (29 ppm);found in Stem (378 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Kaempferol found in Plant
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Antiinsomniac
Calcium found in Leaf (32640 ppm);found in Stem (18360 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antiinsulinogenic
Vanadium found in Leaf (4.8 ppm);found in Stem (1.6 ppm)
Antileishmanic
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Antilepric
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antileukemic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Antileukonychic
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antileukotriene
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antileukotrienogenic
Scopoletin found in Bark
Antilipolytic
Tannin found in Bark
Antilipoperoxidant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antilithic
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Antilymphocytic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antilymphomic
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antimaculitic
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antimalarial
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Antimanic
Choline found in Leaf (356 ppm)
Vanadium found in Leaf (4.8 ppm);found in Stem (1.6 ppm)
Antimastalgic
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Antimelanogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antimelanomic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antimenopausal
Calcium found in Leaf (32640 ppm);found in Stem (18360 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Antimenorrhagic
Iron found in Leaf (1440 ppm);found in Stem (810 ppm)
Antimetastatic
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antimigraine
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Antimitral-valve-prolapse
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Antimutagenic
Benzaldehyde found in Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Bark
Tannin found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Antimyocarditic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antinephritic
Tannin found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Antinephrolytic
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Antineuropathic
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antineurotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Antinitrosaminic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
P-coumaric-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Plant
Antinociceptive
Choline found in Leaf (356 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (29 ppm);found in Stem (378 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antinyctalopic
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antiobesity
Calcium found in Leaf (32640 ppm);found in Stem (18360 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (2.88 ppm);found in Stem (0.81 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antiophidic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Bark
Antiosteoarthritic
Boron found in Leaf (48 ppm);found in Stem (54 ppm)
Antiosteoporotic
Boron found in Leaf (48 ppm);found in Stem (54 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (32640 ppm);found in Stem (18360 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (29 ppm);found in Stem (378 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (4608 ppm);found in Stem (2592 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antioxidant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cyanidin found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Kaempferol found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Bark
Tannin found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Antipancreatitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipeptic
Benzaldehyde found in Bark
Antiperiodontal
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiperiodontic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antiperiodontitic
Calcium found in Leaf (32640 ppm);found in Stem (18360 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antiperistaltic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipermeability
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiperoxidant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
P-coumaric-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Antipharyngitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiplaque
Kaempferol found in Plant
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antiplasmodial
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Antipodriac
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipolio
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiprolactin
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antiproliferant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Bark
Antiproliferative
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Antiprostaglandin
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Bark
Antiprostanoid
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiprostatitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antiproteolytic
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Antipsoriac
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiradicular
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Bark
Antirenitic
Tannin found in Bark
Antiretinopathic
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Antirheumatic
Calcium found in Leaf (32640 ppm);found in Stem (18360 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antiseptic
Benzaldehyde found in Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Kaempferol found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Bark
Scopoletin found in Bark
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antiserotonin
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antisilicotic
Aluminum found in Leaf (1440 ppm);found in Stem (540 ppm)
Antispare-Tire
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antispasmodic
Amygdalin found in Stem Bark (41200 ppm)
Benzaldehyde found in Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Bark
Potassium found in Leaf (26880 ppm);found in Stem (15120 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Bark
Antispasmophilic
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Antistaphylococcic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Kaempferol found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Antisteatotic
Choline found in Leaf (356 ppm)
Antistomatitic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antistreptococcic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antistress
Calcium found in Leaf (32640 ppm);found in Stem (18360 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Antistroke
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (26880 ppm);found in Stem (15120 ppm)
Antisunburn
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antisyndrome-X
Chromium found in Leaf (2.88 ppm);found in Stem (0.81 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Vanadium found in Leaf (4.8 ppm);found in Stem (1.6 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antitachycardic
Acetyl-choline found in Leaf (1.72 ppm);found in Plant
Antithiamin
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antithrombic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antithromboxane
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Antithyroid
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antitic
Calcium found in Leaf (32640 ppm);found in Stem (18360 ppm)
Antitinnitic
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antitriglyceride
Chromium found in Leaf (2.88 ppm);found in Stem (0.81 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antitrypanosomic
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Antitumor-Promoter
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Antitumor
Benzaldehyde found in Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Kaempferol found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Bark
Tannin found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Antitussive
Amygdalin found in Stem Bark (41200 ppm)
Hcn found in Bark (3400 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm)
Antiulcer
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Antiulcerogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antivaccinia
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antivaginitic
Aluminum found in Leaf (1440 ppm);found in Stem (540 ppm)
Antiviral
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Anxiolytic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Calcium found in Leaf (32640 ppm);found in Stem (18360 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (4608 ppm);found in Stem (2592 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (26880 ppm);found in Stem (15120 ppm)
Apoptotic
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Bark
Aromatase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Astringent
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Silver found in Leaf (0.48 ppm);found in Stem (0.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Bacteristat
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Quercetin found in Plant
Beta-Blocker
Potassium found in Leaf (26880 ppm);found in Stem (15120 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Bitter
Amygdalin found in Stem Bark (41200 ppm)
Bradycardiac
Quercetin found in Plant
Bronchodilator
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Bronchorelaxant
Scopoletin found in Bark
Bronchosedative
Hcn found in Bark (3400 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm)
CNS-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
CNS-Depressant
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
CNS-Stimulant
Scopoletin found in Bark
COMT-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
COX-2-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Calcium-Antagonist
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Calcium-Channel-Blocker
Calcium found in Leaf (32640 ppm);found in Stem (18360 ppm)
Calmodulin-Antagonist
Quercetin found in Plant
Cancer-Preventive
Amygdalin found in Stem Bark (41200 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Kaempferol found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Bark
Tannin found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Candidicide
Aluminum found in Leaf (1440 ppm);found in Stem (540 ppm)
Benzaldehyde found in Bark
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Capillariprotective
Quercetin found in Plant
Carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Bark
Cardiodepressant
Acetyl-choline found in Leaf (1.72 ppm);found in Plant
Choline found in Leaf (356 ppm)
Cardiomyopathogenic
Cobalt found in Stem (5.4 ppm)
Cardioprotective
Chromium found in Leaf (2.88 ppm);found in Stem (0.81 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (29 ppm);found in Stem (378 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (26880 ppm);found in Stem (15120 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Cardiotonic
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Cardiotoxic
Potassium found in Leaf (26880 ppm);found in Stem (15120 ppm)
Catabolic
Quercetin found in Plant
Cerebrostimulant
Acetyl-choline found in Leaf (1.72 ppm);found in Plant
Cerebrotonic
Choline found in Leaf (356 ppm)
Chelator
Tannin found in Bark
Chemopreventive
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Bark
Cholagogue
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Bark
Choleretic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Kaempferol found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Bark
Scopoletin found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Cholinergic
Choline found in Leaf (356 ppm)
Clastogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Co-carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Collagen-Sparing
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Collagenic
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Contraceptive
Copper found in Leaf (29 ppm);found in Stem (378 ppm)
Copper-Antagonist
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Copper-Chelator
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Cyanogenic
Amygdalin found in Stem Bark (41200 ppm)
Prunasin found in Bark (15000 ppm);found in Leaf (562 ppm)
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Cytochrome-P450-1A2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Cytoprotective
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cytotoxic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Kaempferol found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
DNA-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
DNA-Protective
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Deodorant
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Differentiator
Quercetin found in Plant
Diuretic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Calcium found in Leaf (32640 ppm);found in Stem (18360 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (26880 ppm);found in Stem (15120 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Elastase-Inhibitor
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Encephalopathic
Aluminum found in Leaf (1440 ppm);found in Stem (540 ppm)
Energizer
Chromium found in Leaf (2.88 ppm);found in Stem (0.81 ppm)
Ergogenic
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Erythrocytogenic
Cobalt found in Stem (5.4 ppm)
Estrogenic
Boron found in Leaf (48 ppm);found in Stem (54 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Expectorant
Amygdalin found in Stem Bark (41200 ppm)
FLavor
Benzaldehyde found in Bark
Floral-Inhibitor
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Fungicide
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Bark
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Bark
HIV-RT-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Hemostat
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Quercetin found in Plant
Hepatocarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Hepatomagenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Hepatoprotective
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Choline found in Leaf (356 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Bark
Tannin found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Hepatotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Herbicide
Scopoletin found in Bark
Histamine-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Histaminic
Acetyl-choline found in Leaf (1.72 ppm);found in Plant
Hypocholesterolemic
Calcium found in Leaf (32640 ppm);found in Stem (18360 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (2.88 ppm);found in Stem (0.81 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (29 ppm);found in Stem (378 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Vanadium found in Leaf (4.8 ppm);found in Stem (1.6 ppm)
Hypoglycemic
Chromium found in Leaf (2.88 ppm);found in Stem (0.81 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Vanadium found in Leaf (4.8 ppm);found in Stem (1.6 ppm)
Hypotensive
Acetyl-choline found in Leaf (1.72 ppm);found in Plant
Calcium found in Leaf (32640 ppm);found in Stem (18360 ppm)
Choline found in Leaf (356 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (2.88 ppm);found in Stem (0.81 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (26880 ppm);found in Stem (15120 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Vanadium found in Leaf (4.8 ppm);found in Stem (1.6 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Hypotriglyceridemic
Vanadium found in Leaf (4.8 ppm);found in Stem (1.6 ppm)
ICAM-1-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Ileorelaxant
Choline found in Leaf (356 ppm)
Immunomodulator
Chromium found in Leaf (2.88 ppm);found in Stem (0.81 ppm)
Copper found in Leaf (29 ppm);found in Stem (378 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Immunostimulant
Benzaldehyde found in Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Phosphorus found in Leaf (4608 ppm);found in Stem (2592 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Immunosuppressant
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Tannin found in Bark
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Inotropic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Insecticide
Benzaldehyde found in Bark
Hcn found in Bark (3400 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm)
Insectifuge
Benzaldehyde found in Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Insulin-Sparing
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Nickel found in Leaf (6.7 ppm);found in Stem (2.7 ppm)
Insulinogenic
Chromium found in Leaf (2.88 ppm);found in Stem (0.81 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
JNK-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Juvabional
Quercetin found in Plant
Larvistat
Quercetin found in Plant
Laxative
Calcium found in Leaf (32640 ppm);found in Stem (18360 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Leptingenic
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Leucocytogenic
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Leukotriene-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Lipotropic
Choline found in Leaf (356 ppm)
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Litholytic
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Lyase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
MAO-A-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
MAO-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Bark
Tannin found in Bark
MMP-9-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Mast-Cell-Stabilizer
Quercetin found in Plant
Memorigenic
Choline found in Leaf (356 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (2.88 ppm);found in Stem (0.81 ppm)
Metal-Chelator
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Miotic
Acetyl-choline found in Leaf (1.72 ppm);found in Plant
Motor-Depressant
Benzaldehyde found in Bark
Mucogenic
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Musculotropic
Scopoletin found in Bark
Mutagenic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Myocontractant
Acetyl-choline found in Leaf (1.72 ppm);found in Plant
Myopic
Acetyl-choline found in Leaf (1.72 ppm);found in Plant
Myorelaxant
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Bark
Myotonic
Acetyl-choline found in Leaf (1.72 ppm);found in Plant
NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
NEP-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
NO-Inhibitor
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
NO-Synthase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Narcotic
Benzaldehyde found in Bark
Natriuretic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Nematicide
Benzaldehyde found in Bark
Nephrotoxic
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Vanadium found in Leaf (4.8 ppm);found in Stem (1.6 ppm)
Neuroprotective
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Neurotransmitter
Acetyl-choline found in Leaf (1.72 ppm);found in Plant
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Osteogenic
Phosphorus found in Leaf (4608 ppm);found in Stem (2592 ppm)
P450-Inducer
Quercetin found in Plant
P450-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
PAF-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
PGE2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
PTK-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Pancreatoxic
Vanadium found in Leaf (4.8 ppm);found in Stem (1.6 ppm)
Parasympathomimetic
Acetyl-choline found in Leaf (1.72 ppm);found in Plant
Choline found in Leaf (356 ppm)
Peristaltic
Acetyl-choline found in Leaf (1.72 ppm);found in Plant
Pesticide
Aluminum found in Leaf (1440 ppm);found in Stem (540 ppm)
Benzaldehyde found in Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cyanidin found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Hcn found in Bark (3400 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Bark
Silver found in Leaf (0.48 ppm);found in Stem (0.1 ppm)
Tannin found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Phospholipase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Phytoalexin
Scopoletin found in Bark
Phytohormonal
Scopoletin found in Bark
Pigment
Cyanidin found in Plant
Piscicide
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Plasmodicide
Quercetin found in Plant
Potassium-Sparing
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Proliferant
Quercetin found in Plant
Prooxidant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cyanidin found in Plant
Iron found in Leaf (1440 ppm);found in Stem (810 ppm)
Prostaglandigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Bark
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
P-coumaric-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Plant
Protease-Inhibitor
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Protisticide
Kaempferol found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Psychotropic
Tannin found in Bark
Quinone-Reductase-Inducer
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Respirastimulant
Hcn found in Bark (3400 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm)
Rodenticide
Hcn found in Bark (3400 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm)
Schizophrenigenic
Copper found in Leaf (29 ppm);found in Stem (378 ppm)
Sedative
Benzaldehyde found in Bark
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Sialogogue
Acetyl-choline found in Leaf (1.72 ppm);found in Plant
Sodium-Sparing
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Spasmogenic
Acetyl-choline found in Leaf (1.72 ppm);found in Plant
Spermigenic
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Styptic
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Sunscreen
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
TNF-alpha-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
TOPO-2-Inhibitor
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Teratologic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Termiticide
Benzaldehyde found in Bark
Testosteronigenic
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Toxic
Amygdalin found in Stem Bark (41200 ppm)
Vanadium found in Leaf (4.8 ppm);found in Stem (1.6 ppm)
Tranquilizer
Calcium found in Leaf (32640 ppm);found in Stem (18360 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Trichomonicide
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Trypanocide
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Tumorigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
Benzaldehyde found in Bark
Kaempferol found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Bark
Quercetin found in Plant
Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Uterorelaxant
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Uterosedative
Scopoletin found in Bark
Uterotrophic
Kaempferol found in Plant
VEGF-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Vasodilator
Acetyl-choline found in Leaf (1.72 ppm);found in Plant
Calcium found in Leaf (32640 ppm);found in Stem (18360 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Magnesium found in Leaf (9600 ppm);found in Stem (5400 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (26880 ppm);found in Stem (15120 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Vasomotor-Stimulant
Hcn found in Bark (3400 ppm);found in Leaf (2500 ppm)
Vasopressor
Ursolic-acid found in Leaf
Vulnerary
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Zinc found in Leaf (192 ppm);found in Stem (216 ppm)
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Stem Bark
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Bark
cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
iNOS-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
(r)-amygdalin Seed
(r)-prunasin Seed
2-alpha-3-alpha-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic-acid Leaf 35
3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic-acid Bark
Acetyl-choline Leaf 1.72
Plant
Aluminum Leaf 14 1,440
Stem 0 540
Amygdalin Stem Bark 31,600 41,200
Ash Leaf 29,000 96,000
Stem 1,900 54,000
Barium Leaf 1 960
Stem 6 810
Benzaldehyde Bark
Beta-d-glucopyranose-1-benzoate Leaf 813
Beta-glycosidase Seed
Boron Leaf 2 48
Stem 0 54
Caffeic-acid Plant
Calcium Leaf 4,060 32,640
Stem 323 18,360
Choline Leaf 356
Chromium Leaf 0 2.88
Stem 0 0.81
Cobalt Stem 0 5.4
Copper Leaf 0.8 29
Stem 1.3 378
Cyanidin Plant
Emulsin Bark
Eo Stem Bark 2,000
Eudesmic-acid Bark
Gallic-acid Stem Bark
Hcn Bark 500 3,400
Leaf 2,500
Hydrocyanic-acid Leaf
Iron Leaf 20 1,440
Stem 0.19 810
Kaempferol Plant
Lanthanum Leaf 0.8 19
Stem 0.06 16
Laurocerasin Stem Bark
Lead Leaf 0.3 67
Stem 0.2 108
Leucocyanidins Bark
Magnesium Leaf 435 9,600
Stem 28 5,400
Molybdenum Leaf 0 1.9
Stem 0 0.19
Neodymium Leaf 2 19
Nickel Leaf 0 6.7
Stem 0 2.7
P-coumaric-acid Bark
Phosphorus Leaf 261 4,608
Stem 114 2,592
Potassium Leaf 1,624 26,880
Stem 80 15,120
Prunasin Bark 5,000 15,000
Leaf 562
Quercetin Plant
Resin Stem Bark
Scopoletin Bark
Silver Leaf 0 0.48
Stem 0 0.1
Strontium Leaf 8 480
Stem 0.5 378
Tannin Bark
Titanium Leaf 0.6 144
Stem 0.02 38
Urs-12-en-28-al-3-beta-ol Flower
Leaf 30
Ursolic-acid Leaf
Vanadium Leaf 0.14 4.8
Stem 0 1.6
Ytterbium Leaf 0.05 0.67
Stem 0 0.27
Yttrium Leaf 0.14 14.4
Stem 0.001 3.78
Zinc Leaf 3 192
Stem 0.5 216
Zirconium Leaf 0.6 6.7
Stem 0.04 1.6
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]