Prunus africana Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
African cherry pygeum

Prunus africana, or red stinkwood, is an evergreen tree native to the montane regions of sub-Saharan Africa and the islands of Madagascar, Sao Tome, Fernando Po, and Grande Comore at about 900–3400 m above sea level. The mature tree is 10–25 m high, open-branched, and often pendulous in forest, shorter and with a round crown of 10–20 m diameter in grassland. It requires a moist climate, 900–3400 mm annual rainfall, and is moderately frost-tolerant. The bark is black to brown, corrugated or fissured, and scaly, fissuring in a characteristic rectangular pattern. The leaves are alternate, simple, long, elliptical, bluntly or acutely pointed, glabrous, and dark green above, pale green below, with mildly serrated margins. A central vein is depressed on top, prominent on the bottom. The 2-cm petiole is pink or red. The flowers are androgynous, 10-20 stamens, insect-pollinated, 3–8 cm., greenish white or buff, and are distributed in 70-mm axillary racemes. The plant flowers October through May. The fruit is red to brown, 7–13 mm, wider than long, two-lobed, with a seed in each lobe. It grows in bunches ripening September through November, several months after pollination.

Prunus africana

Economic importance of Prunus africana

Medicines folklore

Gallery

Prunus africana Prunus africana Prunus africana Prunus africana Prunus africana Prunus africana Prunus africana Prunus africana

Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Native
    • Northeast Tropical Africa: Ethiopia; Sudan
    • East Tropical Africa: Kenya; Tanzania; Uganda
    • West-Central Tropical Africa: Cameroon; Equatorial Guinea; Sao Tome and Principe; Zaire
    • West Tropical Africa: Cote D'Ivoire; Ghana
    • South Tropical Africa: Angola; Malawi; Mozambique; Zambia; Zimbabwe
    • Southern Africa: Lesotho; South Africa; Swaziland
    • Western Indian Ocean: Comoros - Grande Comore; Madagascar

Biological activities

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Palmitic-acid found in Bark
Abortifacient
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Daucosterol found in Bark (110 ppm)
Analgesic
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Androgenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Angiogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Anorexic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
AntiEBV
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
AntiHIV
Maslinic-acid found in Bark
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
AntiPGE2
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
AntiTGF-beta
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Antiadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Antiallergic
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Antialopecic
Palmitic-acid found in Bark
Antialzheimeran
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Antiandrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Bark
Antiarrhythmic
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Antiarthritic
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Hcn found in Bark
Antiatherosclerotic
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Antibacterial
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Lauric-acid found in Bark
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Anticancer
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Anticarcinomic
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Anticariogenic
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Anticholestatic
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Anticomplement
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Antidiabetic
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Antidote
Hcn found in Bark
Antiedemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Maslinic-acid found in Bark
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Antiescherichic
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Antiestrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Antifeedant
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Antifertility
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Antifibrinolytic
Palmitic-acid found in Bark
Antifibrosarcomic
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Antigingivitic
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Antigonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Antihepatotoxic
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Antihistaminic
Maslinic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Antihyperlipidemic
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Antihyperlipoproteinaemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Antiinflammatory
Amygdalin found in Bark
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Friedelin found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Maslinic-acid found in Bark
N-hentriacontane found in Bark
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Antiischemic
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Antileishmanic
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Antileukemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Daucosterol found in Bark (110 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Antileukotriene
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Antilymphomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Antimalarial
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Antimetastatic
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Antimutagenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
N-nonacosane found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Antinephritic
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Antiophidic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Antioxidant
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Lauric-acid found in Bark
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Palmitic-acid found in Bark
Trans-ferulic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Antiperiodontic
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Antiperoxidant
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Antiplaque
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Antiplasmodial
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Antiprogestational
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Antiproliferative
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Antiprostaglandin
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Antiprostatadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Antiprostatitic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Stigmast-4-en-3-one found in Bark
Antipyretic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Antisarcomic
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Antiseptic
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Antispasmodic
Amygdalin found in Bark
Daucosterol found in Bark (110 ppm)
Antistaphylococcic
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Antithromboxane
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Antitrypanosomic
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Antitumor-Promoter
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Antitumor
Daucosterol found in Bark (110 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Antitussive
Amygdalin found in Bark
Hcn found in Bark
Antiulcer
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Antiviral
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Lauric-acid found in Bark
Maslinic-acid found in Bark
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Apoptotic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Aromatase-Inhibitor
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Artemicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Beta-Blocker
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Bitter
Amygdalin found in Bark
Bronchosedative
Hcn found in Bark
CNS-Depressant
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
COX-1-Inhibitor
Lauric-acid found in Bark
COX-2-Inhibitor
Lauric-acid found in Bark
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Cancer-Preventive
Amygdalin found in Bark
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Trans-ferulic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Candidicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Lauric-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Cardioprotective
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Cardiotonic
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Caspase-8-Inducer
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Choleretic
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Cosmetic
N-hentriacontane found in Bark
Cyanogenic
Amygdalin found in Bark
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Cytotoxic
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Diuretic
Friedelin found in Bark (28900 ppm)
N-hentriacontane found in Bark
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Elastase-Inhibitor
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Estrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Expectorant
Amygdalin found in Bark
FLavor
Palmitic-acid found in Bark
Febrifuge
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Gonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Hemolytic
Palmitic-acid found in Bark
Hepatoprotective
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Hypercholesterolemic
Lauric-acid found in Bark
Palmitic-acid found in Bark
Hypocholesterolemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Hypoglycemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Daucosterol found in Bark (110 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Hypolipemic
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Hypolipidemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Hypotensive
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Immunomodulator
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Insecticide
Hcn found in Bark
Leucocytogenic
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Lubricant
Palmitic-acid found in Bark
MMP-9-Inhibitor
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Nematicide
Palmitic-acid found in Bark
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Pesticide
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Hcn found in Bark
Palmitic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Phagocytotic
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Piscicide
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Potassium-Sparing
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Propecic
Palmitic-acid found in Bark
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Protease-Inhibitor
Maslinic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Protisticide
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Quinone-Reductase-Inducer
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Respirastimulant
Hcn found in Bark
Rodenticide
Hcn found in Bark
Sedative
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Soap
Palmitic-acid found in Bark
Sodium-Sparing
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Spermicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
TOPO-2-Inhibitor
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Toxic
Amygdalin found in Bark
Trypanocide
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)
Ubiquiot
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Ulcerogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark (177 ppm)
Uterotonic
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Vasomotor-Stimulant
Hcn found in Bark
Vasopressor
Oleanolic-acid found in Bark
Ursolic-acid found in Bark (28900 ppm)

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