Podophyllum hexandrum Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
Himalayan mayapple

The perennial herb Podophyllum hexandrum, bearing the common names Himalayan mayapple or Indian may apple, is native to the lower elevations in and surrounding the Himalaya. It is low to the ground with glossy green, drooping, lobed leaves on its few stiff branches, and it bears a pale pink flower and bright red-orange bulbous fruit. The ornamental appearance of the plant make it a desirable addition to woodland-type gardens. It can be propagated by seed or by dividing the rhizome. It is very tolerant of cold temperatures, as would be expected of a Himalayan plant, but it is not tolerant of dry conditions. Its name in Hindi and Ayurveda is bantrapushi or Giriparpat. The plant is poisonous, but when processed has medicinal properties. The rhizome of the plant contains a resin, known generally and commercially as Indian Podophyllum Resin, which can be processed to extract podophyllotoxin, or podophyllin, a neurotoxin. The North American variant of this Asian plant contains a lower concentration of the toxin, but has been more extensively studied. Phodophyllum hexandrum has some good population in the Great Himalayan National Park of Himachal Pradesh.

Podophyllum hexandrum

Medical use

Economic importance of Podophyllum hexandrum

Environmental ornamental
Medicines folklore
Vertebrate poisons mamals

Gallery

Podophyllum hexandrum Podophyllum hexandrum Podophyllum hexandrum Podophyllum hexandrum Podophyllum hexandrum Podophyllum hexandrum Podophyllum hexandrum Podophyllum hexandrum Podophyllum hexandrum

Geografical distribution

  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Western Asia: Afghanistan
    • China: China - Gansu, Hubei, Xizang, Yunnan
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Native
    • Indian Subcontinent: Bhutan; India - Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir , Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh; Nepal; Pakistan

Biological activities

11B-HSD-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
ACE-Inhibitor
Astragalin found in Rhizome
ATPase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Abortifacient
Berberine found in Rhizome
Podophyllotoxin found in Rhizome (81000 ppm)
Adrenolytic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Astragalin found in Rhizome
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Allelochemic
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Allergenic
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Amebicide
Berberine found in Rhizome
Analgesic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Anesthetic
Berberine found in Rhizome
AntiGTF
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
AntiHIV
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
AntiPMS
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antiacetylcholinesterase
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antiacne
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antiadrenergic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antiaflatoxin
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antiaggregant
Berberine found in Rhizome
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antiaging
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antiallergic
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antialzheimeran
Berberine found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antiamnesic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antianaphylactic
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antiangiogenic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antiarrhythmic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antiarthritic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antiatherosclerotic
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antibacillus
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antibacterial
Berberine found in Rhizome
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antibiotic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Anticancer
Berberine found in Rhizome
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Anticariogenic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Anticataract
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antichlamydial
Berberine found in Rhizome
Anticholecystitic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Anticholera
Berberine found in Rhizome
Anticirrhotic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Anticolitic
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Anticomplementary
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Anticondylomata
Podophyllotoxin found in Rhizome (81000 ppm)
Anticonjunctivitic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Anticonvulsant
Berberine found in Rhizome
Anticystitic
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antidepressant
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antidermatitic
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antidiabetic
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antidiarrheic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antidysenteric
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antiedemic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antielastase
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antiencephalitic
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antiendotoxic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antienterotoxic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antiescherichic
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antiesherichic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antiestrogenic
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antifeedant
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antifertility
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Podophyllotoxin found in Rhizome (81000 ppm)
Antifibrosarcomic
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antiflu
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antigastric
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antigiardial
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antigingivitic
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Antiglaucomic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antigonadotropic
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antigonorrhea
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antihepatomic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antihepatotic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antihepatotoxic
Picropodophyllin found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antiherpetic
Alpha-peltatin found in Trichome
Berberine found in Rhizome
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Podophyllotoxin found in Rhizome (81000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antihistaminic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antihydrophobic
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antihypertensive
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antiimplantation
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Antiinflammatory
Berberine found in Rhizome
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antiischemic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antileishmanic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antileukemic
Astragalin found in Rhizome
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Podophyllotoxin found in Rhizome (81000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antileukotriene
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antilipogenic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antilipoperoxidant
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antilymphocytic
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Antimalarial
Berberine found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antimeasles
Alpha-peltatin found in Trichome
Podophyllotoxin found in Rhizome (81000 ppm)
Antimelanomic
Podophyllotoxin found in Rhizome (81000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antimetastatic
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antimitotic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Podophyllotoxin found in Rhizome (81000 ppm)
Antimuscarinic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antimutagenic
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antimyalgic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antimycotic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antimyocarditic
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antineoplastic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antinephritic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antinitrosaminic
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antinociceptive
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antioxidant
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antipancreatitic
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antiperiodontal
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antiperiodontic
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Antiperistaltic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antipermeability
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antiperoxidant
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antipharyngitic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antiphotooxidative
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antiplaque
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antiplasmodial
Berberine found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antipneumonic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antipodriac
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antipolio
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antiproliferant
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antiprostanoid
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antiprostatitic
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antipsoriac
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antipyretic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antiradicular
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antisalmonella
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antisarcomic
Podophyllotoxin found in Rhizome (81000 ppm)
Antisecretory
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antiseptic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Antiserotonin
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Antishigellic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antispasmodic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antispermigenic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antistaphylococcic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Antistrep
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antistreptococcic
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antisyphilitic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antithiamin
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antithrombic
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antitrachomic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antitrypanosomic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antitubercular
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antitumor-Promoter
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antitumor
Alpha-peltatin found in Trichome
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Podophyllotoxin found in Rhizome (81000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antiulcer
Berberine found in Rhizome
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Antivaginitic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Antiviral
Alpha-peltatin found in Trichome
Berberine found in Rhizome
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Podophyllotoxin found in Rhizome (81000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Apoptotic
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Aromatase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Astringent
Berberine found in Rhizome
Bacteristat
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Bilirubinolytic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Bradycardiac
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
COMT-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
COX-2-Inhibitor
Berberine found in Rhizome
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Calcium-Antagonist
Berberine found in Rhizome
Calmodulin-Antagonist
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Cancer-Preventive
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Candidicide
Berberine found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Capillariprotective
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Carcinogenic
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Cardiodepressant
Berberine found in Rhizome
Cardiotonic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Carminative
Berberine found in Rhizome
Catabolic
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Cathartic
Podophyllotoxin found in Rhizome (81000 ppm)
Cholagogue
Berberine found in Rhizome
Cholekinetic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Choleretic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Collyrium
Berberine found in Rhizome
Copper-Chelator
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Berberine found in Rhizome
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Cytochrome-P450-1A2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Cytotoxic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Differentiator
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Digestive
Berberine found in Rhizome
Diuretic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Embryocide
Podophyllotoxin found in Rhizome (81000 ppm)
Emetic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Estrogenic
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Expectorant
Astragalin found in Rhizome
Fungicide
Berberine found in Rhizome
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Podophyllotoxin found in Rhizome (81000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Glaucomagenic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
HIV-RT-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Hemostat
Berberine found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Hepatomagenic
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Hepatoprotective
Alpha-peltatin found in Trichome
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Herbicide
Podophyllotoxin found in Rhizome (81000 ppm)
Hypocholesterolemic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Hypoglycemic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Hypotensive
Astragalin found in Rhizome
Berberine found in Rhizome
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
ICAM-1-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Immunostimulant
Astragalin found in Rhizome
Berberine found in Rhizome
Inotropic
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Insecticide
Podophyllotoxin found in Rhizome (81000 ppm)
Insulinogenic
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Irritant
Podophyllotoxin found in Rhizome (81000 ppm)
JNK-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Juvabional
Podophyllotoxin found in Rhizome (81000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Lachrymatory
Berberine found in Rhizome
Larvicide
Berberine found in Rhizome
Podophyllotoxin found in Rhizome (81000 ppm)
Larvistat
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Leucocytogenic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Lipase-Inhibitor
Berberine found in Rhizome
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Berberine found in Rhizome
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
MAO-A-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
MAO-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
MMP-9-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Mast-Cell-Stabilizer
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Mutagenic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Mycobactericide
Berberine found in Rhizome
Mydriatic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Myocardiodepressant
Berberine found in Rhizome
Myorelaxant
Berberine found in Rhizome
NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
NEP-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
NO-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
NO-Synthase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Natriuretic
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Neuroprotective
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
P450-Inducer
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
P450-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
PAF-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
PGE2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
PTK-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Pesticide
Alpha-peltatin found in Trichome
Berberine found in Rhizome
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Podophyllotoxin found in Rhizome (81000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Phospholipase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Phototoxic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Piscicide
Podophyllotoxin found in Rhizome (81000 ppm)
Plasmodicide
Berberine found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Proliferant
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Berberine found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Protisticide
Berberine found in Rhizome
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Purgative
Alpha-peltatin found in Trichome
Podophyllotoxin found in Rhizome (81000 ppm)
Quinone-Reductase-Inducer
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
RNA-Depressant
Berberine found in Rhizome
RT-Inhibitor
Berberine found in Rhizome
Respiradepressant
Berberine found in Rhizome
Sedative
Berberine found in Rhizome
Stomachic
Berberine found in Rhizome
TNF-alpha-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Teratologic
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Trichomonicide
Berberine found in Rhizome
Trypanocide
Berberine found in Rhizome
Tumorigenic
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Uterocontractant
Berberine found in Rhizome
Uterotonic
Berberine found in Rhizome
Uterotrophic
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
VEGF-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Vagostimulant
Berberine found in Rhizome
Vasoconstrictor
Berberine found in Rhizome
Vasodilator
Berberine found in Rhizome
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
Vermifuge
Berberine found in Rhizome
Vibriofuge
Berberine found in Rhizome
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)
iNOS-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Rhizome
Quercetin found in Rhizome (12000 ppm)

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
1-0-(beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-picropodophyllin Rhizome
4'-demethyldeoxypodophyllotoxin-beta-d-glucoside Rhizome
4'-demethylpodophyllotoxin Rhizome
4'-demethylpodophyllotoxin-beta-d-glucoside Rhizome
Alpha-peltatin Trichome
Astragalin Rhizome
Berberine Rhizome
Dehydropodophyllotoxin Rhizome
Eo Rhizome 2,590 5,550
Kaempferol Rhizome
Picropodophyllin Rhizome
Podophyllol Rhizome
Podophyllotoxin Rhizome 22,400 81,000
Podophyllotoxin-beta-d-glucoside Rhizome
Quercetin Rhizome 5,600 12,000
Resin Leaf 78,000 97,000
Rhizome 60,000 200,000
Wax Rhizome 6,020 12,900
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]