Monarda clinopodia Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
basil beebalm beebalm wild bergamot
Monarda clinopodia

Economic importance of Monarda clinopodia

Medicines folklore

Gallery

Monarda clinopodia Monarda clinopodia Monarda clinopodia Monarda clinopodia Monarda clinopodia Monarda clinopodia Monarda clinopodia Monarda clinopodia Monarda clinopodia Monarda clinopodia Monarda clinopodia Monarda clinopodia Monarda clinopodia Monarda clinopodia Monarda clinopodia Monarda clinopodia

Geografical distribution

  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Native
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Connecticut, Indiana, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Rhode Island, West Virginia
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Illinois, Missouri
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Alabama , Delaware, Georgia , Kentucky, Maryland, North Carolina , South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia

Biological activities

ACE-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (434 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (140 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (10 ppm)
AChE-Inhibitor
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Pulegone found in Plant (121 ppm)
Acaricide
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (140 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (434 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (140 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (10 ppm)
Allelochemic
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (65 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Allelopathic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (434 ppm)
Camphene found in Plant (88 ppm)
Allergenic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (65 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (10 ppm)
Analgesic
Myrcene found in Plant (10 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (218 ppm)
Anesthetic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Linalyl-acetate found in Plant (4050 ppm)
Anthelmintic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Antiacetylcholinesterase
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (140 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (218 ppm)
Pulegone found in Plant (121 ppm)
Antiacne
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (65 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (434 ppm)
Antiadenomic
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Antiallergic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Antibacillary
P-cymene found in Plant (218 ppm)
Antibacterial
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (65 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (434 ppm)
Bornyl-acetate found in Plant (614 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (10 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (218 ppm)
Pulegone found in Plant (121 ppm)
Antibronchitic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Anticancer
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (434 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Anticariogenic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (434 ppm)
Anticatarrh
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Anticholinesterase
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Pulegone found in Plant (121 ppm)
Anticonvulsant
Myrcene found in Plant (10 ppm)
Antiesophagitic
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Antifatigue
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Antifeedant
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (65 ppm)
Bornyl-acetate found in Plant (614 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (140 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Antiflu
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (65 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (218 ppm)
Antihalitosic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Antihistaminic
Pulegone found in Plant (121 ppm)
Antiinflammatory
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (65 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (434 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Antilaryngitic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Antilithic
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Antilymphomic
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Antimutagenic
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (10 ppm)
Antinitrosaminic
Myrcene found in Plant (10 ppm)
Antinociceptive
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (10 ppm)
Antiobesity
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Antioxidant
Camphene found in Plant (88 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (140 ppm)
Linalyl-acetate found in Plant (4050 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (10 ppm)
Antipharyngitic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Antiplaque
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Antipneumonic
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (65 ppm)
Antiproliferant
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (434 ppm)
Antipyretic
Pulegone found in Plant (121 ppm)
Antirheumatalgic
P-cymene found in Plant (218 ppm)
Antirheumatic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Antirhinitic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Antiseptic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (65 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (434 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Antisinusitic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Antispasmodic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (65 ppm)
Bornyl-acetate found in Plant (614 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Linalyl-acetate found in Plant (4050 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (10 ppm)
Antistaphylococcic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (65 ppm)
Antitumor
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Antitussive
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Antiulcer
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Antiviral
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (65 ppm)
Bornyl-acetate found in Plant (614 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (218 ppm)
Apoptotic
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Avifuge
Pulegone found in Plant (121 ppm)
Bronchoprotectant
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
CNS-Stimulant
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Cancer-Preventive
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (65 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Pulegone found in Plant (121 ppm)
Candidicide
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Pulegone found in Plant (121 ppm)
Candidistat
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Carcinogenic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Cerebrotoxic
Pulegone found in Plant (121 ppm)
Chemopreventive
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (10 ppm)
Choleretic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Cholesterolytic
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Cicatrizant
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (434 ppm)
Coleoptophile
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (65 ppm)
Convulsant
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Counterirritant
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Cytochrome-P450-Inducer
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Decongestant
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Degranulant
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Dentifrice
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Detoxicant
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Edemagenic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Encephalopathic
Pulegone found in Plant (121 ppm)
Enterocontractant
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Expectorant
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (65 ppm)
Bornyl-acetate found in Plant (614 ppm)
Camphene found in Plant (88 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
FLavor
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
3-octanol found in Plant (663 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (65 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (434 ppm)
Bornyl-acetate found in Plant (614 ppm)
Camphene found in Plant (88 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (140 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Linalyl-acetate found in Plant (4050 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (10 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (218 ppm)
Pulegone found in Plant (121 ppm)
Fungicide
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (10 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (218 ppm)
Pulegone found in Plant (121 ppm)
Fungiphilic
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Fungistat
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
GST-Inducer
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Gastroprotective
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Glutathionalytic
Pulegone found in Plant (121 ppm)
Hallucinogenic
Pulegone found in Plant (121 ppm)
Hepatotonic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Hepatotoxic
Pulegone found in Plant (121 ppm)
Herbicide
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (65 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (218 ppm)
Pulegone found in Plant (121 ppm)
Histaminic
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Hypotensive
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Hypothermic
Myrcene found in Plant (10 ppm)
Immunomodulator
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Inflammatory
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Insecticide
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (65 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (434 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Pulegone found in Plant (121 ppm)
Insectifuge
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (65 ppm)
Bornyl-acetate found in Plant (614 ppm)
Camphene found in Plant (88 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (140 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (10 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (218 ppm)
Pulegone found in Plant (121 ppm)
Insectiphile
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (65 ppm)
Interleukin-6-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (434 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Irritant
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (65 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (140 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (10 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (218 ppm)
Laxative
P-cymene found in Plant (218 ppm)
Lipolytic
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Mosquitofuge
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (434 ppm)
Motor-Depressant
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (434 ppm)
Linalyl-acetate found in Plant (4050 ppm)
Myorelaxant
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Bornyl-acetate found in Plant (614 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (10 ppm)
NO-Genic
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Nematicide
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (434 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Nephrotoxic
Pulegone found in Plant (121 ppm)
Neurotoxic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Pulegone found in Plant (121 ppm)
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Ozone-Scavenger
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
P450-2B1-Inhibitor
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (65 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (10 ppm)
P450-Inducer
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Pediculicide
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Perfume
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Perfumery
3-octanol found in Plant (663 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (65 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (434 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (140 ppm)
Linalyl-acetate found in Plant (4050 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (10 ppm)
Pulegone found in Plant (121 ppm)
Peristaltic
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Pesticide
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (65 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (434 ppm)
Bornyl-acetate found in Plant (614 ppm)
Camphene found in Plant (88 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Plant (140 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Myrcene found in Plant (10 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (218 ppm)
Pulegone found in Plant (121 ppm)
Photosensitizer
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Pulifuge
Pulegone found in Plant (121 ppm)
Pulmonotoxic
Pulegone found in Plant (121 ppm)
Rubefacient
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Secretogogue
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Sedative
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (65 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (434 ppm)
Bornyl-acetate found in Plant (614 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Linalyl-acetate found in Plant (4050 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (218 ppm)
Pulegone found in Plant (121 ppm)
Spasmogenic
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (65 ppm)
Camphene found in Plant (88 ppm)
Surfactant
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Termiticide
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (434 ppm)
Testosterone-Hydroxylase-Inducer
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Tranquilizer
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (65 ppm)
Transdermal
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (65 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (434 ppm)
Limonene found in Plant (287 ppm)
Trichomonicide
1,8-cineole found in Plant (1383 ppm)
P-cymene found in Plant (218 ppm)
Vulnerary
Alpha-terpineol found in Plant (434 ppm)

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
1,8-cineole Plant 1,383
3-octanol Plant 663
3-octyl-acetate Plant 333
Alpha-pinene Plant 65
Alpha-terpineol Plant 434
Bornyl-acetate Plant 614
Camphene Plant 88
Dihydrocarveol-acetate Plant 348
Eo Plant 10,000
Gamma-terpinene Plant 140
Limonene Plant 287
Linalol Plant 216
Linalyl-acetate Plant 4,050
Myrcene Plant 10
P-cymene Plant 218
Pulegone Plant 121
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]