Monarda citriodora Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
lemon beebalm lemon-mint
Monarda citriodora

Medical use

Economic importance of Monarda citriodora

Materials esential oils

Gallery

Monarda citriodora Monarda citriodora Monarda citriodora Monarda citriodora Monarda citriodora Monarda citriodora Monarda citriodora Monarda citriodora Monarda citriodora Monarda citriodora Monarda citriodora Monarda citriodora Monarda citriodora Monarda citriodora Monarda citriodora

Geografical distribution

  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Native
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Kansas, Missouri , Oklahoma
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Arkansas
    • South-Central U.S.A.: United States - New Mexico, Texas
    • Southwestern U.S.A.: United States - Arizona
    • Northern Mexico: Mexico - Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo Leon, Sinaloa, Sonora , Tamaulipas
    • Southern Mexico: Mexico - Michoacan

Biological activities

ACE-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpinene found in Flower (320 ppm);found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower (55 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm);found in Plant (11 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Flower (1330 ppm);found in Plant (29 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
Myrcene found in Flower (205 ppm);found in Plant (14 ppm);found in Leaf (15 ppm)
AChE-Inhibitor
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Acaricide
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Flower (320 ppm);found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Flower (1330 ppm);found in Plant (29 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpinene found in Flower (320 ppm);found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower (55 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm);found in Plant (11 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Flower (1330 ppm);found in Plant (29 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
Myrcene found in Flower (205 ppm);found in Plant (14 ppm);found in Leaf (15 ppm)
Allelochemic
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (115 ppm);found in Plant (214 ppm);found in Leaf (65 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Allelopathic
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower (55 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm);found in Plant (11 ppm)
Camphene found in Plant (25 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower (75 ppm);found in Leaf (145 ppm)
Allergenic
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (115 ppm);found in Plant (214 ppm);found in Leaf (65 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Flower (0.1 ppm);found in Leaf (50 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Flower (385 ppm);found in Leaf (250 ppm);found in Plant (316 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Myrcene found in Flower (205 ppm);found in Plant (14 ppm);found in Leaf (15 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Analgesic
Myrcene found in Flower (205 ppm);found in Plant (14 ppm);found in Leaf (15 ppm)
P-cymene found in Flower (420 ppm);found in Leaf (1600 ppm);found in Plant (1038 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Ancylostomicide
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Androgenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Anesthetic
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Flower (385 ppm);found in Leaf (250 ppm);found in Plant (316 ppm)
Linalyl-acetate found in Plant (24 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Angiogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Ankylostomacide
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Anorexic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Anthelmintic
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Flower (385 ppm);found in Leaf (250 ppm);found in Plant (316 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Antiacetylcholinesterase
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Flower (320 ppm);found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Flower (1330 ppm);found in Plant (29 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
Isomenthone found in Plant (34 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
P-cymene found in Flower (420 ppm);found in Leaf (1600 ppm);found in Plant (1038 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower (75 ppm);found in Leaf (145 ppm)
Antiacne
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (115 ppm);found in Plant (214 ppm);found in Leaf (65 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower (55 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm);found in Plant (11 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower (75 ppm);found in Leaf (145 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Antiadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Antiaggregant
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Antiallergenic
Citral found in Plant
Antiallergic
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower (75 ppm);found in Leaf (145 ppm)
Antianaphylactic
Citral found in Plant
Antiandrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antiarthritic
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower (75 ppm);found in Leaf (145 ppm)
Antiatherosclerotic
Carvacrol found in Flower (385 ppm);found in Leaf (250 ppm);found in Plant (316 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Antibacillary
P-cymene found in Flower (420 ppm);found in Leaf (1600 ppm);found in Plant (1038 ppm)
Antibacterial
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (115 ppm);found in Plant (214 ppm);found in Leaf (65 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower (55 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm);found in Plant (11 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Bornyl-acetate found in Plant (185 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Flower (385 ppm);found in Leaf (250 ppm);found in Plant (316 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Myrcene found in Flower (205 ppm);found in Plant (14 ppm);found in Leaf (15 ppm)
P-cymene found in Flower (420 ppm);found in Leaf (1600 ppm);found in Plant (1038 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower (75 ppm);found in Leaf (145 ppm)
Thymohydroquinone found in Plant
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Antibronchitic
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Anticancer
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower (55 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm);found in Plant (11 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Anticariogenic
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower (55 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm);found in Plant (11 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Anticatarrh
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Anticholinesterase
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Anticonvulsant
Myrcene found in Flower (205 ppm);found in Plant (14 ppm);found in Leaf (15 ppm)
Antidiuretic
Carvacrol found in Flower (385 ppm);found in Leaf (250 ppm);found in Plant (316 ppm)
Antiedemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antiesophagitic
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Antiestrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antifatigue
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Antifeedant
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (115 ppm);found in Plant (214 ppm);found in Leaf (65 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Bornyl-acetate found in Plant (185 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Flower (1330 ppm);found in Plant (29 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Antifertility
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antiflu
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (115 ppm);found in Plant (214 ppm);found in Leaf (65 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
P-cymene found in Flower (420 ppm);found in Leaf (1600 ppm);found in Plant (1038 ppm)
Antigonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antihalitosic
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Antihelicobacter
Citral found in Plant
Antiherpetic
Citral found in Plant
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Antihistaminic
Citral found in Plant
Antihyperlipoproteinaemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antiinflammatory
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (115 ppm);found in Plant (214 ppm);found in Leaf (65 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower (55 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm);found in Plant (11 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Flower (0.1 ppm);found in Leaf (50 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Carvacrol found in Flower (385 ppm);found in Leaf (250 ppm);found in Plant (316 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Antilaryngitic
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Antileishmanic
Citral found in Plant
Antilepric
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Antileukemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antilithic
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Antilymphomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Antimelanomic
Carvacrol found in Flower (385 ppm);found in Leaf (250 ppm);found in Plant (316 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Antimutagenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Myrcene found in Flower (205 ppm);found in Plant (14 ppm);found in Leaf (15 ppm)
Antineuritic
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Antinitrosaminic
Alpha-terpinene found in Flower (320 ppm);found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Myrcene found in Flower (205 ppm);found in Plant (14 ppm);found in Leaf (15 ppm)
Antinociceptive
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Myrcene found in Flower (205 ppm);found in Plant (14 ppm);found in Leaf (15 ppm)
Antiobesity
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Antiophidic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antioxidant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Camphene found in Plant (25 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Flower (385 ppm);found in Leaf (250 ppm);found in Plant (316 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Gamma-terpinene found in Flower (1330 ppm);found in Plant (29 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
Isomenthone found in Plant (34 ppm)
Linalyl-acetate found in Plant (24 ppm)
Myrcene found in Flower (205 ppm);found in Plant (14 ppm);found in Leaf (15 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower (75 ppm);found in Leaf (145 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Antiperiodontic
Thymohydroquinone found in Plant
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Antipharyngitic
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Antiplaque
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Flower (385 ppm);found in Leaf (250 ppm);found in Plant (316 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Antipneumonic
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (115 ppm);found in Plant (214 ppm);found in Leaf (65 ppm)
Antiprogestational
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antiproliferant
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower (55 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm);found in Plant (11 ppm)
Antiprostaglandin
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Carvacrol found in Flower (385 ppm);found in Leaf (250 ppm);found in Plant (316 ppm)
Antiprostatadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antiprostatitic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antipyretic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antiradicular
Carvacrol found in Flower (385 ppm);found in Leaf (250 ppm);found in Plant (316 ppm)
Isomenthone found in Plant (34 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Antirheumatalgic
P-cymene found in Flower (420 ppm);found in Leaf (1600 ppm);found in Plant (1038 ppm)
Antirheumatic
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Antirhinitic
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Antisalmonella
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Antiseptic
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (115 ppm);found in Plant (214 ppm);found in Leaf (65 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower (55 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm);found in Plant (11 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Flower (0.1 ppm);found in Leaf (50 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Flower (385 ppm);found in Leaf (250 ppm);found in Plant (316 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower (75 ppm);found in Leaf (145 ppm)
Thymohydroquinone found in Plant
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Antishock
Citral found in Plant
Antisinusitic
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Antispasmodic
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (115 ppm);found in Plant (214 ppm);found in Leaf (65 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Flower (320 ppm);found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Flower (0.1 ppm);found in Leaf (50 ppm)
Bornyl-acetate found in Plant (185 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Flower (385 ppm);found in Leaf (250 ppm);found in Plant (316 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Linalyl-acetate found in Plant (24 ppm)
Myrcene found in Flower (205 ppm);found in Plant (14 ppm);found in Leaf (15 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower (75 ppm);found in Leaf (145 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Antistaphylococcic
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (115 ppm);found in Plant (214 ppm);found in Leaf (65 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Flower (385 ppm);found in Leaf (250 ppm);found in Plant (316 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Antistreptococcic
Carvacrol found in Flower (385 ppm);found in Leaf (250 ppm);found in Plant (316 ppm)
Thymohydroquinone found in Plant
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Antitrichinosic
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Antitumor
Citral found in Plant
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Antitussive
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Flower (385 ppm);found in Leaf (250 ppm);found in Plant (316 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower (75 ppm);found in Leaf (145 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Antiulcer
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower (75 ppm);found in Leaf (145 ppm)
Antiviral
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (115 ppm);found in Plant (214 ppm);found in Leaf (65 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Bornyl-acetate found in Plant (185 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
P-cymene found in Flower (420 ppm);found in Leaf (1600 ppm);found in Plant (1038 ppm)
Apoptotic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Citral found in Plant
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Artemicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Ataxigenic
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Bacteriostatic
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower (75 ppm);found in Leaf (145 ppm)
Barbituate-Synergist
Citral found in Plant
Bronchoprotectant
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Bronchorelaxant
Citral found in Plant
CNS-Stimulant
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Calcium-Antagonist
Citral found in Plant
Cancer-Preventive
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (115 ppm);found in Plant (214 ppm);found in Leaf (65 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Citral found in Plant
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Candidicide
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Flower (0.1 ppm);found in Leaf (50 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Carvacrol found in Flower (385 ppm);found in Leaf (250 ppm);found in Plant (316 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Candidistat
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Carcinogenic
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Carminative
Carvacrol found in Flower (385 ppm);found in Leaf (250 ppm);found in Plant (316 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Caspase-3-Inducer
Citral found in Plant
Caspase-8-Inducer
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Chemopreventive
Citral found in Plant
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Myrcene found in Flower (205 ppm);found in Plant (14 ppm);found in Leaf (15 ppm)
Choleretic
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Cholesterolytic
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Cicatrizant
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower (55 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm);found in Plant (11 ppm)
Coleoptophile
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (115 ppm);found in Plant (214 ppm);found in Leaf (65 ppm)
Convulsant
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Counterirritant
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Culicide
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Carvacrol found in Flower (385 ppm);found in Leaf (250 ppm);found in Plant (316 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Cytochrome-P450-Inducer
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Cytotoxic
Citral found in Plant
Decongestant
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Degranulant
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Dentifrice
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Deodorant
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Dermatitigenic
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Detoxicant
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Diuretic
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower (75 ppm);found in Leaf (145 ppm)
Edemagenic
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Enterocontractant
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Enterorelaxant
Carvacrol found in Flower (385 ppm);found in Leaf (250 ppm);found in Plant (316 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Enterotoxic
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Estrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Citral found in Plant
Expectorant
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (115 ppm);found in Plant (214 ppm);found in Leaf (65 ppm)
Bornyl-acetate found in Plant (185 ppm)
Camphene found in Plant (25 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Flower (385 ppm);found in Leaf (250 ppm);found in Plant (316 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
FLavor
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
3-octanol found in Plant (201 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (115 ppm);found in Plant (214 ppm);found in Leaf (65 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Flower (320 ppm);found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower (55 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm);found in Plant (11 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Flower (0.1 ppm);found in Leaf (50 ppm)
Bornyl-acetate found in Plant (185 ppm)
Camphene found in Plant (25 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Flower (385 ppm);found in Leaf (250 ppm);found in Plant (316 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Gamma-terpinene found in Flower (1330 ppm);found in Plant (29 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Linalyl-acetate found in Plant (24 ppm)
Myrcene found in Flower (205 ppm);found in Plant (14 ppm);found in Leaf (15 ppm)
P-cymene found in Flower (420 ppm);found in Leaf (1600 ppm);found in Plant (1038 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Febrifuge
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Fungicide
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Flower (385 ppm);found in Leaf (250 ppm);found in Plant (316 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Myrcene found in Flower (205 ppm);found in Plant (14 ppm);found in Leaf (15 ppm)
P-cymene found in Flower (420 ppm);found in Leaf (1600 ppm);found in Plant (1038 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower (75 ppm);found in Leaf (145 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Fungiphilic
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Fungistat
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
GST-Inducer
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Gastroirritant
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Gastroprotective
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Glaucomagenic
Citral found in Plant
Glutathionigenic
Citral found in Plant
Gonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Hepatoprotective
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Hepatotonic
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Herbicide
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (115 ppm);found in Plant (214 ppm);found in Leaf (65 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Flower (0.1 ppm);found in Leaf (50 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
P-cymene found in Flower (420 ppm);found in Leaf (1600 ppm);found in Plant (1038 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower (75 ppm);found in Leaf (145 ppm)
Histaminic
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Hypocholesterolemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Hypoglycemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Hypolipidemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Hypotensive
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Hypothermic
Myrcene found in Flower (205 ppm);found in Plant (14 ppm);found in Leaf (15 ppm)
Immunomodulator
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Inflammatory
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Insecticide
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (115 ppm);found in Plant (214 ppm);found in Leaf (65 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Flower (320 ppm);found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower (55 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm);found in Plant (11 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Insectifuge
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (115 ppm);found in Plant (214 ppm);found in Leaf (65 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Flower (320 ppm);found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Flower (0.1 ppm);found in Leaf (50 ppm)
Bornyl-acetate found in Plant (185 ppm)
Camphene found in Plant (25 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Flower (385 ppm);found in Leaf (250 ppm);found in Plant (316 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Flower (1330 ppm);found in Plant (29 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Myrcene found in Flower (205 ppm);found in Plant (14 ppm);found in Leaf (15 ppm)
P-cymene found in Flower (420 ppm);found in Leaf (1600 ppm);found in Plant (1038 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower (75 ppm);found in Leaf (145 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Insectiphile
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (115 ppm);found in Plant (214 ppm);found in Leaf (65 ppm)
Interleukin-6-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower (55 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm);found in Plant (11 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Irritant
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (115 ppm);found in Plant (214 ppm);found in Leaf (65 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Flower (0.1 ppm);found in Leaf (50 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Flower (385 ppm);found in Leaf (250 ppm);found in Plant (316 ppm)
Gamma-terpinene found in Flower (1330 ppm);found in Plant (29 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Myrcene found in Flower (205 ppm);found in Plant (14 ppm);found in Leaf (15 ppm)
P-cymene found in Flower (420 ppm);found in Leaf (1600 ppm);found in Plant (1038 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower (75 ppm);found in Leaf (145 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Larvicide
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Laxative
P-cymene found in Flower (420 ppm);found in Leaf (1600 ppm);found in Plant (1038 ppm)
Lipolytic
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Molluscicide
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Mosquitofuge
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower (55 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm);found in Plant (11 ppm)
Motor-Depressant
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower (55 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm);found in Plant (11 ppm)
Linalyl-acetate found in Plant (24 ppm)
Myorelaxant
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Bornyl-acetate found in Plant (185 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Myrcene found in Flower (205 ppm);found in Plant (14 ppm);found in Leaf (15 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Citral found in Plant
NO-Genic
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
NO-Inhibitor
Citral found in Plant
Nematicide
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower (55 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm);found in Plant (11 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Flower (385 ppm);found in Leaf (250 ppm);found in Plant (316 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower (75 ppm);found in Leaf (145 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Neurotoxic
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Ozone-Scavenger
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
P450-2B1-Inhibitor
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (115 ppm);found in Plant (214 ppm);found in Leaf (65 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Flower (320 ppm);found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Myrcene found in Flower (205 ppm);found in Plant (14 ppm);found in Leaf (15 ppm)
P450-Inducer
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Pediculicide
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Perfume
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Perfumery
3-octanol found in Plant (201 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (115 ppm);found in Plant (214 ppm);found in Leaf (65 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Flower (320 ppm);found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower (55 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm);found in Plant (11 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Flower (0.1 ppm);found in Leaf (50 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Gamma-terpinene found in Flower (1330 ppm);found in Plant (29 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
Linalyl-acetate found in Plant (24 ppm)
Myrcene found in Flower (205 ppm);found in Plant (14 ppm);found in Leaf (15 ppm)
Thymohydroquinone found in Plant
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Peristaltic
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Pesticide
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (115 ppm);found in Plant (214 ppm);found in Leaf (65 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Flower (320 ppm);found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower (55 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm);found in Plant (11 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Flower (0.1 ppm);found in Leaf (50 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Bornyl-acetate found in Plant (185 ppm)
Camphene found in Plant (25 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Flower (385 ppm);found in Leaf (250 ppm);found in Plant (316 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Gamma-terpinene found in Flower (1330 ppm);found in Plant (29 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Myrcene found in Flower (205 ppm);found in Plant (14 ppm);found in Leaf (15 ppm)
P-cymene found in Flower (420 ppm);found in Leaf (1600 ppm);found in Plant (1038 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower (75 ppm);found in Leaf (145 ppm)
Thymohydroquinone found in Plant
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Photosensitizer
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Prostaglandin-Inhibitor
Carvacrol found in Flower (385 ppm);found in Leaf (250 ppm);found in Plant (316 ppm)
Prostatitigenic
Citral found in Plant
Renoirritant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower (75 ppm);found in Leaf (145 ppm)
Rubefacient
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Secretogogue
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Sedative
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (115 ppm);found in Plant (214 ppm);found in Leaf (65 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower (55 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm);found in Plant (11 ppm)
Bornyl-acetate found in Plant (185 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Linalyl-acetate found in Plant (24 ppm)
P-cymene found in Flower (420 ppm);found in Leaf (1600 ppm);found in Plant (1038 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Spasmogenic
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (115 ppm);found in Plant (214 ppm);found in Leaf (65 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Flower (320 ppm);found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Flower (0.1 ppm);found in Leaf (50 ppm)
Camphene found in Plant (25 ppm)
Spermicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower (75 ppm);found in Leaf (145 ppm)
Sprout-Inhibitor
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Surfactant
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Teratogenic
Citral found in Plant
Termiticide
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower (55 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm);found in Plant (11 ppm)
Testosterone-Hydroxylase-Inducer
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Tracheorelaxant
Carvacrol found in Flower (385 ppm);found in Leaf (250 ppm);found in Plant (316 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Tranquilizer
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (115 ppm);found in Plant (214 ppm);found in Leaf (65 ppm)
Transdermal
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Flower (115 ppm);found in Plant (214 ppm);found in Leaf (65 ppm)
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower (55 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm);found in Plant (11 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Flower (0.1 ppm);found in Leaf (50 ppm)
Limonene found in Flower (40 ppm);found in Leaf (35 ppm);found in Plant (90 ppm)
Trichomonicide
1,8-cineole found in Flower (20 ppm);found in Leaf (40 ppm);found in Plant (614 ppm)
Carvacrol found in Flower (385 ppm);found in Leaf (250 ppm);found in Plant (316 ppm)
Citral found in Plant
P-cymene found in Flower (420 ppm);found in Leaf (1600 ppm);found in Plant (1038 ppm)
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Trypanocide
Citral found in Plant
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
Citral found in Plant
Ubiquiot
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Ulcerogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Urinary-Antiseptic
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Varroacide
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Vermicide
Thymol found in Flower (6175 ppm);found in Leaf (3550 ppm);found in Plant (8337 ppm)
Vermifuge
Carvacrol found in Flower (385 ppm);found in Leaf (250 ppm);found in Plant (316 ppm)
Vulnerary
Alpha-terpineol found in Flower (55 ppm);found in Leaf (0.1 ppm);found in Plant (11 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Flower (75 ppm);found in Leaf (145 ppm)

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
1,8-cineole Flower 20
Leaf 40
Plant 85 614
3-octanol Plant 124 201
3-octyl-acetate Plant 26 97
Alpha-pinene Flower 115
Plant 25 214
Leaf 65
Alpha-terpinene Flower 320
Leaf 120
Alpha-terpineol Flower 55
Leaf 0.1
Plant 11
Beta-caryophyllene Flower 50
Leaf 50
Beta-pinene Flower 0.1
Leaf 50
Beta-sitosterol Plant
Bornyl-acetate Plant 48 185
Camphene Plant 6 25
Carvacrol Flower 385
Leaf 250
Plant 316
Citral Plant
Dihydrocarveol-acetate Plant 11
Eo Flower 10,000
Shoot 10,000
Leaf 7,000
Gamma-terpinene Flower 1,330
Plant 29
Leaf 0.1
Isomenthone Plant 34
Limonene Flower 40
Leaf 35
Plant 89 90
Linalol Plant 47
Linalyl-acetate Plant 24
Myrcene Flower 205
Plant 14
Leaf 15
P-cymene Flower 420
Leaf 1,600
Plant 859 1,038
Terpinen-4-ol Flower 75
Leaf 145
Thymohydroquinone Plant
Thymol Flower 6,175
Leaf 3,550
Plant 6,269 8,337
Triacontane Shoot
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]