Marrubium vulgare Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
horehound white horehound

Marrubium vulgare is a flowering plant in the family Lamiaceae, native to Europe, northern Africa, and southwestern + central Asia. It is also widely naturalized in many places, including most of North + South America. It is a grey-leaved herbaceous perennial plant, somewhat resembling mint in appearance, and grows to 25–45 centimetres tall. The leaves are 2–5 cm long with a densely crinkled surface, and are covered in downy hairs. The flowers are white, borne in clusters on the upper part of the main stem.

Marrubium vulgare

Medical use

Economic importance of Marrubium vulgare

Food additives flavoring
Bee plants honey production
Environmental ornamental
Medicines folklore
Weed potential sed contaminant

Gallery

Marrubium vulgare Marrubium vulgare Marrubium vulgare Marrubium vulgare Marrubium vulgare Marrubium vulgare Marrubium vulgare Marrubium vulgare Marrubium vulgare Marrubium vulgare Marrubium vulgare Marrubium vulgare Marrubium vulgare

Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Native
    • Macaronesia: Portugal - Madeira Islands; Spain - Canary Islands
    • Northern Africa: Algeria ; Libya ; Morocco; Tunisia
    Naturalized
    • Macaronesia: Cape Verde; Portugal - Azores
    • Southern Africa: Lesotho; South Africa - Eastern Cape
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Western Asia: Afghanistan; Cyprus; Iran; Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey
    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Russian Federation - Ciscaucasia
    • Middle Asia: Kazakhstan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
    • China: China - Xinjiang
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Native
    • Indian Subcontinent: Pakistan
  • AUSTRALASIA
    Naturalized
    • Australia: Australia
    • New Zealand: New Zealand
  • EUROPE
    Native
    • Northern Europe: Denmark; Sweden ; United Kingdom - England
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czechoslovakia; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Switzerland
    • East Europe: Belarus; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Russian Federation - European part ; Ukraine
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bulgaria; Former Yugoslavia; Greece ; Italy ; Romania
    • Southwestern Europe: France ; Portugal; Spain
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Naturalized
    • United States
  • PACIFIC
    Naturalized
    • North-Central Pacific: United States - Hawaii
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Naturalized
    • Mesoamerica: Central America
    • South America

Biological activities

11B-HSD-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Plant
5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
ACE-Inhibitor
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Shoot
Vicenin-2 found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Vitexin found in Leaf ;found in Plant
AChE-Inhibitor
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
ATPase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Acaricide
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Chrysoeriol found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Cosmosiin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot
Cynaroside found in Leaf ;found in Shoot
Isoquercitrin found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Vitexin found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Allelochemic
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Allelopathic
Camphene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Sclareol found in Plant
Allergenic
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Beta-pinene found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Analgesic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
P-cymene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Androgenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Angiogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Anorexic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Anthelmintic
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
AntiADD
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
AntiAGE
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
AntiCFS
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
AntiCTS
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
AntiEBV
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
AntiGTF
Quercetin found in Plant
AntiHIV
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
AntiLegionella
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
AntiLyme
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
AntiMRSA
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
AntiPMS
Quercetin found in Plant
AntiTGF-beta
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Antiacetylcholinesterase
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
P-cymene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Antiacne
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Antiadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Antiadenoviral
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antiadenovirus
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antiaflatoxin
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiaggregant
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiaging
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiallergenic
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antiallergic
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antialzheimeran
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Choline found in Flower (2000 ppm);found in Plant (20000 ppm);found in Shoot (2000 ppm);found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Antianacarditic
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Antianaphylactic
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiandrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Antiangiogenic
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Vicenin-2 found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Antiarrhythmic
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Marrubiin found in Flower (10000 ppm);found in Plant (10000 ppm);found in Leaf (7800 ppm);found in Shoot (6300 ppm);found in Seed
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Vitexin found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Antiarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiatherogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Antiatherosclerotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antibacillary
P-cymene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Antibacterial
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Cosmosiin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Shoot
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
P-cymene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Sabinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Sclareol found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Antibradiquinic
Vitexin found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Antibronchitic
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Anticancer
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Shoot
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Vicenin-2 found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Anticarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Anticarcinomic
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Vicenin-2 found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Anticariogenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Anticataract
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Anticervicaldysplasic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Anticholestatic
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Antichoreic
Choline found in Flower (2000 ppm);found in Plant (20000 ppm);found in Shoot (2000 ppm);found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Anticirrhotic
Choline found in Flower (2000 ppm);found in Plant (20000 ppm);found in Shoot (2000 ppm);found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Anticlimacteric
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Anticold
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Anticolitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Anticomplement
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Anticomplementary
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Chrysoeriol found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Anticystinuric
Choline found in Flower (2000 ppm);found in Plant (20000 ppm);found in Shoot (2000 ppm);found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Anticystitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antidecubitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Antidementia
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Choline found in Flower (2000 ppm);found in Plant (20000 ppm);found in Shoot (2000 ppm);found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Antidepressant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antidermatic
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Antidermatitic
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Plant
Vitexin found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Antidermatotic
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Antidiabetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Choline found in Flower (2000 ppm);found in Plant (20000 ppm);found in Shoot (2000 ppm);found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Antidiarrheic
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
Antidote
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Antidysenteric
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
Antidyskinetic
Choline found in Flower (2000 ppm);found in Plant (20000 ppm);found in Shoot (2000 ppm);found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Antieczemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antiedemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Antielastase
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiencephalitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Antiendometriotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antienteritic
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Antiescherichic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Antiesophagitic
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Antiestrogenic
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antifatigue
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antifeedant
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Shoot
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Antifertility
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Antifibrinolytic
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antifibrosarcomic
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Antifibrotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antiflu
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
P-cymene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antigallstone
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antigargantitic
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Antigastric
Quercetin found in Plant
Antigastritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antigenotoxic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antigingivitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Antiglaucomic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antigliomic
Beta-elemene found in Plant
Antigonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Antigonadotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antihangover
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antihelicobacter
Sabinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Antihemolytic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antihemorrhagic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antihemorrhoidal
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Antihepatitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antihepatoadenomic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antihepatomic
Saponins found in Plant
Antihepatotoxic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Antiherpetic
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Antihistaminic
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Vitexin found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Antihomocysteine
Choline found in Flower (2000 ppm);found in Plant (20000 ppm);found in Shoot (2000 ppm);found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Antihydrophobic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antihypercholesterolemic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antihyperlipidemic
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Antihyperlipoproteinaemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Antihypertensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
Antihyperthyroid
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antiinfertility
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antiinflammatory
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Beta-pinene found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Betonicine found in Plant (3000 ppm);found in Shoot (3000 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Shoot
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Vicenin-2 found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Vitexin found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Antileishmanic
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Antilepric
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antileukemic
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Antileukotriene
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antilipolytic
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
Antilipoperoxidant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antilithic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Antilymphomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Antimaculitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antimalarial
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Antimanic
Choline found in Flower (2000 ppm);found in Plant (20000 ppm);found in Shoot (2000 ppm);found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Antimeasles
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antimelanogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antimelanomic
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antimenopausal
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antimetastatic
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Antimigraine
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antimutagenic
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Chrysoeriol found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Saponins found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Antimyocarditic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antinephritic
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Antineuramidase
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antinitrosaminic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Antinitrosic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antinociceptive
Choline found in Flower (2000 ppm);found in Plant (20000 ppm);found in Shoot (2000 ppm);found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Isoquercitrin found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Marrubiin found in Flower (10000 ppm);found in Plant (10000 ppm);found in Leaf (7800 ppm);found in Shoot (6300 ppm);found in Seed
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiobesity
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Antiophidic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
Antiorchitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antiosteoarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antiosteoporotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antioxidant
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Camphene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Chrysoeriol found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Vitexin found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Antipancreatitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiparkinsonian
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antiparotitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antiperiodontal
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiperiodontitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antiperistaltic
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipermeability
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiperoxidant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Antipharyngitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Antiplaque
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiplasmodial
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Antipneumonic
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antipodriac
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipolio
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Antipoliomyelitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antiprogestational
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Antiproliferant
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Beta-elemene found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Vicenin-2 found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Antiproliferative
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Antiprostaglandin
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antiprostanoid
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiprostatadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Antiprostatitic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiprostatotic
Phytosterols found in Plant
Antiproteolytic
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antipsoriac
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipyretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Antiradicular
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
Antirenitic
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
Antiretinotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antiretroviral
Isoquercetin found in Plant
Antirheumatalgic
P-cymene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Antirheumatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antirhinitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Antirhinoviral
Chrysoeriol found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Antiscorbutic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antiseptic
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Beta-pinene found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Sabinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Antiserotoninic
Vitexin found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Antishingles
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antispasmodic
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Beta-pinene found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antistaphylococcic
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Antisteatotic
Choline found in Flower (2000 ppm);found in Plant (20000 ppm);found in Shoot (2000 ppm);found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Antistomatitic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Antistreptococcic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antistress
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antisunburn
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antisyndrome-X
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Antithiamin
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antithrombic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antithromboxane
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Antithyroid
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Vitexin found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Antitonsilitic
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Antitrypanosomic
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Antitumor-Promoter
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Antitumor
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Shoot
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Antitussive
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Antiulcer
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Sabinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Antiulcerogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antivaccinia
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antiviral
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Chrysoeriol found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Isoquercetin found in Plant
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
P-cymene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Anxiolytic
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Aphidifuge
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Vitexin found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Apoptotic
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Beta-elemene found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Vicenin-2 found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Aromatase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Arrhythmigenic
Marrubiin found in Flower (10000 ppm);found in Plant (10000 ppm);found in Leaf (7800 ppm);found in Shoot (6300 ppm);found in Seed
Artemicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Asthma-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Astringent
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Autotoxic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Bacteristat
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Beta-Blocker
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Bitter
Marrubiin found in Flower (10000 ppm);found in Plant (10000 ppm);found in Leaf (7800 ppm);found in Shoot (6300 ppm);found in Seed
Bradycardiac
Quercetin found in Plant
Bronchodilator
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Bronchoprotectant
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
CNS-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
CNS-Depressant
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
CNS-Stimulant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
COMT-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
COX-1-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
COX-2-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Calcium-Antagonist
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cynaroside found in Leaf ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Calmodulin-Antagonist
Quercetin found in Plant
Cancer-Preventive
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Chrysoeriol found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Shoot
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Mucilage found in Plant
Phytol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Vitexin found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Candidicide
Beta-pinene found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Cosmosiin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Candidistat
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Capillarigenic
Isoquercitrin found in Shoot
Capillariprotective
Quercetin found in Plant
Carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
Cardioactive
Marrubiin found in Flower (10000 ppm);found in Plant (10000 ppm);found in Leaf (7800 ppm);found in Shoot (6300 ppm);found in Seed
Cardiodepressant
Choline found in Flower (2000 ppm);found in Plant (20000 ppm);found in Shoot (2000 ppm);found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Cardioprotective
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Cardiotonic
Stachydrine found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Caspase-8-Inducer
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Catabolic
Quercetin found in Plant
Cerebrotonic
Choline found in Flower (2000 ppm);found in Plant (20000 ppm);found in Shoot (2000 ppm);found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chelator
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
Chemopreventive
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Cholagogue
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Choleretic
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Marrubiin found in Flower (10000 ppm);found in Plant (10000 ppm);found in Leaf (7800 ppm);found in Shoot (6300 ppm);found in Seed
Marrubiinic-acid found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Cholesterolytic
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Cholinergic
Choline found in Flower (2000 ppm);found in Plant (20000 ppm);found in Shoot (2000 ppm);found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Clastogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Co-carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cold-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Coleoptophile
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Collagen-Sparing
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Collagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Copper-Chelator
Quercetin found in Plant
Cyclin-B1-Inhibitor
Vicenin-2 found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Cyclin-D1-Inhibitor
Vicenin-2 found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Cytochrome-P450-1A1-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Cytochrome-P450-1A2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Cytoprotective
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cytotoxic
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
DNA-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
DNA-Protective
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Demulcent
Mucilage found in Plant
Detoxicant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Diaphoretic
Isoquercitrin found in Shoot
Differentiator
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Diuretic
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Elastase-Inhibitor
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Emetic
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Emmenagogue
Stachydrine found in Plant
Enterocontractant
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Estrogenic
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Expectorant
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Camphene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Marrubiin found in Flower (10000 ppm);found in Plant (10000 ppm);found in Leaf (7800 ppm);found in Shoot (6300 ppm);found in Seed
FLavor
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Beta-pinene found in Plant
Camphene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
P-cymene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Febrifuge
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Fistula-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Floral-Inhibitor
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Fungicide
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
P-cymene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Sclareol found in Plant
Fungiphilic
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Fungistat
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
GST-Inducer
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
Goitrogenic
Vitexin found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Gonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
HIF-1alpha-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
HIV-RT-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Hemostat
Betonicine found in Plant (3000 ppm);found in Shoot (3000 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Hepatocarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Hepatomagenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Hepatoprotective
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Choline found in Flower (2000 ppm);found in Plant (20000 ppm);found in Shoot (2000 ppm);found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Hepatotoxic
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Hepatotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Herbicide
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Beta-pinene found in Plant
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
P-cymene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Histamine-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Histaminic
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Hyaluronidase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Hypocholesterolemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Cynaroside found in Leaf ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Mucilage found in Plant
Phytosterols found in Plant
Hypoglycemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Hypolipidemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Hypotensive
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Choline found in Flower (2000 ppm);found in Plant (20000 ppm);found in Shoot (2000 ppm);found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Isoquercitrin found in Shoot
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Vitexin found in Leaf ;found in Plant
ICAM-1-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
IKK-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Ileorelaxant
Choline found in Flower (2000 ppm);found in Plant (20000 ppm);found in Shoot (2000 ppm);found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Immunomodulator
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Saponins found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Immunostimulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Immunosuppressant
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
Inotropic
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Plant
Insecticide
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Insectifuge
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Beta-pinene found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Camphene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
P-cymene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Stachydrine found in Plant
Insectiphile
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Shoot
Insulin-Sparing
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Insulinogenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Interferonogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Interleukin-6-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Irritant
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Beta-pinene found in Plant
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
P-cymene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Juvabional
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Lactagogue
Stachydrine found in Plant
Larvistat
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Laxative
P-cymene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Leucocytogenic
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Leukotriene-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Lipolytic
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Lipotropic
Choline found in Flower (2000 ppm);found in Plant (20000 ppm);found in Shoot (2000 ppm);found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Lithogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Lyase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
MAO-A-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
MAO-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
MAPK-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
MMP-9-Inhibitor
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Mast-Cell-Stabilizer
Quercetin found in Plant
Memorigenic
Choline found in Flower (2000 ppm);found in Plant (20000 ppm);found in Shoot (2000 ppm);found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Metal-Chelator
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Mucolytic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Musculotropic
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Mutagenic
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Plant
Myorelaxant
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Plant
NEP-Inhibitor
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
NO-Genic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
NO-Inhibitor
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
NO-Synthase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Plant
Nematicide
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Nephrotoxic
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Neuroprotective
Quercetin found in Plant
Nodulation-Signal
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Oviposition-Stimulant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Vicenin-2 found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Ozone-Scavenger
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
P21-Inducer
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
P450-2B1-Inhibitor
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
P450-Inducer
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
P450-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
PGE2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
PKC-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
PTK-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Parasympathomimetic
Choline found in Flower (2000 ppm);found in Plant (20000 ppm);found in Shoot (2000 ppm);found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Perfumery
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Beta-pinene found in Plant
Sabinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Sclareol found in Plant
Peristaltic
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Pesticide
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Beta-pinene found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Camphene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Isoquercetin found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Shoot
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
P-cymene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Sclareol found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Phospholipase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Photosensitizer
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Piscicide
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Plasmodicide
Quercetin found in Plant
Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Potassium-Sparing
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Progestational
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Proliferant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Prooxidant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Prostaglandigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Prostaglandin-Synthetase-Inhibitor
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Protease-Inhibitor
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Protisticide
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Psychotropic
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
Quinone-Reductase-Inducer
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Plant
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Radioprotective
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Vicenin-2 found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Secretogogue
Marrubiin found in Flower (10000 ppm);found in Plant (10000 ppm);found in Leaf (7800 ppm);found in Shoot (6300 ppm);found in Seed
Sedative
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
P-cymene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Sodium-Sparing
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Spasmogenic
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Beta-pinene found in Plant
Camphene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Spermicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Styptic
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Succinoxidase-Inhibitor
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Sunscreen
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Sweetener
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Systolic-Depressant
Stachydrine found in Plant
TNF-alpha-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Isoquercitrin found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
TOPO-2-Inhibitor
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Teratologic
Quercetin found in Plant
Thyroid-Peroxidase-Inhibitor
Vitexin found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Isoquercitrin found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Plant
Tranquilizer
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Transdermal
Alpha-pinene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Beta-pinene found in Plant
Limonene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Trichomonicide
P-cymene found in Essential Oil ;found in Plant
Trypanocide
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Tumorigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Ubiquiot
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Ulcerogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Uricosuric
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Urinary-Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Uterotrophic
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
VEGF-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Vasodilator
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Vasopressor
Ursolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Plant (1200 ppm)
Vulnerary
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Flower ;found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Flower (29000 ppm);found in Plant (70000 ppm)
cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Vitexin found in Leaf ;found in Plant
iNOS-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
13(r)-premarrubiin Plant 150
13(s)-premarrubiin Plant 90
2-(omega-1)-methylalkanes Plant
2-methyl-alkanes Plant
3-(omega-9)-methylalkanes Plant
3-methyl-alkanes Plant
Alpha-pinene Essential Oil
Plant
Alpha-terpinolene Essential Oil
Plant 15 20
Apigenin Leaf
Plant
Shoot
Apigenin-7-(2-glucosyl-lactate) Leaf
Apigenin-7-(2-glucuronosyl-lactate) Leaf
Apigenin-7-lactate Leaf
Plant
Apigenin-7-o-(6"-p-coumaroyl-glucoside) Leaf
Apigenin-7-o-glycoside Plant
Ascorbic-acid Flower
Plant
Beta-elemene Plant
Beta-pinene Plant
Beta-sitosterol Plant
Shoot
Beta-sitosterol-beta-glucoside Plant
Betonicine Plant 3,000
Shoot 3,000
Bisabolol Plant
Caffeic-acid Plant
Camphene Essential Oil
Plant
Chlorogenic-acid Plant
Choline Flower 2,000
Plant 2,000 20,000
Shoot 2,000
Leaf 2,000
Chrysoeriol Leaf
Plant
Cosmosiin Leaf
Shoot
Cryptochlorogenic-acid Plant
Cynaroside Leaf
Shoot
Dihydroperegrinin Plant
Diterpenes Plant 3,000 10,000
Eo Plant 500 600
Fat Seed 264,000 372,000
Fenchene Essential Oil
Plant
Gallic-acid Flower
Plant
Isomenthone-8-thiol Plant
Isoquercetin Plant
Isoquercitrin Shoot
Kno3 Flower 28,000 30,000
L-stachydrine Plant
Limonene Essential Oil
Plant
Luteolin Leaf
Shoot
Plant
Luteolin-7-(2-glucosyl-lactate) Leaf
Luteolin-7-(2-glucuronosyl-lactate Leaf
Luteolin-7-glycoside Plant
Luteolin-7-lactate Leaf
Plant
Luteolin-7-o-glycoside Plant
Marrubenol Plant
Marrubiin Flower 9,000 10,000
Plant 1,000 10,000
Leaf 7,800
Shoot 1,252.9 6,300
Seed
Marrubiinic-acid Plant
Marrubine Leaf
Marrubiol Plant
Shoot 130
Mucilage Plant
P-cymene Essential Oil
Plant
P-cymol Plant
Pectins Plant
Peregrinin Plant
Peregrinol Plant
Shoot
Phytol Plant
Phytosterols Plant
Premarrubiin Plant 900 1,500
Shoot
Protein Seed 185,000 256,000
Quercetin Plant
Quercetin-3-0-glycoside Plant
Quercetin-3-o-alpha-l-rhamnosyl-glucoside Shoot
Quercetin-3-o-rhamnosylglycoside Plant
Resins Plant
Sabinene Essential Oil
Plant
Saponins Plant
Sclareol Plant
Stachydrine Plant
Tannic-acid Plant
Tannin Flower 26,000 29,000
Plant 65,000 70,000
Tauremisin Shoot
Tricycene Plant
Turacine Shoot
Turicine Plant
Ursolic-acid Flower
Leaf 1,000
Plant 1,200
Vicenin-2 Leaf
Plant
Vitexin Leaf
Plant
Vulgarol Plant
Shoot 30
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]