Lycium chinense Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
Chinese boxthorn Chinese matrimony-vine Chinese teaplant Chinese wolfberry wolfberry

Lycium chinense is one of two species of boxthorn in the family Solanaceae from which the wolfberry or goji berry is harvested, the other being Lycium barbarum. Two varieties are recognized, L. chinense var. chinense and L. chinense var. potaninii. It is also known as Chinese boxthorn, Chinese matrimony-vine, Chinese teaplant, Chinese wolfberry, and wolfberry. The plant is used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of nightsweats, pneumonia, cough, hematemesis, inflammation, and diabetes mellitus.

Lycium chinense

Medical use

Economic importance of Lycium chinense

Environmental erosion control ornamental
Human food oil/fat vegetable
Medicines folklore

Gallery

Lycium chinense Lycium chinense Lycium chinense Lycium chinense Lycium chinense Lycium chinense Lycium chinense Lycium chinense Lycium chinense Lycium chinense Lycium chinense Lycium chinense

Geografical distribution

  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Mongolia: Mongolia
    • China: China - Anhui, Fujian, Gansu , Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Monggol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Yunnan, Zhejiang
    • Eastern Asia: Japan - Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Ryukyu Islands, Shikoku; Korea; Taiwan
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Native
    • Indo-China: Thailand

Biological activities

11B-HSD-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Linoleic-acid found in Fruit
5-HT-Inhibitor
Rutin found in Leaf
5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
ACE-Inhibitor
Isoquercitrin found in Leaf
Nicotianamine found in Leaf (0.69 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
ATPase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Abortifacient
Betaine found in Fruit (1000 ppm);found in Leaf (13800 ppm)
Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Fruit (540 ppm)
Isoquercitrin found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Sugiol found in Root Bark (50 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Leaf (4 ppm)
Allelochemic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Allelopathic
Vanillic-acid found in Leaf (4 ppm)
Allergenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Beta-ionone found in Fruit (1090 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Analgesic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (0.8 ppm);found in Leaf (7.7 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Androgenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Anesthetic
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Angiogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (16000 ppm);found in Leaf (125000 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (16700 ppm);found in Root Bark (8110 ppm);found in Leaf (49808 ppm)
Anorexic
Arsenic found in Fruit (0.44 ppm);found in Root Bark (0.73 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Anthelmintic
Vanillic-acid found in Leaf (4 ppm)
AntiAGE
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
AntiBPH
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
AntiCFS
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
AntiCTS
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
AntiCVI
Rutin found in Leaf
AntiGTF
Quercetin found in Leaf
AntiHIV
Quercetin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
AntiLyme
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Fruit (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (0.8 ppm);found in Leaf (7.7 ppm)
AntiMS
Linoleic-acid found in Fruit
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
AntiPMS
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (1170 ppm);found in Leaf (14231 ppm);found in Root Bark (53900 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Manganese found in Fruit (21 ppm);found in Root Bark (91 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiacid
Glycine found in Leaf
Antiacne
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Fruit (540 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Fruit
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antiacrodermatitic
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antiacrodynic
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Antiadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Antiadrenergic
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Antiaflatoxin
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Antiaggregant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antiaging
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiakathisic
Iron found in Fruit (140 ppm);found in Root Bark (670 ppm);found in Leaf (519 ppm)
Antialcoholic
Glutamine found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Manganese found in Fruit (21 ppm);found in Root Bark (91 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (0.8 ppm);found in Leaf (7.7 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antialdosteronic
Glycine found in Leaf
Antiallergic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (1170 ppm);found in Leaf (14231 ppm);found in Root Bark (53900 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antialopecic
Linoleic-acid found in Fruit
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antialzheimeran
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf (177 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Choline found in Leaf
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Fruit (0.8 ppm);found in Leaf (7.7 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antiamblyopic
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Antianaphylactic
Linoleic-acid found in Fruit
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiandrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Linoleic-acid found in Fruit
Antianemic
Copper found in Fruit (15 ppm);found in Root Bark (17 ppm)
Iron found in Fruit (140 ppm);found in Root Bark (670 ppm);found in Leaf (519 ppm)
Manganese found in Fruit (21 ppm);found in Root Bark (91 ppm)
Antianginal
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf (177 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Antiangiogenic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antianorectic
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (0.8 ppm);found in Leaf (7.7 ppm)
Antianorexic
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antianxiety
Calcium found in Fruit (1170 ppm);found in Leaf (14231 ppm);found in Root Bark (53900 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Antiapoplectic
Rutin found in Leaf
Antiarabiflavinotic
Riboflavin found in Fruit (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Antiarrhythmic
Calcium found in Fruit (1170 ppm);found in Leaf (14231 ppm);found in Root Bark (53900 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (16700 ppm);found in Root Bark (8110 ppm);found in Leaf (49808 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Antiarteriosclerotic
Histidine found in Leaf
Linoleic-acid found in Fruit
Antiarthritic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf (177 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (1170 ppm);found in Leaf (14231 ppm);found in Root Bark (53900 ppm)
Copper found in Fruit (15 ppm);found in Root Bark (17 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Fruit
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Manganese found in Fruit (21 ppm);found in Root Bark (91 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf (177 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Antiatherogenic
Rutin found in Leaf
Antiatherosclerotic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf (177 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (1170 ppm);found in Leaf (14231 ppm);found in Root Bark (53900 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antibackache
Thiamin found in Fruit (0.8 ppm);found in Leaf (7.7 ppm)
Antibacterial
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Beta-ionone found in Fruit (1090 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Cycloartenol found in Seed
Cycloeucalenol found in Seed
Delta-cadinene found in Fruit (540 ppm)
Isoquercitrin found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Leaf (4 ppm)
Antiberiberi
Thiamin found in Fruit (0.8 ppm);found in Leaf (7.7 ppm)
Antibronchoconstrictor
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Anticancer
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf (177 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Isoquercitrin found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Vanillic-acid found in Leaf (4 ppm)
Anticanker
Iron found in Fruit (140 ppm);found in Root Bark (670 ppm);found in Leaf (519 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (0.8 ppm);found in Leaf (7.7 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Anticapillary-Fragility
Rutin found in Leaf
Anticarcinomic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Anticardiospasmic
Thiamin found in Fruit (0.8 ppm);found in Leaf (7.7 ppm)
Anticariogenic
Beta-ionone found in Fruit (1090 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Fruit (540 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Anticarpal-Tunnel
Riboflavin found in Fruit (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Anticataract
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf (177 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Riboflavin found in Fruit (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Rutin found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Fruit (0.8 ppm);found in Leaf (7.7 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Anticephalagic
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Fruit (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Anticervicaldysplasic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Fruit (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Anticheilitic
Iron found in Fruit (140 ppm);found in Root Bark (670 ppm);found in Leaf (519 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Fruit (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Antichilblain
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Anticholinergic
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Antichoreic
Choline found in Leaf
Anticirrhotic
Choline found in Leaf
Anticlastogen
Rutin found in Leaf
Anticlimacteric
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (1170 ppm);found in Leaf (14231 ppm);found in Root Bark (53900 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Anticoeliac
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Anticold
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Anticolitic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Fruit (0.8 ppm);found in Leaf (7.7 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Anticomplementary
Quercetin found in Leaf
Anticonvulsant
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf (177 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Rutin found in Leaf
Anticoronary
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Fruit
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Anticystinuric
Choline found in Leaf
Anticystitic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antidandruff
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antidecubitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Fruit (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (0.8 ppm);found in Leaf (7.7 ppm)
Antideliriant
Thiamin found in Fruit (0.8 ppm);found in Leaf (7.7 ppm)
Antidementia
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf (177 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Choline found in Leaf
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Rutin found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Fruit (0.8 ppm);found in Leaf (7.7 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antidepressant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (1170 ppm);found in Leaf (14231 ppm);found in Root Bark (53900 ppm)
Glutamine found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (16700 ppm);found in Root Bark (8110 ppm);found in Leaf (49808 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antidermatitic
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antidiabetic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf (177 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Choline found in Leaf
Copper found in Fruit (15 ppm);found in Root Bark (17 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (16000 ppm);found in Leaf (125000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Manganese found in Fruit (21 ppm);found in Root Bark (91 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antidiscotic
Manganese found in Fruit (21 ppm);found in Root Bark (91 ppm)
Antidysgeuzic
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antidyskinetic
Choline found in Leaf
Manganese found in Fruit (21 ppm);found in Root Bark (91 ppm)
Antidysmenorrheic
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Antidyspeptic
Thiamin found in Fruit (0.8 ppm);found in Leaf (7.7 ppm)
Antidysphagic
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Antieczemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Fruit
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antiedemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Antielastase
Isoquercitrin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiencephalitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiencephalopathic
Glycine found in Leaf
Leucine found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Fruit (0.8 ppm);found in Leaf (7.7 ppm)
Valine found in Leaf
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antiendometriotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Antienterotic
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Antiepileptic
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Manganese found in Fruit (21 ppm);found in Root Bark (91 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antierythemic
Rutin found in Leaf
Antiescherichic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiestrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antifatigue
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Copper found in Fruit (15 ppm);found in Root Bark (17 ppm)
Diosgenin found in Flower (7300 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (16700 ppm);found in Root Bark (8110 ppm);found in Leaf (49808 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (0.8 ppm);found in Leaf (7.7 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Leaf (4 ppm)
Antifeedant
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Isoquercitrin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Antifertility
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Antifibrinolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Fruit
Antifibromyalgic
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Antifibrosarcomic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antifibrotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antiflu
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antifuruncular
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antigallstone
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Antigastric
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antigastritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Betaine found in Fruit (1000 ppm);found in Leaf (13800 ppm)
Glycine found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Fruit (0.8 ppm);found in Leaf (7.7 ppm)
Antigastrotic
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Antigingivitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Antiglaucomic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Rutin found in Leaf
Antigliomic
Beta-elemene found in Fruit (360 ppm)
Antiglossitic
Riboflavin found in Fruit (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Antigonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Antigonadotropic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antigranular
Linoleic-acid found in Fruit
Antihangover
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (0.8 ppm);found in Leaf (7.7 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antiheartburn
Thiamin found in Fruit (0.8 ppm);found in Leaf (7.7 ppm)
Antihematuric
Rutin found in Leaf
Antihemorrhagic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Antihemorrhoidal
Rutin found in Leaf
Antihepatitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Antihepatotoxic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Leaf ;found in Seed
Antiherpetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Fruit (0.8 ppm);found in Leaf (7.7 ppm)
Antihistaminic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Linoleic-acid found in Fruit
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antihomocysteine
Choline found in Leaf
Antihomocystinuric
Betaine found in Fruit (1000 ppm);found in Leaf (13800 ppm)
Antihydrophobic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antihyperactivity
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Antihyperkeratotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Antihyperkinetic
Calcium found in Fruit (1170 ppm);found in Leaf (14231 ppm);found in Root Bark (53900 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Antihyperlipoproteinaemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Antihypertensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (1170 ppm);found in Leaf (14231 ppm);found in Root Bark (53900 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (16000 ppm);found in Leaf (125000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (16700 ppm);found in Root Bark (8110 ppm);found in Leaf (49808 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antihypoglycemic
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Antiichythyotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Antiimplantation
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Antiimpotence
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antiinfarctal
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf (177 ppm)
Antiinfective
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antiinfertility
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf (177 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antiinflammatory
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Copper found in Fruit (15 ppm);found in Root Bark (17 ppm)
Cycloartenol found in Seed
Diosgenin found in Flower (7300 ppm)
Isoquercitrin found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Linoleic-acid found in Fruit
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Leaf ;found in Seed
Vanillic-acid found in Leaf (4 ppm)
Antiinsomniac
Calcium found in Fruit (1170 ppm);found in Leaf (14231 ppm);found in Root Bark (53900 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antiinsomnic
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Antiischemic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf (177 ppm)
Antikeratitic
Riboflavin found in Fruit (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Antileishmanic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antilepric
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antileukemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Vanillic-acid found in Leaf (4 ppm)
Antileukonychic
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antileukoplakic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Antileukotriene-D4
Linoleic-acid found in Fruit
Antileukotriene
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antileukotrienogenic
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Antilipoperoxidant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antilithic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Antilupus
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Antilymphocytic
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Antilymphomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antimaculitic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf (177 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antimalarial
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antimanic
Choline found in Leaf
Antimastalgic
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Antimastitic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Antimeasles
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Antimelanomic
Beta-ionone found in Fruit (1090 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antimenopausal
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (1170 ppm);found in Leaf (14231 ppm);found in Root Bark (53900 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Antimenorrhagic
Iron found in Fruit (140 ppm);found in Root Bark (670 ppm);found in Leaf (519 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Fruit
Antimetastatic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antimigraine
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Fruit (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (0.8 ppm);found in Leaf (7.7 ppm)
Antimitral-valve-prolapse
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Antimutagenic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf (177 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Antimyoatrophic
Betaine found in Fruit (1000 ppm);found in Leaf (13800 ppm)
Antimyocarditic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Fruit (0.8 ppm);found in Leaf (7.7 ppm)
Antinephritic
Histidine found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antinephrolytic
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Antineuralgic
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (0.8 ppm);found in Leaf (7.7 ppm)
Antineuramidase
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Antineurasthenic
Thiamin found in Fruit (0.8 ppm);found in Leaf (7.7 ppm)
Antineuritic
Thiamin found in Fruit (0.8 ppm);found in Leaf (7.7 ppm)
Antineuropathic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf (177 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (0.8 ppm);found in Leaf (7.7 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antineurotic
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Antinitrosaminic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antinitrosic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Antinociceptive
Choline found in Leaf
Copper found in Fruit (15 ppm);found in Root Bark (17 ppm)
Isoquercitrin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Stigmasterol found in Leaf ;found in Seed
Antinyctalopic
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antiobesity
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (1170 ppm);found in Leaf (14231 ppm);found in Root Bark (53900 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (16000 ppm);found in Leaf (125000 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antiophidic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Stigmasterol found in Leaf ;found in Seed
Antiorchitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Antiosteoarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Antiosteoporotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (1170 ppm);found in Leaf (14231 ppm);found in Root Bark (53900 ppm)
Copper found in Fruit (15 ppm);found in Root Bark (17 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Manganese found in Fruit (21 ppm);found in Root Bark (91 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Fruit (560 ppm);found in Leaf (4135 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antiototic
Manganese found in Fruit (21 ppm);found in Root Bark (91 ppm)
Antioxidant
Alanine found in Leaf
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf (177 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Campesterol found in Leaf ;found in Seed
Cholesterol found in Leaf ;found in Seed
Histidine found in Leaf
Isoquercitrin found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Manganese found in Fruit (21 ppm);found in Root Bark (91 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Riboflavin found in Fruit (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Leaf ;found in Seed
Vanillic-acid found in Leaf (4 ppm)
Antiozenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Antipancreatitic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antipapillomic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Antiparkinsonian
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf (177 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Antiparotitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Antipellagric
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Fruit (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Antiperiodontal
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiperiodontic
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Antiperiodontitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (1170 ppm);found in Leaf (14231 ppm);found in Root Bark (53900 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antiperistaltic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antipermeability
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiperoxidant
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Vanillic-acid found in Leaf (4 ppm)
Antipharyngitic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiphotophobic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Fruit (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Antipityriasic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Antiplaque
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antiplasmodial
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiplatelet
Rutin found in Leaf
Antipneumonic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Antipodriac
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antipolio
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antipoliomyelitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (0.8 ppm);found in Leaf (7.7 ppm)
Antiporphyric
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Antiprogestational
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Antiprolactin
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antiproliferant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Beta-elemene found in Fruit (360 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Antiprostaglandin
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Antiprostanoid
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiprostatadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Antiprostatitic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Glycine found in Leaf
Linoleic-acid found in Fruit
Quercetin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antiprostatotic
Phytosterols found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Antiprotozoal
Rutin found in Leaf
Antipruritic
Glycine found in Leaf
Antipsoriac
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antipurpuric
Rutin found in Leaf
Antipyretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Antiradicular
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf (177 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Isoquercitrin found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Vanillic-acid found in Leaf (4 ppm)
Antiretinopathic
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Antiretinotic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf (177 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Antirheumatic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf (177 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (1170 ppm);found in Leaf (14231 ppm);found in Root Bark (53900 ppm)
Cycloartenol found in Seed
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antirhinitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Antiscorbutic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Antiscotomic
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Antiseptic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Leaf (4 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antiserotonin
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Antishingles
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Antisickling
Asparagine found in Leaf
Glutamine found in Leaf
Glycine found in Leaf
Vanillic-acid found in Leaf (4 ppm)
Antispare-Tire
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antispasmodic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (16700 ppm);found in Root Bark (8110 ppm);found in Leaf (49808 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Antispasmophilic
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Antistaphylococcic
Cycloartenol found in Seed
Cycloeucalenol found in Seed
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Antisteatotic
Choline found in Leaf
Antistomatitic
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antistreptococcic
Delta-cadinene found in Fruit (540 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antistress
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (1170 ppm);found in Leaf (14231 ppm);found in Root Bark (53900 ppm)
Diosgenin found in Flower (7300 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Antistroke
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf (177 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (16700 ppm);found in Root Bark (8110 ppm);found in Leaf (49808 ppm)
Antisunburn
Rutin found in Leaf
Antisyndrome-X
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Manganese found in Fruit (21 ppm);found in Root Bark (91 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antithiamin
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antithrombic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antithrombogenic
Rutin found in Leaf
Antithyroid
Rutin found in Leaf
Antitic
Calcium found in Fruit (1170 ppm);found in Leaf (14231 ppm);found in Root Bark (53900 ppm)
Antitinnitic
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antitriglyceride
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antitrypanosomic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antitumor-Promoter
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf (177 ppm)
Isoquercitrin found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Vanillic-acid found in Leaf (4 ppm)
Antitumor
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf (177 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Beta-ionone found in Fruit (1090 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (16000 ppm);found in Leaf (125000 ppm)
Isoquercitrin found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Leaf (4 ppm)
Antiulcer
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (16000 ppm);found in Leaf (125000 ppm)
Glutamine found in Leaf
Glycine found in Leaf
Histidine found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Antiuremic
Histidine found in Leaf
Antivaricose
Rutin found in Leaf
Antivertigo
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Antiviral
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Stigmasterol found in Leaf ;found in Seed
Antixerophthalmic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Anxiolytic
Calcium found in Fruit (1170 ppm);found in Leaf (14231 ppm);found in Root Bark (53900 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Fruit (560 ppm);found in Leaf (4135 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (16700 ppm);found in Root Bark (8110 ppm);found in Leaf (49808 ppm)
Apoptotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Beta-elemene found in Fruit (360 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Aromatase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Artemicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Stigmasterol found in Leaf ;found in Seed
Ascaricide
Vanillic-acid found in Leaf (4 ppm)
Asthma-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Astringent
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Bacteristat
Quercetin found in Leaf
Beta-Blocker
Fiber found in Fruit (16000 ppm);found in Leaf (125000 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (16700 ppm);found in Root Bark (8110 ppm);found in Leaf (49808 ppm)
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Bradycardiac
Quercetin found in Leaf
Bronchorelaxant
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Bruchiphobe
Betaine found in Fruit (1000 ppm);found in Leaf (13800 ppm)
CNS-Depressant
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
CNS-Stimulant
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
COMT-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
COX-1-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
COX-2-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Calcium-Antagonist
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Calcium-Channel-Blocker
Calcium found in Fruit (1170 ppm);found in Leaf (14231 ppm);found in Root Bark (53900 ppm)
Calmodulin-Antagonist
Quercetin found in Leaf
Cancer-Preventive
Alanine found in Leaf
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf (177 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Beta-ionone found in Fruit (1090 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Fiber found in Fruit (16000 ppm);found in Leaf (125000 ppm)
Glycine found in Leaf
Isoquercitrin found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Lanosterol found in Flower (8200 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Fruit
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Riboflavin found in Fruit (1.4 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Leaf ;found in Seed
Vanillic-acid found in Leaf (4 ppm)
Candidicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Quercetin found in Leaf
Capillarigenic
Isoquercitrin found in Leaf
Capillariprotective
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Carcinogenic
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Linoleic-acid found in Fruit
Quercetin found in Leaf
Cardiodepressant
Choline found in Leaf
Cardioprotective
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf (177 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Betaine found in Fruit (1000 ppm);found in Leaf (13800 ppm)
Copper found in Fruit (15 ppm);found in Root Bark (17 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (16000 ppm);found in Leaf (125000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (16700 ppm);found in Root Bark (8110 ppm);found in Leaf (49808 ppm)
Cardiotoxic
Potassium found in Fruit (16700 ppm);found in Root Bark (8110 ppm);found in Leaf (49808 ppm)
Caspase-8-Inducer
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Catabolic
Glutamine found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Cerebrotonic
Choline found in Leaf
Chemopreventive
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Rutin found in Leaf
Cholagogue
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Choleretic
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Leaf (4 ppm)
Cholinergic
Choline found in Leaf
Circulotonic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf (177 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Cold-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Collagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Colorant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Physalein found in Fruit
Zeaxanthin found in Fruit
Comedolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Fruit
Contraceptive
Copper found in Fruit (15 ppm);found in Root Bark (17 ppm)
Copper-Antagonist
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Copper-Chelator
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Cytochrome-P450-1A2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Cytochrome-P450-Inducer
Beta-ionone found in Fruit (1090 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Fruit (540 ppm)
Cytoprotective
Rutin found in Leaf
Cytotoxic
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Deodorant
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Detoxicant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Diaphoretic
Isoquercitrin found in Leaf
Differentiator
Quercetin found in Leaf
Diuretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Asparagine found in Leaf
Betaine found in Fruit (1000 ppm);found in Leaf (13800 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (1170 ppm);found in Leaf (14231 ppm);found in Root Bark (53900 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (16000 ppm);found in Leaf (125000 ppm)
Isoquercitrin found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (16700 ppm);found in Root Bark (8110 ppm);found in Leaf (49808 ppm)
Emmenagogue
Betaine found in Fruit (1000 ppm);found in Leaf (13800 ppm)
Ergogenic
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Essential
Histidine found in Leaf
Leucine found in Leaf
Valine found in Leaf
Estrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Diosgenin found in Flower (7300 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Stigmasterol found in Leaf ;found in Seed
Ethanolytic
Betaine found in Fruit (1000 ppm);found in Leaf (13800 ppm)
Expectorant
Betaine found in Fruit (1000 ppm);found in Leaf (13800 ppm)
FLavor
Valine found in Leaf
Febrifuge
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Fibrinolytic
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Fistula-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Fungicide
Beta-ionone found in Fruit (1090 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Solavetivone found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Leaf (4 ppm)
Gastroprotective
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Gonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
HIV-RT-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Hemostat
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Hepatomagenic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Hepatoprotective
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Betaine found in Fruit (1000 ppm);found in Leaf (13800 ppm)
Choline found in Leaf
Diosgenin found in Flower (7300 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Linoleic-acid found in Fruit
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Zeaxanthin found in Fruit
Zeaxanthin-dipalmitate found in Fruit
Hepatotoxic
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Herbicide
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Hypertensive
Sodium found in Fruit (2140 ppm);found in Leaf (18365 ppm);found in Root Bark (793 ppm)
Hypocholesterolemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Beta-ionone found in Fruit (1090 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Calcium found in Fruit (1170 ppm);found in Leaf (14231 ppm);found in Root Bark (53900 ppm)
Campesterol found in Leaf ;found in Seed
Copper found in Fruit (15 ppm);found in Root Bark (17 ppm)
Cycloartenol found in Seed
Diosgenin found in Flower (7300 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (16000 ppm);found in Leaf (125000 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Fruit
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Phytosterols found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Rutin found in Leaf
Stigmasterol found in Leaf ;found in Seed
Hypoglycemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Manganese found in Fruit (21 ppm);found in Root Bark (91 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Hypolipidemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Hypotensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (1170 ppm);found in Leaf (14231 ppm);found in Root Bark (53900 ppm)
Choline found in Leaf
Fiber found in Fruit (16000 ppm);found in Leaf (125000 ppm)
Isoquercitrin found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Kukoamine-a found in Root
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (16700 ppm);found in Root Bark (8110 ppm);found in Leaf (49808 ppm)
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Hypouricemic
Fiber found in Fruit (16000 ppm);found in Leaf (125000 ppm)
ICAM-1-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Ileorelaxant
Choline found in Leaf
Immunomodulator
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf (177 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Copper found in Fruit (15 ppm);found in Root Bark (17 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Fruit
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Rutin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Immunostimulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Fruit (560 ppm);found in Leaf (4135 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Immunosuppressant
Vanillic-acid found in Leaf (4 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Inotropic
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Insecticide
Rutin found in Leaf
Insectifuge
Linoleic-acid found in Fruit
Thiamin found in Fruit (0.8 ppm);found in Leaf (7.7 ppm)
Insectiphile
Isoquercitrin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Insulinogenic
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Interferon-Synergist
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Interferonogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf
JNK-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Juvabional
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Larvistat
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Laxative
Calcium found in Fruit (1170 ppm);found in Leaf (14231 ppm);found in Root Bark (53900 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (16000 ppm);found in Leaf (125000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Leaf (4 ppm)
Leptingenic
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Lipotropic
Betaine found in Fruit (1000 ppm);found in Leaf (13800 ppm)
Choline found in Leaf
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Lithogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Litholytic
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
MAO-A-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
MAO-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
MMP-9-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Mast-Cell-Stabilizer
Quercetin found in Leaf
Mastogenic
Diosgenin found in Flower (7300 ppm)
Memorigenic
Choline found in Leaf
Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Metastatic
Linoleic-acid found in Fruit
Mucogenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Betaine found in Fruit (1000 ppm);found in Leaf (13800 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Mucolytic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Musculotropic
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Mutagenic
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Myoprotective
Rutin found in Leaf
Myorelaxant
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
NEP-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
NO-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
NO-Synthase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Natriuretic
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Nematicide
Beta-ionone found in Fruit (1090 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Fruit
Nephrotoxic
Mercury found in Fruit (0.08 ppm)
Neuroinhibitor
Glycine found in Leaf
Neuroprotective
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Fruit (0.8 ppm);found in Leaf (7.7 ppm)
Neurotransmitter
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Osteogenic
Phosphorus found in Fruit (560 ppm);found in Leaf (4135 ppm)
Oviposition-Stimulant
Rutin found in Leaf
Ovulant
Stigmasterol found in Leaf ;found in Seed
Oxidant
Alanine found in Leaf
Histidine found in Leaf
P450-Inducer
Beta-ionone found in Fruit (1090 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Fruit (540 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
P450-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
PAF-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
PGE2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
PTK-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Parasympathomimetic
Choline found in Leaf
Pesticide
Arsenic found in Fruit (0.44 ppm);found in Root Bark (0.73 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Beta-ionone found in Fruit (1090 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Betaine found in Fruit (1000 ppm);found in Leaf (13800 ppm)
Cycloartenol found in Seed
Cycloeucalenol found in Seed
Delta-cadinene found in Fruit (540 ppm)
Isoquercitrin found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Solavetivone found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (0.8 ppm);found in Leaf (7.7 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Leaf (4 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Phagocytotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Phospholipase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Phytoalexin
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Solavetivone found in Fruit (25 ppm)
Phytohormonal
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Plasmodicide
Quercetin found in Leaf
Proliferant
Quercetin found in Leaf
Prooxidant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Iron found in Fruit (140 ppm);found in Root Bark (670 ppm);found in Leaf (519 ppm)
Propecic
Linoleic-acid found in Fruit
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Protisticide
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Quinone-Reductase-Inducer
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Zeaxanthin found in Fruit
Radioprotective
Rutin found in Leaf
Schizophrenigenic
Copper found in Fruit (15 ppm);found in Root Bark (17 ppm)
Sedative
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Leaf ;found in Seed
Serotoninergic
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Spermicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Spermigenic
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Sunscreen
Rutin found in Leaf
TNF-alpha-Inhibitor
Isoquercitrin found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Teratologic
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Testosterone-Inducer
Delta-cadinene found in Fruit (540 ppm)
Testosteronigenic
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Thymoprotective
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor
Isoquercitrin found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Tranquilizer
Calcium found in Fruit (1170 ppm);found in Leaf (14231 ppm);found in Root Bark (53900 ppm)
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Trichomonicide
Beta-ionone found in Fruit (1090 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Tumorigenic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Ubiquiot
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (428 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Cycloartenol found in Seed
Vanillic-acid found in Leaf (4 ppm)
Ulcerogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower (10200 ppm);found in Plant ;found in Fruit
Uricosuric
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Glycine found in Leaf
Urinary-Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Uterorelaxant
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Uterosedative
Scopoletin found in Fruit (19 ppm);found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Uterotrophic
Kaempferol found in Leaf
VEGF-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Vasodilator
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (1170 ppm);found in Leaf (14231 ppm);found in Root Bark (53900 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (16000 ppm);found in Leaf (125000 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Fruit (1060 ppm);found in Root Bark (2610 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (7 ppm);found in Leaf (77 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (16700 ppm);found in Root Bark (8110 ppm);found in Leaf (49808 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Vasopressor
Rutin found in Leaf
Vulnerary
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (425 ppm);found in Leaf (769 ppm)
Zinc found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Root Bark (23 ppm)
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
iNOS-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
1,2-dehydro-alpha-cyperone Fruit 25
24-methylene-cycloartenol Seed
3-hydroxy-7,8-dehydro-beta-ionone Fruit 890
3-hydroxy-beta-ionone Fruit 890
31-norcycloartenol Seed
4,4-dimethylsterol Seed
4-desmethylsterol Seed
4-monomethylsterol Seed
5-alpha-stigmastan-3,6-dione Root Bark 1.9
6,7-epoxy-5,20-dihydroxy-1-oxowitha-2,24-dienolide Plant
6,7-epoxy-5-hydroxy-1-oxowitha-2,24-dienolide Plant
Alanine Leaf
Alpha-tocopherol Leaf 94 177
Amino-acids Fruit 53,000
Arsenic Fruit 0.44
Root Bark 0.73
Ascorbic-acid Fruit 425
Leaf 80 769
Ash Leaf 17,000 163,000
Asparagine Leaf
Beta-carotene Leaf 44 428
Beta-elemene Fruit 360
Beta-ionone Fruit 1,090
Beta-sitosterol Flower 10,200
Plant
Fruit
Beta-sitosterol-beta-d-glucoside Plant
Betaine Fruit 1,000
Leaf 13,800
Calcium Fruit 225 1,170
Leaf 1,480 14,231
Root Bark 53,900
Calystegine-b2 Root
Calystegines Root
Campesterol Leaf
Seed
Carbohydrates Fruit 107,000
Leaf 40,000 385,000
Carotene Fruit 195
Cholesterol Leaf
Seed
Choline Leaf
Copper Fruit 15
Root Bark 17
Cycloartanol Seed
Cycloartenol Seed
Cycloeucalenol Seed
Cyclopeptides Root Bark
Delta-cadinene Fruit 540
Dihydroactiniodiolide Fruit 3,590
Diosgenin Flower 7,300
E-ferulic-acid-octacosyl-ester Root
Eo Leaf 100
Fat Leaf 6,000 58,000
Seed 191,000
Fiber Fruit 16,000
Leaf 13,000 125,000
Glutamine Leaf
Glycine Leaf
Gramisterol Seed
Histidine Leaf
Iron Fruit 13 140
Root Bark 670
Leaf 54 519
Isofucosterol Leaf
Isoquercitrin Leaf
Kaempferol Leaf
Kaempferol-3-o-rutinoside-7-o-glucoside Leaf
Kilocalories Leaf 290 2,790
Kukoamine-a Root
L-1,2-dehydro-alpha-cyperone...naphthalenone Fruit
Lanosterol Flower 8,200
Leucine Leaf
Linoleic-acid Fruit
Linolenic-acid Fruit
Lophenol Seed
Lycine Leaf
Lyciumamide Root Bark 2.3
Lyciumine-a Root Bark 70
Lyciumine-b Root Bark 100
Magnesium Fruit 1,060
Root Bark 2,610
Manganese Fruit 21
Root Bark 91
Megastigmatrienone Fruit 1,950
Melissic-acid Fruit
Mercury Fruit 0.08
Niacin Fruit 6 7
Leaf 8 77
Nicotianamine Leaf 0.69
Nicotiflorin Leaf
Obtusifoliol Seed
Phosphorus Fruit 560
Leaf 430 4,135
Physalein Fruit
Phytosterols Leaf 2,000
Potassium Fruit 16,700
Root Bark 8,110
Leaf 5,180 49,808
Protein Fruit 31,000
Leaf 41,000 394,000
Seed 162,000
Quercetin Leaf
Quercetin-3-o-rutinoside-7-o-glucoside Leaf
Riboflavin Fruit 1.4
Leaf 3.1 30
Rutin Leaf
Safranal Fruit 1,450
Scopoletin Fruit 9 19
Leaf 30
Sodium Fruit 2,140
Leaf 1,910 18,365
Root Bark 793
Solavetivone Fruit 25
Stigmasterol Leaf
Seed
Sugiol Root Bark 50
Thiamin Fruit 0.8
Leaf 0.8 7.7
Valine Leaf
Vanillic-acid Leaf 4
Water Leaf 896,000
Withanolide-a Leaf 200
Withanolide-b Leaf 300
Withasteroids Leaf 1,000
Zeaxanthin Fruit
Zeaxanthin-dipalmitate Fruit
Zinc Fruit 20
Root Bark 23
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]