Limonia acidissima Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
elephant-apple Indian wood-apple wood-apple

Limonia acidissima is the only species within the monotypic genus Limonia. It is native in the Indomalaya ecozone to Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and in Indochinese ecoregion east to Java and the Malesia ecoregion. Vernacular names in English include: wood-apple, elephant-apple, monkey fruit, and curd fruit; and listed below are the variety of common names in the languages of its native habitat regions.

Limonia acidissima

Economic importance of Limonia acidissima

Human food fruit
Gene sources graft stock relative for citrus
Medicines folklore

Gallery

Limonia acidissima Limonia acidissima Limonia acidissima Limonia acidissima Limonia acidissima Limonia acidissima Limonia acidissima Limonia acidissima Limonia acidissima Limonia acidissima

Geografical distribution

  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • China: China
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Native
    • Indian Subcontinent: India; Pakistan; Sri Lanka
    • Indo-China: Indochina; Myanmar; Thailand
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Native
    • Caribbean: Dominican Republic

Biological activities

ACE-Inhibitor
Vitexin found in Leaf
Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Vitexin found in Leaf
Analgesic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (170490 ppm)
AntiAGE
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
AntiCFS
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
AntiCTS
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
AntiEBV
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
AntiHIV
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
AntiLyme
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Fruit (5.6 ppm)
AntiPMS
Calcium found in Fruit (6540 ppm);found in Seed (16460 ppm)
AntiTGF-beta
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Antiaggregant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Aurapten found in Fruit
Bergapten found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Estragole found in Leaf (6570 ppm)
Antiaging
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antiakathisic
Iron found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Seed (312 ppm)
Antiallergic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (6540 ppm);found in Seed (16460 ppm)
Antialzheimeran
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Antianemic
Iron found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Seed (312 ppm)
Antianxiety
Calcium found in Fruit (6540 ppm);found in Seed (16460 ppm)
Antiapertif
Bergapten found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Antiappetant
Isopimpinellin found in Root
Antiarabiflavinotic
Riboflavin found in Fruit (5.6 ppm)
Antiarrhythmic
Calcium found in Fruit (6540 ppm);found in Seed (16460 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Vitexin found in Leaf
Antiarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (6540 ppm);found in Seed (16460 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Antiasthmatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antiatheromic
Pectin found in Fruit (160000 ppm)
Antiatherosclerotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (6540 ppm);found in Seed (16460 ppm)
Antibacterial
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Pectin found in Fruit (160000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Antibradiquinic
Vitexin found in Leaf
Anticancer
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Anticanker
Iron found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Seed (312 ppm)
Anticarcinomic
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Anticariogenic
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Anticarpal-Tunnel
Riboflavin found in Fruit (5.6 ppm)
Anticataract
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Fruit (5.6 ppm)
Anticephalagic
Riboflavin found in Fruit (5.6 ppm)
Anticervicaldysplasic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Fruit (5.6 ppm)
Anticheilitic
Iron found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Seed (312 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Fruit (5.6 ppm)
Anticholestatic
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Anticlimacteric
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (6540 ppm);found in Seed (16460 ppm)
Anticold
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Anticomplement
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Anticonvulsant
Bergapten found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Antidecubitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Fruit (5.6 ppm)
Antidementia
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antidepressant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (6540 ppm);found in Seed (16460 ppm)
Psoralen found in Leaf
Antidermatitic
Vitexin found in Leaf
Antidiabetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (170490 ppm)
Pectin found in Fruit (160000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Antidiarrheic
Pectin found in Fruit (160000 ppm)
Antieczemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antiedemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Antiencephalitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antiendometriotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antienteritic
Pectin found in Fruit (160000 ppm)
Antiescherichic
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Antifatigue
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antifeedant
Isopimpinellin found in Root
Antifibrosarcomic
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Antifibrotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antigallstone
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Pectin found in Fruit (160000 ppm)
Antigastritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Pectin found in Fruit (160000 ppm)
Antigingivitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antiglaucomic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antiglossitic
Riboflavin found in Fruit (5.6 ppm)
Antihangover
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antihemorrhagic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antihepatitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antihepatotoxic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Antiherpetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antihistaminic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Bergapten found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Vitexin found in Leaf
Antihyperkinetic
Calcium found in Fruit (6540 ppm);found in Seed (16460 ppm)
Antihyperlipidemic
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Antihypertensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (6540 ppm);found in Seed (16460 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (170490 ppm)
Antiinfertility
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antiinflammatory
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Bergapten found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Isopimpinellin found in Root
Orientin found in Leaf
Stigmasterol found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Vitexin found in Leaf
Antiinsomniac
Calcium found in Fruit (6540 ppm);found in Seed (16460 ppm)
Antijet-lag
Bergapten found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Antikeratitic
Riboflavin found in Fruit (5.6 ppm)
Antileishmanic
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Antilepric
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antileukemic
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Antileukodermic
Bergapten found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Psoralen found in Leaf
Antilipogenic
Isopimpinellin found in Root
Antilithic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Pectin found in Fruit (160000 ppm)
Antilymphomic
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Antimaculitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antimalarial
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Antimeasles
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antimenopausal
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (6540 ppm);found in Seed (16460 ppm)
Antimenorrhagic
Iron found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Seed (312 ppm)
Antimetastatic
Pectin found in Fruit (160000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Antimigraine
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Fruit (5.6 ppm)
Antimitotic
Bergapten found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Isopimpinellin found in Root
Psoralen found in Leaf
Antimutagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Pectin found in Fruit (160000 ppm)
Psoralen found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Antinephritic
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Antineuramidase
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antinitrosic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antinociceptive
Stigmasterol found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Antiobesity
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (6540 ppm);found in Seed (16460 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (170490 ppm)
Pectin found in Fruit (160000 ppm)
Antiophidic
Stigmasterol found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Antiorchitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antiosteoarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antiosteoporotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (6540 ppm);found in Seed (16460 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Fruit (3605 ppm);found in Seed (14895 ppm)
Antioxidant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Orientin found in Leaf
Riboflavin found in Fruit (5.6 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Vitexin found in Leaf
Antiparkinsonian
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antiparotitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antipellagric
Riboflavin found in Fruit (5.6 ppm)
Antiperiodontitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (6540 ppm);found in Seed (16460 ppm)
Antiperoxidant
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Antiphotophobic
Riboflavin found in Fruit (5.6 ppm)
Antiplasmodial
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Antiplatelet
Bergapten found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Antipneumonic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antipodriac
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antipoliomyelitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antiproliferative
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Antipsoriac
Bergapten found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Psoralen found in Leaf
Antipyretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antiradicular
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antiretinotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antirheumatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (6540 ppm);found in Seed (16460 ppm)
Antirhinitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antiscorbutic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antiseptic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antiserotoninic
Vitexin found in Leaf
Antishingles
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antispasmodic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Aurapten found in Fruit
Bergapten found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Psoralen found in Leaf
Antistaphylococcic
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Antistress
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (6540 ppm);found in Seed (16460 ppm)
Antisyndrome-X
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Antithromboxane
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Antithyroid
Vitexin found in Leaf
Antitic
Calcium found in Fruit (6540 ppm);found in Seed (16460 ppm)
Antitrypanosomic
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Antitubercular
Isopimpinellin found in Root
Psoralen found in Leaf
Antitumor-Promoter
Psoralen found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Antitumor
Bergapten found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (170490 ppm)
Psoralen found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Antitussive
Pectin found in Fruit (160000 ppm)
Antiulcer
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (170490 ppm)
Pectin found in Fruit (160000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Antiviral
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Psoralen found in Leaf
Stigmasterol found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Anxiolytic
Calcium found in Fruit (6540 ppm);found in Seed (16460 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Fruit (3605 ppm);found in Seed (14895 ppm)
Aphidifuge
Vitexin found in Leaf
Apoptotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Aromatase-Inhibitor
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Artemicide
Psoralen found in Leaf
Stigmasterol found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Asthma-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Bacteriophagicide
Psoralen found in Leaf
Beta-Blocker
Fiber found in Fruit (170490 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
CNS-Depressant
Bergapten found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
COX-2-Inhibitor
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Calcium-Antagonist
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Bergapten found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Estragole found in Leaf (6570 ppm)
Isopimpinellin found in Root
Psoralen found in Leaf
Calcium-Channel-Blocker
Calcium found in Fruit (6540 ppm);found in Seed (16460 ppm)
Cancer-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Bergapten found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Estragole found in Leaf (6570 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (170490 ppm)
Isopimpinellin found in Root
Orientin found in Leaf
Pectin found in Fruit (160000 ppm)
Psoralen found in Leaf
Riboflavin found in Fruit (5.6 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Vitexin found in Leaf
Candidicide
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Carcinogenic
Bergapten found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Estragole found in Leaf (6570 ppm)
Cardioprotective
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (170490 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Cardiotonic
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Chemopreventive
Pectin found in Fruit (160000 ppm)
Choleretic
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Clastogenic
Bergapten found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Cold-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Collagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Contraceptive
Psoralen found in Leaf
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Cytotoxic
Psoralen found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
DME-Inhibitor
Bergapten found in Leaf (100 ppm)
DNA-Binder
Estragole found in Leaf (6570 ppm)
Demulcent
Pectin found in Fruit (160000 ppm)
Detoxicant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Diuretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (6540 ppm);found in Seed (16460 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (170490 ppm)
Isopimpinellin found in Root
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Elastase-Inhibitor
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Estrogenic
Stigmasterol found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (120 ppm)
FLavor
Estragole found in Leaf (6570 ppm)
Fistula-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Fungicide
Isopimpinellin found in Root
Pectin found in Fruit (160000 ppm)
Psoralen found in Leaf
Genotoxic
Psoralen found in Leaf
Goitrogenic
Vitexin found in Leaf
Hemostat
Pectin found in Fruit (160000 ppm)
Hepatocarcinogenic
Estragole found in Leaf (6570 ppm)
Hepatoprotective
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Hypocholesterolemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (6540 ppm);found in Seed (16460 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (170490 ppm)
Pectin found in Fruit (160000 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Hypoglycemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Pectin found in Fruit (160000 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Hypotensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Bergapten found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (6540 ppm);found in Seed (16460 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (170490 ppm)
Psoralen found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Vitexin found in Leaf
Hypothermic
Estragole found in Leaf (6570 ppm)
Hypouricemic
Fiber found in Fruit (170490 ppm)
Immunomodulator
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Immunostimulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Fruit (3605 ppm);found in Seed (14895 ppm)
Insecticide
Bergapten found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Estragole found in Leaf (6570 ppm)
Isopimpinellin found in Root
Psoralen found in Leaf
Insectifuge
Estragole found in Leaf (6570 ppm)
Interferonogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Laxative
Calcium found in Fruit (6540 ppm);found in Seed (16460 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (170490 ppm)
Leucocytogenic
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Lipolytic
Bergapten found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Lithogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
MAO-A-Inhibitor
Psoralen found in Leaf
MAO-B-Inhibitor
Psoralen found in Leaf
MMP-9-Inhibitor
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Molluscicide
Bergapten found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Isopimpinellin found in Root
Mucolytic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Mutagenic
Bergapten found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Estragole found in Leaf (6570 ppm)
Isopimpinellin found in Root
Psoralen found in Leaf
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Osteogenic
Phosphorus found in Fruit (3605 ppm);found in Seed (14895 ppm)
Ovulant
Stigmasterol found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Perfumery
Estragole found in Leaf (6570 ppm)
Peristaltic
Pectin found in Fruit (160000 ppm)
Pesticide
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Bergapten found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Isopimpinellin found in Root
Pectin found in Fruit (160000 ppm)
Psoralen found in Leaf
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Photocarcinogenic
Psoralen found in Leaf
Phototoxic
Bergapten found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Psoralen found in Leaf
Phytoalexin
Psoralen found in Leaf
Piscicide
Bergapten found in Leaf (100 ppm)
Isopimpinellin found in Root
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Potassium-Sparing
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Prooxidant
Iron found in Fruit (20 ppm);found in Seed (312 ppm)
Protease-Inhibitor
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Protisticide
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Quinone-Reductase-Inducer
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Sedative
Stigmasterol found in Fruit (150 ppm);found in Leaf (120 ppm)
Sodium-Sparing
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
TOPO-2-Inhibitor
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Thyroid-Peroxidase-Inhibitor
Vitexin found in Leaf
Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor
Psoralen found in Leaf
Tranquilizer
Calcium found in Fruit (6540 ppm);found in Seed (16460 ppm)
Trypanocide
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Uricosuric
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Urinary-Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Vasodilator
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (6540 ppm);found in Seed (16460 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (170490 ppm)
Vasopressor
Ursolic-acid found in Wood
Vulnerary
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (65 ppm)
cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor
Orientin found in Leaf
Vitexin found in Leaf

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
7-methylporiol-beta-d-xylopyranosyl-d-glucopyranoside Wood
Ascorbic-acid Fruit 20 65
Ash Fruit 19,000 192,300
Seed 50,300 52,290
Aurapten Fruit
Bergapten Leaf 100
Calcium Fruit 1,300 6,540
Seed 15,800 16,460
Carbohydrates Fruit 74,500 678,690
Seed 354,900 369,685
Eo Leaf 7,300
Estragole Leaf 6,570
Fat Fruit 6,000 55,770
Seed 270,000 281,250
Fiber Fruit 52,000 170,490
Iron Fruit 6 20
Seed 300 312
Isopimpinellin Root
Marmesin Bark 160
Orientin Leaf
Pectin Fruit 30,000 160,000
Phosphorus Fruit 800 3,605
Seed 14,300 14,895
Protein Fruit 73,000 307,690
Seed 261,800 272,700
Psoralen Leaf
Riboflavin Fruit 1.7 5.6
Sponarin Leaf
Stigmasterol Fruit 150
Leaf 120
Tannins Fruit 103,000 39,615
Seed 800 833
Ursolic-acid Wood
Vitexin Leaf
Water Fruit 695,000
Seed 40,000
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]