Lactuca scariola Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
compassplant milk thistle prickly lettuce scarole
Lactuca scariola

Medical use

Economic importance of Lactuca scariola

Environmental ornamental
Gene sources primary genetic relative of letuce
Medicines folklore
Vertebrate poisons mamals
Weed potential sed contaminant

Gallery

Lactuca scariola Lactuca scariola Lactuca scariola Lactuca scariola Lactuca scariola Lactuca scariola Lactuca scariola Lactuca scariola Lactuca scariola Lactuca scariola

Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Native
    • Macaronesia: Portugal - Madeira Islands; Spain - Canary Islands
    • Northern Africa: Algeria; Egypt; Morocco; Tunisia
    • Northeast Tropical Africa: Ethiopia
    Naturalized
    • South Tropical Africa: Zimbabwe
    • Southern Africa: Botswana; Lesotho; South Africa
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Arabian Peninsula: Saudi Arabia
    • Western Asia: Afghanistan; Cyprus; Egypt - Sinai; Iran; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey
    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation - Ciscaucasia, Dagestan
    • Siberia: Russian Federation - Altay, Kemerovo, Kurgan, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Tuva, Tyumen
    • Middle Asia: Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
    • China: China - Xinjiang
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Native
    • Indian Subcontinent: India - Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir , Uttar Pradesh; Pakistan
  • AUSTRALASIA
    Naturalized
    • Australia: Australia
    • New Zealand: New Zealand
  • EUROPE
    Native
    • Northern Europe: Denmark; United Kingdom
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czech Republic; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Slovakia; Switzerland
    • East Europe: Belarus; Moldova; Russian Federation - European part; Ukraine
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Greece ; Italy ; Macedonia; Montenegro; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia
    • Southwestern Europe: France ; Portugal; Spain
    Naturalized
    • Northern Europe: Finland; Ireland; Norway; Sweden
    • Middle Europe: Poland
    • East Europe: Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Naturalized
    • Eastern Canada: Canada - New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec
    • Western Canada: Canada - Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Saskatchewan
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wisconsin
    • Northwestern U.S.A.: United States - Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia
    • South-Central U.S.A.: United States - New Mexico, Texas
    • Southwestern U.S.A.: United States - Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah
    • Northern Mexico: Mexico - Baja Norte, Coahuila, Sonora
    • Southern Mexico: Mexico - Federal District, Guanajuato, Mexico, Michoacan, Queretaro
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Naturalized
    • Brazil: Brazil
    • Southern South America: Argentina; Chile; Paraguay; Uruguay

Biological activities

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (204160 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (130170 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (52800 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed (13165 ppm)
Acaricide
Oxalic-acid found in Latex Exudate
Alcohol-Dehydrogenase-Inhibitor
Inulin found in Root
Allergenic
Citric-acid found in Latex Exudate
Mannitol found in Latex Exudate
Oleic-acid found in Seed (130170 ppm)
Alpha-Amylase-Inhibitor
Citric-acid found in Latex Exudate
Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Oleic-acid found in Seed (130170 ppm)
Analgesic
Beta-amyrin found in Plant
Hyoscyamine found in Latex Exudate
Mannitol found in Latex Exudate
Androgenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Anemiagenic
Oleic-acid found in Seed (130170 ppm)
Angiogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Anorexic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Anthelmintic
Mannitol found in Latex Exudate
AntiMS
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (204160 ppm)
Antiacne
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (204160 ppm)
Antiadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Antialopecic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (204160 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (130170 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (52800 ppm)
Antialzheimeran
Alpha-tocopherol found in Seed
Antianaphylactic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (204160 ppm)
Antiandrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (204160 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (130170 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (52800 ppm)
Antianginal
Alpha-tocopherol found in Seed
Antiaphthic
Citric-acid found in Latex Exudate
Antiarteriosclerotic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (204160 ppm)
Antiarthritic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Seed
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (204160 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Seed
Antiatherosclerotic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Seed
Citric-acid found in Latex Exudate
Malic-acid found in Latex Exudate
Antibacterial
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Citric-acid found in Latex Exudate
Malic-acid found in Latex Exudate
Squalene found in Seed
Anticalculic
Citric-acid found in Latex Exudate
Anticancer
Alpha-tocopherol found in Seed
Anticataract
Alpha-tocopherol found in Seed
Anticholinergic
Hyoscyamine found in Latex Exudate
Anticoagulant
Citric-acid found in Latex Exudate
Anticonvulsant
Alpha-tocopherol found in Seed
Anticoronary
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (204160 ppm)
Antidementia
Alpha-tocopherol found in Seed
Antidiabetic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Seed
Inulin found in Root
Antidiarrheic
Inulin found in Root
Antieczemic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (204160 ppm)
Antiedemic
Beta-amyrin found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Taraxasterol found in Latex Exudate
Antiemetic
Hyoscyamine found in Latex Exudate
Antiestrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Antifeedant
8-deoxylactucin found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Antifertility
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Antifibrinolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (204160 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (52800 ppm)
Antifibromyalgic
Malic-acid found in Latex Exudate
Antiglaucomic
Mannitol found in Latex Exudate
Antigonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Antigranular
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (204160 ppm)
Antiherpetic
Hyoscyamine found in Latex Exudate
Antihistaminic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (204160 ppm)
Antihyperlipoproteinaemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Antiinfarctal
Alpha-tocopherol found in Seed
Antiinfertility
Alpha-tocopherol found in Seed
Antiinflammatory
Beta-amyrin found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (204160 ppm)
Mannitol found in Latex Exudate
Oleic-acid found in Seed (130170 ppm)
Taraxasterol found in Latex Exudate
Antiischemic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Seed
Antileishmanic
Citric-acid found in Latex Exudate
Antileukemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Antileukotriene-D4
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (204160 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (130170 ppm)
Antilymphomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Antimaculitic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Seed
Antimeasles
Hyoscyamine found in Latex Exudate
Antimenorrhagic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (204160 ppm)
Antimuscarinic
Hyoscyamine found in Latex Exudate
Antimutagenic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Seed
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Citric-acid found in Latex Exudate
Mannitol found in Latex Exudate
Antinephritic
Mannitol found in Latex Exudate
Antineuralgic
Hyoscyamine found in Latex Exudate
Antineuropathic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Seed
Antinociceptive
Beta-amyrin found in Plant
Antiophidic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Antioxidant
Alpha-tocopherol found in Seed
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Mannitol found in Latex Exudate
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (52800 ppm)
Squalene found in Seed
Antiparkinsonian
Alpha-tocopherol found in Seed
Hyoscyamine found in Latex Exudate
Antipolio
Hyoscyamine found in Latex Exudate
Antiprogestational
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Antiprostaglandin
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Antiprostatadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Antiprostatitic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (204160 ppm)
Antipyretic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Antiradicular
Alpha-tocopherol found in Seed
Mannitol found in Latex Exudate
Antiretinotic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Seed
Antirheumatic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Seed
Antiseborrheic
Citric-acid found in Latex Exudate
Malic-acid found in Latex Exudate
Antiseptic
Citric-acid found in Latex Exudate
Malic-acid found in Latex Exudate
Oxalic-acid found in Latex Exudate
Antisialogogue
Hyoscyamine found in Latex Exudate
Antispasmodic
Hyoscyamine found in Latex Exudate
Mannitol found in Latex Exudate
Antistroke
Alpha-tocopherol found in Seed
Antitubercular
Citric-acid found in Latex Exudate
Malic-acid found in Latex Exudate
Antitumor-Promoter
Alpha-tocopherol found in Seed
Antitumor
8-deoxylactucin found in Plant
Alpha-tocopherol found in Seed
Citric-acid found in Latex Exudate
Lactucin found in Latex Exudate
Malic-acid found in Latex Exudate
Squalene found in Seed
Antiulcer
Beta-amyrin found in Plant
Hyoscyamine found in Latex Exudate
Antivertigo
Hyoscyamine found in Latex Exudate
Antivinous
Hyoscyamine found in Latex Exudate
Antiviral
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Hyoscyamine found in Latex Exudate
Apoptotic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Artemicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Bacteristat
Malic-acid found in Latex Exudate
Bifidogenic
Inulin found in Root
Bitter
8-deoxylactucin found in Plant
Lactucin found in Latex Exudate
Lactucopicrin found in Plant
Bronchodilator
Hyoscyamine found in Latex Exudate
Bronchorelaxant
Hyoscyamine found in Latex Exudate
Bruchiphobe
Malic-acid found in Latex Exudate
CNS-Depressant
Hyoscyamine found in Latex Exudate
Lactucin found in Latex Exudate
Lactucopicrin found in Plant
CNS-Paralytic
Oxalic-acid found in Latex Exudate
CNS-Stimulant
Hyoscyamine found in Latex Exudate
Cancer-Preventive
Alpha-tocopherol found in Seed
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (204160 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (130170 ppm)
Squalene found in Seed
Candidicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Carcinogenic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (204160 ppm)
Cardioprotective
Alpha-tocopherol found in Seed
Cardiotonic
Hyoscyamine found in Latex Exudate
Caspase-8-Inducer
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Chemopreventive
Squalene found in Seed
Choleretic
Oleic-acid found in Seed (130170 ppm)
Circulotonic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Seed
Comedolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (204160 ppm)
Cosmetic
Stearic-acid found in Seed (13165 ppm)
Cytotoxic
8-deoxylactucin found in Plant
Lactucin found in Latex Exudate
Dermatitigenic
Oleic-acid found in Seed (130170 ppm)
Disinfectant
Citric-acid found in Latex Exudate
Diuretic
Mannitol found in Latex Exudate
Emetic
Mannitol found in Latex Exudate
Estrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Expectorant
Inulin found in Root
FLavor
Citric-acid found in Latex Exudate
Oleic-acid found in Seed (130170 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (52800 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed (13165 ppm)
Fatal
Oxalic-acid found in Latex Exudate
Febrifuge
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Flatugenic
Mannitol found in Latex Exudate
Gastroprotective
Beta-amyrin found in Plant
Gastrostimulant
Inulin found in Root
Gonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Hemolytic
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (52800 ppm)
Hemopoietic
Malic-acid found in Latex Exudate
Hemostat
Citric-acid found in Latex Exudate
Hemostatic
Oxalic-acid found in Latex Exudate
Hepatoprotective
Beta-amyrin found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (204160 ppm)
Hypercholesterolemic
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (52800 ppm)
Hypocholesterolemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Inulin found in Root
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (204160 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (130170 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed (13165 ppm)
Hypoglycemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Inulin found in Root
Lactucopicrin found in Plant
Hypolipidemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Immunomodulator
Alpha-tocopherol found in Seed
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (204160 ppm)
Immunostimulant
Inulin found in Root
Squalene found in Seed
Insectifuge
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (204160 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (130170 ppm)
Irritant
Caproic-acid found in Seed (7392 ppm)
Citric-acid found in Latex Exudate
Oleic-acid found in Seed (130170 ppm)
Oxalic-acid found in Latex Exudate
Larvicide
Beta-amyrin found in Plant
Laxative
Inulin found in Root
Mannitol found in Latex Exudate
Lipolytic
Inulin found in Root
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Squalene found in Seed
Litholytic
Citric-acid found in Latex Exudate
Lubricant
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (52800 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed (13165 ppm)
Metastatic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (204160 ppm)
Mosquitocide
Beta-amyrin found in Plant
Mycobactericide
Citric-acid found in Latex Exudate
Malic-acid found in Latex Exudate
Mydriatic
Hyoscyamine found in Latex Exudate
Nematicide
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (204160 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (52800 ppm)
Nephrotoxic
Mannitol found in Latex Exudate
Odontolytic
Citric-acid found in Latex Exudate
Percutaneostimulant
Oleic-acid found in Seed (130170 ppm)
Perfumery
Oleic-acid found in Seed (130170 ppm)
Squalene found in Seed
Stearic-acid found in Seed (13165 ppm)
Pesticide
8-deoxylactucin found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Hyoscyamine found in Latex Exudate
Malic-acid found in Latex Exudate
Mannitol found in Latex Exudate
Oxalic-acid found in Latex Exudate
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (52800 ppm)
Squalene found in Seed
Photophobigenic
Hyoscyamine found in Latex Exudate
Prebiotic
Inulin found in Root
Probiotic
Inulin found in Root
Probiotigenic
Inulin found in Root
Propecic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (204160 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (130170 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (52800 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed (13165 ppm)
Psychoactive
Hyoscyamine found in Latex Exudate
Refrigerant
Citric-acid found in Latex Exudate
Renotoxic
Oxalic-acid found in Latex Exudate
Sedative
Hyoscyamine found in Latex Exudate
Lactucin found in Latex Exudate
Lactucopicrin found in Plant
Sialogogue
Malic-acid found in Latex Exudate
Soap
Palmitic-acid found in Leaf (52800 ppm)
Spermicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Sunscreen
Squalene found in Seed
Suppository
Stearic-acid found in Seed (13165 ppm)
Sweetener
Mannitol found in Latex Exudate
Tonic
Lactucin found in Latex Exudate
Toxic
Hyoscyamine found in Latex Exudate
Ubiquiot
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Ulcerogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Seed
Varroacide
Oxalic-acid found in Latex Exudate

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
8-deoxylactucin Plant
Alpha-tocopherol Seed
Arachidic-acid Seed 1,091
Beta-amyrin Plant
Beta-lactucerol Latex Exudate
Beta-sitosterol Seed
Caoutchouc Latex Exudate
Caproic-acid Seed 7,392
Citric-acid Latex Exudate
Fat Seed 352,000
Gamma-lactucerol Latex Exudate
Germanicol Plant
Hyoscyamine Latex Exudate
Inulin Root
Lactucin Latex Exudate
Lactucopicrin Plant
Linoleic-acid Seed 165,616 204,160
Malic-acid Latex Exudate
Mannitol Latex Exudate
Oleic-acid Seed 95,040 130,170
Oxalic-acid Latex Exudate
Palmitic-acid Leaf 14,080 52,800
Resin Latex Exudate
Squalene Seed
Stearic-acid Seed 13,165
Taraxasterol Latex Exudate
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]