Gymnema sylvestre Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
gymnema miracle-fruit ram's-horn

Gymnema sylvestre is a herb native to the tropical forests of southern and central India and Sri Lanka. Chewing the leaves suppresses the sensation of sweet. This effect is attributed to the eponymous gymnemic acids. G. sylvestre has been used in herbal medicine as a treatment for diabetes for nearly two millennia, and though there is insufficient scientific evidence to draw definitive conclusions about its efficacy two small clinical trials have shown gymnema to reduce glycosylated hemoglobin levels. Common names include gymnema, cowplant, Australian cowplant, gurmari, gurmarbooti, gurmar, periploca of the woods, meshasringa, Bedki cha pala and miracle fruit.

Gymnema sylvestre

Medical use

Economic importance of Gymnema sylvestre

Medicines folklore

Gallery

Gymnema sylvestre Gymnema sylvestre Gymnema sylvestre Gymnema sylvestre Gymnema sylvestre Gymnema sylvestre Gymnema sylvestre Gymnema sylvestre Gymnema sylvestre Gymnema sylvestre Gymnema sylvestre Gymnema sylvestre Gymnema sylvestre Gymnema sylvestre Gymnema sylvestre

Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Native
    • Northeast Tropical Africa: Chad; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Sudan
    • East Tropical Africa: Tanzania; Uganda
    • West-Central Tropical Africa: Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Congo; Equatorial Guinea; Gabon; Rwanda; Zaire
    • West Tropical Africa: Benin; Cote D'Ivoire; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Mali; Mauritania; Nigeria; Senegal; Togo
    • South Tropical Africa: Angola; Malawi; Mozambique; Zambia; Zimbabwe
    • Southern Africa: Botswana; Namibia; South Africa - Cape Province, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, Transvaal
    • Western Indian Ocean: Madagascar
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Arabian Peninsula: Yemen
    • China: China - Fujian, Guangxi, Yunnan, Zhejiang
    • Eastern Asia: Japan - Ryukyu Islands; Taiwan
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Native
    • Indian Subcontinent: India - Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; Sri Lanka
    • Indo-China: Thailand; Vietnam
    • Malesia: Indonesia; Malaysia
    Cultivated
    • Indian Subcontinent: India

Biological activities

ACE-Inhibitor
Zinc found in Leaf
AP-1-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Abortifacient
Betaine found in Leaf
Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Conduritol-a found in Leaf
Allergenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Analgesic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (13000 ppm)
Anorexic
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
AntiAGE
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (4.5 ppm)
AntiBPH
Zinc found in Leaf
AntiCFS
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (4.5 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
AntiCTS
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
AntiHIV
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
AntiLyme
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf
AntiMS
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
AntiNF-kB
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
AntiPMS
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (890 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Antiacne
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (4.5 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Antiacrodermatitic
Zinc found in Leaf
Antiacrodynic
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Antiaggregant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Antiaging
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (4.5 ppm)
Antiakathisic
Iron found in Leaf (49 ppm)
Antialcoholic
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Antiallergic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (890 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Antialopecic
Zinc found in Leaf
Antialzheimeran
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Choline found in Leaf
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Antiamblyopic
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Antianemic
Iron found in Leaf (49 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Antianginal
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Antiangiogenic
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Antianorectic
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Antianorexic
Zinc found in Leaf
Antianxiety
Calcium found in Leaf (890 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Antiarabiflavinotic
Riboflavin found in Leaf
Antiarrhythmic
Calcium found in Leaf (890 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (13000 ppm)
Antiarteriosclerotic
Silicon found in Leaf (3 ppm)
Antiarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (890 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Antiasthmatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Antiatherosclerotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (890 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (4.5 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Antibacterial
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Anticancer
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Anticanker
Iron found in Leaf (49 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Anticarcinomic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Anticariogenic
Gymnemic-acid found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Seed (2500 ppm)
Anticarpal-Tunnel
Riboflavin found in Leaf
Anticataract
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Anticephalagic
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf
Anticervicaldysplasic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf
Anticheilitic
Iron found in Leaf (49 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf
Antichilblain
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Antichoreic
Choline found in Leaf
Anticirrhotic
Choline found in Leaf
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Anticlimacteric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (890 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Anticoeliac
Zinc found in Leaf
Anticold
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Anticolitic
Zinc found in Leaf
Anticonvulsant
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Anticorneotic
Chromium found in Leaf (4.5 ppm)
Anticoronary
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Anticystinuric
Choline found in Leaf
Antidandruff
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Antidecubitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf
Antidementia
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Choline found in Leaf
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Antidepressant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (890 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (13000 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Antidermatitic
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Antidiabetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Choline found in Leaf
Chromium found in Leaf (4.5 ppm)
Gymnemic-acid found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Seed (2500 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Antidiscotic
Manganese found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Antidysgeuzic
Zinc found in Leaf
Antidyskinetic
Choline found in Leaf
Manganese found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Antidysmenorrheic
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Antidysphagic
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Antieczemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Antiedemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Antiencephalitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Antiencephalopathic
Zinc found in Leaf
Antiendometriotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Antienterotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Antiepileptic
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Antifatigue
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (4.5 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (13000 ppm)
Antifibromyalgic
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Antifibrotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Antiflu
Gymnemic-acid found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Seed (2500 ppm)
Gymnemic-acid-a found in Leaf
Gymnemic-acid-b found in Leaf
Antifuruncular
Zinc found in Leaf
Antigallstone
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Antigastritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Betaine found in Leaf
Antigastrotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Antigingivitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Antiglaucomic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Antiglossitic
Riboflavin found in Leaf
Antiglycosuric
Chromium found in Leaf (4.5 ppm)
Antigout
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Antihangover
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Antihemorrhagic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Antihepatitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Antihepatotoxic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Antiherpetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Antihistaminic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Antihomocysteine
Choline found in Leaf
Antihomocystinuric
Betaine found in Leaf
Antihyperactivity
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Antihyperkeratotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Antihyperkinetic
Calcium found in Leaf (890 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Antihypertensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (890 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (13000 ppm)
Antihypoglycemic
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Antiichythyotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Antiimpotence
Zinc found in Leaf
Antiinfective
Zinc found in Leaf
Antiinfertility
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Antiinflammatory
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Antiinsomniac
Calcium found in Leaf (890 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Antiinsomnic
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Antikeratitic
Riboflavin found in Leaf
Antikeshan
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Antilepric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Antileukemic
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Antileukonychic
Zinc found in Leaf
Antileukoplakic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Antileukotriene
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Antilipoperoxidant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Antilithic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Antilupus
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Antilymphomic
Zinc found in Leaf
Antimaculitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Antimanic
Choline found in Leaf
Antimastalgic
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Antimastitic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Antimeasles
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Antimelanomic
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Antimenopausal
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (890 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Antimenorrhagic
Iron found in Leaf (49 ppm)
Antimetastatic
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Antimigraine
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf
Antimitral-valve-prolapse
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Antimutagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Antimyalgic
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Antimyoatrophic
Betaine found in Leaf
Antinephrolytic
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Antineuralgic
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Antineuramidase
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Antineuropathic
Zinc found in Leaf
Antineurotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Antinitrosic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Antinociceptive
Choline found in Leaf
Antinyctalopic
Zinc found in Leaf
Antiobesity
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (890 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (4.5 ppm)
Gymnemic-acid found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Seed (2500 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Antionychyotic
Silicon found in Leaf (3 ppm)
Antiorchitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Antiosteoarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Antiosteoporotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (890 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (2950 ppm)
Silicon found in Leaf (3 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Antiototic
Manganese found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Antioxidant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Trimethylamine found in Leaf
Antiozenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Antipapillomic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Antiparkinsonian
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Antiparotitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Antipellagric
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf
Antiperiodontitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (890 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Antiphotophobic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf
Antipityriasic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Antiplaque
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Antipneumonic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Antipodriac
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Antipoliomyelitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Antiporphyric
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Antiprolactin
Zinc found in Leaf
Antiproliferant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Antiprostatitic
Zinc found in Leaf
Antipsoriac
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Antipyretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Antiradicular
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Antiretinopathic
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Antiretinotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Antirheumatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (890 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Antirhinitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Antiscorbutic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Antiscotomic
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Antiseptic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Antishingles
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Antispare-Tire
Zinc found in Leaf
Antispasmodic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (13000 ppm)
Antispasmophilic
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Antisteatotic
Choline found in Leaf
Antistomatitic
Zinc found in Leaf
Antistress
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (890 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Antistroke
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (13000 ppm)
Antisyndrome-X
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (4.5 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Antitic
Calcium found in Leaf (890 ppm)
Antitinnitic
Zinc found in Leaf
Antitriglyceride
Chromium found in Leaf (4.5 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Antitumor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Antiulcer
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Antiulcerogenic
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Antivertigo
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Antiviral
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Gymnemic-acid found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Seed (2500 ppm)
Gymnemic-acid-a found in Leaf
Gymnemic-acid-b found in Leaf
Antixerophthalmic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Anxiolytic
Calcium found in Leaf (890 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (2950 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (13000 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Apoptotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Asthma-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Astringent
Zinc found in Leaf
Beta-Blocker
Potassium found in Leaf (13000 ppm)
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Bruchiphobe
Betaine found in Leaf
CNS-Depressant
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
COX-1-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
COX-2-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Calcium-Antagonist
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Calcium-Channel-Blocker
Calcium found in Leaf (890 ppm)
Cancer-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Cardiodepressant
Choline found in Leaf
Cardiomyopathogenic
Cobalt found in Leaf
Cardioprotective
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Betaine found in Leaf
Chromium found in Leaf (4.5 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (13000 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Silicon found in Leaf (3 ppm)
Cardiotoxic
Potassium found in Leaf (13000 ppm)
Cerebrotonic
Choline found in Leaf
Chemopreventive
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Cholinergic
Choline found in Leaf
Circulotonic
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Cold-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Collagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Colorant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Copper-Antagonist
Zinc found in Leaf
Deodorant
Zinc found in Leaf
Depressant
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Detoxicant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Diuretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Betaine found in Leaf
Calcium found in Leaf (890 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (13000 ppm)
Emmenagogue
Betaine found in Leaf
Energizer
Chromium found in Leaf (4.5 ppm)
Ergogenic
Zinc found in Leaf
Erythrocytogenic
Cobalt found in Leaf
Ethanolytic
Betaine found in Leaf
Expectorant
Betaine found in Leaf
Fibrinolytic
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Fistula-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Fungicide
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Gastroprotective
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Hepatoprotective
Betaine found in Leaf
Choline found in Leaf
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Hepatotoxic
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Hypertensive
Sodium found in Leaf (1400 ppm)
Hypocholesterolemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (890 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (4.5 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Hypoglycemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (4.5 ppm)
Manganese found in Leaf (2 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Hypolipidemic
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Hypotensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (890 ppm)
Choline found in Leaf
Chromium found in Leaf (4.5 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (13000 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Ileorelaxant
Choline found in Leaf
Immunomodulator
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Chromium found in Leaf (4.5 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Immunostimulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (2950 ppm)
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Immunosuppressant
Zinc found in Leaf
Insulinogenic
Chromium found in Leaf (4.5 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Interferon-Synergist
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Interferonogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Laxative
Calcium found in Leaf (890 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Leptingenic
Zinc found in Leaf
Lipotropic
Betaine found in Leaf
Choline found in Leaf
Lithogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Litholytic
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Memorigenic
Choline found in Leaf
Chromium found in Leaf (4.5 ppm)
Mucogenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Betaine found in Leaf
Zinc found in Leaf
Mucolytic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Myorelaxant
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Neurotransmitter
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Osteogenic
Phosphorus found in Leaf (2950 ppm)
Parasympathomimetic
Choline found in Leaf
Pesticide
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Betaine found in Leaf
Gymnemic-acid-a found in Leaf
Gymnemic-acid-b found in Leaf
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf
Phagocytotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Prooxidant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Iron found in Leaf (49 ppm)
Prostaglandin-Sparer
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Sedative
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Serotoninergic
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Spermigenic
Zinc found in Leaf
Testosteronigenic
Zinc found in Leaf
Thymoprotective
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Tranquilizer
Calcium found in Leaf (890 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Trichomonicide
Zinc found in Leaf
Ubiquiot
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (30 ppm)
Uricosuric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Urinary-Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Uterorelaxant
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
VEGF-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Leaf (2.3 ppm)
Vasodilator
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (890 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (1060 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (22 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (13000 ppm)
Vulnerary
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (800 ppm)
Zinc found in Leaf

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
(-)-viburnitol Leaf
Ascorbic-acid Leaf 152 800
Ash Leaf 11,400 60,000
Beta-carotene Leaf 6 30
Betaine Leaf
Calcium Leaf 169 890
Choline Leaf
Chromium Leaf 0.9 4.5
Cobalt Leaf
Conduritol-a Leaf
Fat Leaf 3,990 21,000
Fiber(crude) Leaf 80,000
Fiber(dietary) Leaf 320,000
Gurmarin Leaf
Gymnemagenin Plant
Gymnemasaponin-i Leaf 60
Gymnemasaponin-ii Leaf 25 27
Gymnemasaponin-iii Leaf 10
Gymnemasaponin-iv Leaf 12 17
Gymnemasaponin-v Leaf 133 160
Gymnemaside-i Leaf 20
Gymnemaside-ii Leaf 23
Gymnemaside-iii Leaf 13
Gymnemaside-iv Leaf 10
Gymnemaside-v Leaf 133
Gymnemaside-vi Leaf 10
Gymnemaside-vii Leaf 13
Gymnemasin-a Leaf 83
Gymnemasin-b Leaf 57
Gymnemasin-c Leaf 73
Gymnemasin-d Leaf 48
Gymnemic-acid Leaf
Plant
Seed 2,500
Gymnemic-acid-a Leaf
Gymnemic-acid-b Leaf
Gymnemic-acid-c Leaf
Gymnemic-acid-d Leaf
Gymnemic-acid-i Leaf 67 120
Gymnemic-acid-ii Leaf 86 160
Gymnemic-acid-iii Leaf 27 91
Gymnemic-acid-iv Leaf 47 73
Gymnemic-acid-ix Leaf 21 28
Gymnemic-acid-v Leaf 18 53
Gymnemic-acid-vi Leaf 10
Gymnemic-acid-vii Leaf 60 333
Gymnemic-acid-viii Leaf 23 32
Gymnemic-acid-w Leaf
Gymnemic-acid-x Leaf 5
Gymnemic-acid-xi Leaf 30
Gymnemic-acid-xii Leaf 8
Gymnemic-acid-xiii Leaf 13
Gymnemic-acid-xiv Leaf 5
Gymnemic-acid-xv Leaf 5
Gymnemic-acid-xvi Leaf 5
Gymnemic-acid-xvii Leaf 5
Gymnemic-acid-xviii Leaf 8
Gymnemic-acid-y Leaf
Gymnemic-acid-z Leaf
Gymnemoside-a Leaf 83
Gymnemoside-b Leaf 46
Gynosaponin-tn-2 Leaf
Gypenoside-ii Leaf
Gypenoside-lv Leaf 10
Gypenoside-lxii Leaf 27
Gypenoside-lxiii Leaf 33
Gypenoside-lxxiv Leaf
Gypenoside-v Leaf
Gypenoside-xliii Leaf
Gypenoside-xlv Leaf
Gypenoside-xlvii Leaf
Gypenoside-xxviii Leaf 30
Gypenoside-xxxvii Leaf 60
Iron Leaf 9 49
Magnesium Leaf 201 1,060
Manganese Leaf 0.4 2
Niacin Leaf 4.2 22
Phosphorus Leaf 561 2,950
Potassium Leaf 2,470 13,000
Protein Leaf 20,900 110,000
Riboflavin Leaf
Selenium Leaf 0.4 2.3
Silicon Leaf 0.6 3
Sodium Leaf 266 1,400
Thiamine Leaf
Trimethylamine Leaf
Water Leaf 810,000
Zinc Leaf
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]