Eruca sativa Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
arugula edible rocket garden rocket Italian cress rocket rocket-salad Roman rocket rugula salad rocket
Eruca sativa

Medical use

Economic importance of Eruca sativa

Food additives flavoring
Human food oil/fat vegetable
Animal food foder
Gene sources primary genetic relative of arugula tertiary genetic relative of cabage/kale tertiary genetic relative of mustard tertiary genetic relative of radish tertiary genetic relative of rape tertiary genetic relative of turnip
Weed potential sed contaminant

Gallery

Eruca sativa Eruca sativa Eruca sativa Eruca sativa Eruca sativa Eruca sativa Eruca sativa Eruca sativa Eruca sativa Eruca sativa Eruca sativa Eruca sativa Eruca sativa Eruca sativa Eruca sativa Eruca sativa Eruca sativa

Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Native
    • Northern Africa: Algeria ; Egypt ; Libya ; Morocco; Tunisia
    • Northeast Tropical Africa: Chad
    Naturalized
    • Macaronesia: Portugal - Madeira Islands; Spain - Canary Islands
    • Northeast Tropical Africa: Ethiopia; Sudan
    • South Tropical Africa: Zimbabwe
    • Southern Africa: South Africa
    Cultivated
    • Northern Africa: Algeria; Egypt; Libya; Morocco; Tunisia
    • Northeast Tropical Africa: Chad; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Sudan
    • West Tropical Africa: Mali; Mauritania; Niger
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Western Asia: Afghanistan; Cyprus; Iran; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey
    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Russian Federation - Ciscaucasia, Dagestan
    • Middle Asia: Turkmenistan
    • Mongolia: Mongolia
    • China: China - Gansu, Guangdong, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Nei Monggol, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang
    Naturalized
    • Arabian Peninsula: Bahrain; Kuwait; Oman; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; United Arab Emirates; Yemen
    • Siberia: Russian Federation - Eastern Siberia, Western Siberia
    • Eastern Asia: Japan - Honshu
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Native
    • Indian Subcontinent: Pakistan
    Naturalized
    • Indian Subcontinent: India
    Cultivated
    • Indian Subcontinent: India ; Pakistan
  • AUSTRALASIA
    Naturalized
    • Australia: Australia
    • New Zealand: New Zealand
  • EUROPE
    Native
    • East Europe: Ukraine - Krym
    • Southeastern Europe: Bulgaria; Greece ; Italy - Sardinia, Sicily; Romania ; Serbia
    • Southwestern Europe: France ; Portugal; Spain
    Naturalized
    • Northern Europe: Norway ; Sweden
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Germany; Hungary; Switzerland
    • East Europe: Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Russian Federation - European part ; Ukraine
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Croatia; Italy; Macedonia; Montenegro; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia
    • Southwestern Europe: France
    Cultivated
    • Europe
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Naturalized
    • Canada
    • Mexico
    • United States
    Cultivated
    • Canada
    • United States
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Naturalized
    • Western South America: Ecuador - Loja
    • Southern South America: Argentina; Chile

Biological activities

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (53700 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (62475 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (18250 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed (6600 ppm)
AChE-Inhibitor
Limonene found in Hs
Acaricide
Benzyl-benzoate found in Hs
Limonene found in Hs
Acidulant
Acetic-acid found in Hs
Hexanoic-acid found in Hs
Addictive
Acetaldehyde found in Hs
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Delta-cadinene found in Hs
Allelochemic
Limonene found in Hs
Allergenic
Allyl-isothiocyanate found in Hs
Benzaldehyde found in Hs
Benzyl-alcohol found in Hs
Benzyl-benzoate found in Hs
Carvone found in Hs
Limonene found in Hs
Oleic-acid found in Seed (62475 ppm)
Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Oleic-acid found in Seed (62475 ppm)
Anemiagenic
Oleic-acid found in Seed (62475 ppm)
Anesthetic
Benzaldehyde found in Hs
Benzyl-alcohol found in Hs
Methyl-eugenol found in Hs
AntiMS
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (53700 ppm)
Antiacetylcholinesterase
Carvone found in Hs
Limonene found in Hs
Antiacne
Delta-cadinene found in Hs
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (53700 ppm)
Antiadenomic
Limonene found in Hs
Antialopecic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (53700 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (62475 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (18250 ppm)
Antianaphylactic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (53700 ppm)
Antiandrogenic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (53700 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (62475 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (18250 ppm)
Antiarteriosclerotic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (53700 ppm)
Antiarthritic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (53700 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Allyl-isothiocyanate found in Hs
Benzyl-benzoate found in Hs
Limonene found in Hs
Antibacterial
Acetic-acid found in Hs
Acetophenone found in Hs
Benzaldehyde found in Hs
Cuminaldehyde found in Hs
Delta-cadinene found in Hs
Hexanal found in Hs
Isorhamnetin found in Leaf
Limonene found in Hs
Methyl-eugenol found in Hs
Anticancer
Benzaldehyde found in Hs
Limonene found in Hs
Anticariogenic
Delta-cadinene found in Hs
Anticonvulsant
Methyl-eugenol found in Hs
Anticoronary
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (53700 ppm)
Antidysmenorrheic
Benzyl-benzoate found in Hs
Antieczemic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (53700 ppm)
Antiesophagitic
Limonene found in Hs
Antifeedant
Allyl-isothiocyanate found in Hs
Limonene found in Hs
Methyl-eugenol found in Hs
Antifibrinolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (53700 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (18250 ppm)
Antiflu
Limonene found in Hs
Antigranular
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (53700 ppm)
Antihepatotoxic
Lignoceric-acid found in Seed (6320 ppm)
Antihistaminic
Isorhamnetin found in Leaf
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (53700 ppm)
Antiinflammatory
Isorhamnetin found in Leaf
Limonene found in Hs
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (53700 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (62475 ppm)
Antileukotriene-D4
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (53700 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (62475 ppm)
Antilithic
Limonene found in Hs
Antilymphomic
Limonene found in Hs
Antimenorrhagic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (53700 ppm)
Antimutagenic
Allyl-isothiocyanate found in Hs
Benzaldehyde found in Hs
Limonene found in Hs
Antiobesity
Limonene found in Hs
Antiodontalgic
Benzyl-alcohol found in Hs
Antiotitic
Acetic-acid found in Hs
Antioxidant
Isorhamnetin found in Leaf
Methyl-eugenol found in Hs
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (18250 ppm)
Antipeptic
Benzaldehyde found in Hs
Antiproliferative
Carvone found in Hs
Antiprostatitic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (53700 ppm)
Antipruritic
Benzyl-alcohol found in Hs
Antiradicular
Methyl-eugenol found in Hs
Antisalmonella
Acetic-acid found in Hs
Hexanal found in Hs
Antiseptic
Allyl-isothiocyanate found in Hs
Benzaldehyde found in Hs
Benzyl-alcohol found in Hs
Carvone found in Hs
Furfural found in Hs
Hexanal found in Hs
Hexanol found in Hs
Limonene found in Hs
Methyl-eugenol found in Hs
Antispasmodic
Benzaldehyde found in Hs
Benzyl-benzoate found in Hs
Isorhamnetin found in Leaf
Limonene found in Hs
Antistreptococcic
Delta-cadinene found in Hs
Antitumor
Benzaldehyde found in Hs
Benzyl-benzoate found in Hs
Erucic-acid found in Seed (161460 ppm)
Limonene found in Hs
Antivaginitic
Acetic-acid found in Hs
Antiviral
Limonene found in Hs
Apoptotic
Limonene found in Hs
Artemicide
Benzyl-benzoate found in Hs
Bronchoprotectant
Limonene found in Hs
CNS-Depressant
Benzyl-benzoate found in Hs
CNS-Stimulant
Benzyl-benzoate found in Hs
Carveol found in Hs
Carvone found in Hs
Cancer-Preventive
Allyl-isothiocyanate found in Hs
Carvone found in Hs
Isorhamnetin found in Leaf
Limonene found in Hs
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (53700 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Hs
Oleic-acid found in Seed (62475 ppm)
Candidicide
Benzaldehyde found in Hs
Octanoic-acid found in Hs
Candidistat
Carvone found in Hs
Limonene found in Hs
Carcinogenic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (53700 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Hs
Carminative
Carvone found in Hs
Chemopreventive
Limonene found in Hs
Choleretic
Oleic-acid found in Seed (62475 ppm)
Cholesterolytic
Limonene found in Hs
Comedolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (53700 ppm)
Cosmetic
Behenic-acid found in Seed (7370 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed (6600 ppm)
Counterirritant
Allyl-isothiocyanate found in Hs
Cytochrome-P450-Inducer
Delta-cadinene found in Hs
Decongestant
Allyl-isothiocyanate found in Hs
Dermatitigenic
Oleic-acid found in Seed (62475 ppm)
Detoxicant
Limonene found in Hs
Embryotoxic
Allyl-isothiocyanate found in Hs
Enterocontractant
Limonene found in Hs
Expectorant
Acetic-acid found in Hs
Limonene found in Hs
FLavor
3-octanol found in Hs
Benzaldehyde found in Hs
Benzyl-alcohol found in Hs
Benzyl-benzoate found in Hs
Carvone found in Hs
Cuminaldehyde found in Hs
Dodecanal found in Hs
Dodecanol found in Hs
Furfural found in Hs
Hexadecanol found in Hs
Hexanal found in Hs
Hexanoic-acid found in Hs
Hexanol found in Hs
Limonene found in Hs
Methyl-eugenol found in Hs
Nonanoic-acid found in Hs
Octanoic-acid found in Hs
Oleic-acid found in Seed (62475 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (18250 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed (6600 ppm)
Trans-2-hexenal found in Hs
Undecanal found in Hs
Fungicide
Acetaldehyde found in Hs
Acetic-acid found in Hs
Acetophenone found in Hs
Allyl-isothiocyanate found in Hs
Benzyl-alcohol found in Hs
Cuminaldehyde found in Hs
Furfural found in Hs
Methyl-eugenol found in Hs
Octanoic-acid found in Hs
Fungiphilic
Limonene found in Hs
Fungistat
Carvone found in Hs
Limonene found in Hs
Methyl-eugenol found in Hs
GST-Inducer
Limonene found in Hs
Hemolytic
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (18250 ppm)
Hepatoprotective
Isorhamnetin found in Leaf
Isorhamnetin-3-glucoside found in Leaf
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (53700 ppm)
Herbicide
Allyl-isothiocyanate found in Hs
Limonene found in Hs
Histaminic
Limonene found in Hs
Hypercholesterolemic
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (18250 ppm)
Hypnotic
Acetophenone found in Hs
Hypocholesterolemic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (53700 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (62475 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed (6600 ppm)
Hypotensive
Benzyl-benzoate found in Hs
Immunomodulator
Limonene found in Hs
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (53700 ppm)
Immunostimulant
Benzaldehyde found in Hs
Insecticide
Benzaldehyde found in Hs
Carvone found in Hs
Furfural found in Hs
Limonene found in Hs
Insectifuge
Benzaldehyde found in Hs
Benzyl-benzoate found in Hs
Carvone found in Hs
Limonene found in Hs
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (53700 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Hs
Oleic-acid found in Seed (62475 ppm)
Insectiphile
Allyl-isothiocyanate found in Hs
Interleukin-6-Inhibitor
Limonene found in Hs
Irritant
Benzyl-benzoate found in Hs
Cuminaldehyde found in Hs
Dodecanal found in Hs
Furfural found in Hs
Limonene found in Hs
Oleic-acid found in Seed (62475 ppm)
Keratitigenic
Acetic-acid found in Hs
Larvicide
Cuminaldehyde found in Hs
Lipolytic
Limonene found in Hs
Lubricant
Erucic-acid found in Seed (161460 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (18250 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed (6600 ppm)
MAO-Inhibitor
Isorhamnetin found in Leaf
Metastatic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (53700 ppm)
Motor-Depressant
Benzaldehyde found in Hs
Carvone found in Hs
Mucolytic
Acetic-acid found in Hs
Mutagenic
Allyl-isothiocyanate found in Hs
Myorelaxant
Benzyl-benzoate found in Hs
Limonene found in Hs
Methyl-eugenol found in Hs
NO-Genic
Limonene found in Hs
Narcotic
Benzaldehyde found in Hs
Methyl-eugenol found in Hs
Nematicide
Benzaldehyde found in Hs
Carvone found in Hs
Decanol found in Hs
Limonene found in Hs
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (53700 ppm)
Methyl-eugenol found in Hs
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (18250 ppm)
Nematiovistat
Allyl-isothiocyanate found in Hs
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Limonene found in Hs
Osteolytic
Acetic-acid found in Hs
Ozone-Scavenger
Limonene found in Hs
P450-Inducer
Delta-cadinene found in Hs
Limonene found in Hs
Paramecicide
Trans-2-hexenal found in Hs
Pediculicide
Benzyl-benzoate found in Hs
Percutaneostimulant
Oleic-acid found in Seed (62475 ppm)
Perfumery
2-octanol found in Hs
3-octanol found in Hs
Acetaldehyde found in Hs
Acetic-acid found in Hs
Acetophenone found in Hs
Carvone found in Hs
Cuminaldehyde found in Hs
Methyl-eugenol found in Hs
Nonanoic-acid found in Hs
Octanoic-acid found in Hs
Oleic-acid found in Seed (62475 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed (6600 ppm)
Undecanal found in Hs
Peristaltic
Limonene found in Hs
Pesticide
Acetaldehyde found in Hs
Acetic-acid found in Hs
Acetophenone found in Hs
Allyl-isothiocyanate found in Hs
Benzaldehyde found in Hs
Benzyl-alcohol found in Hs
Benzyl-benzoate found in Hs
Carvone found in Hs
Cuminaldehyde found in Hs
Decanol found in Hs
Delta-cadinene found in Hs
Furfural found in Hs
Hexanal found in Hs
Hexanol found in Hs
Isorhamnetin found in Leaf
Limonene found in Hs
Methyl-eugenol found in Hs
Octanoic-acid found in Hs
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (18250 ppm)
Trans-2-hexenal found in Hs
Photosensitizer
Limonene found in Hs
Propecic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (53700 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (62475 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (18250 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed (6600 ppm)
Prosticide
Trans-2-hexenal found in Hs
Protisticide
Acetic-acid found in Hs
Quinone-Reductase-Inducer
Isorhamnetin found in Leaf
Respiraparalytic
Acetaldehyde found in Hs
Scabicide
Benzyl-benzoate found in Hs
Sedative
Benzaldehyde found in Hs
Benzyl-alcohol found in Hs
Carvone found in Hs
Cuminaldehyde found in Hs
Limonene found in Hs
Methyl-eugenol found in Hs
Soap
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (18250 ppm)
Soporific
Acetophenone found in Hs
Spermicide
Acetic-acid found in Hs
Spice
Allyl-isothiocyanate found in Hs
Suppository
Stearic-acid found in Seed (6600 ppm)
Termiticide
Benzaldehyde found in Hs
Testosterone-Inducer
Delta-cadinene found in Hs
Transdermal
Limonene found in Hs
Trichomonicide
Carvone found in Hs
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
Acetaldehyde found in Hs
Benzaldehyde found in Hs
Cuminaldehyde found in Hs
Ulcerogenic
Acetic-acid found in Hs
Cuminaldehyde found in Hs
Vasodilator
Isorhamnetin found in Leaf
Vermicide
Carvone found in Hs
Verrucolytic
Acetic-acid found in Hs

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
1-octen-3-ol Hs
2-acetylthiazole Hs
2-methyl-anisol Hs
2-octanol Hs
2-pentyl-furane Hs
3-octanol Hs
3-octanone Hs
4-mercaptobutyl-glucosinolate Leaf
4-methyl-sulfinyl-glucosinolate Leaf
4-methyl-thio-butyl-glucosinolate Leaf
4-methylthiobutyl-isothiocyanate Hs
4-pentenyl-isothiocyanate Hs
5-methylthio-pentanenitrile Hs
5-methylthio-pentyl-isothiocyanate Hs
Acetaldehyde Hs
Acetic-acid Hs
Acetophenone Hs
Alkaloids Seed
Allyl-isothiocyanate Hs
Ash Seed 48,000
Behenic-acid Seed 4,725 7,370
Benzaldehyde Hs
Benzyl-alcohol Hs
Benzyl-benzoate Hs
Beta-caryophyllene Hs
Beta-citronellol Hs
Beta-farnesol Hs
Carveol Hs
Carvone Hs
Cis-3-hexenyl-2-methylbutanoate Hs
Cis-3-hexenyl-acetate Hs
Cis-3-hexenyl-butanoate Hs
Cis-hexen-1-ol Hs
Cuminaldehyde Hs
Cuminyl-alcohol Hs
Decanol Hs
Delta-cadinene Hs
Dodecanal Hs
Dodecanol Hs
Eicosenoic-acid Seed 16,425 34,400
Erucic-acid Seed 75,150 161,460
Fat Seed 225,000 351,000
Furfural Hs
Glucoerucin Seed
Heptan-3-ol Hs
Hexadecanol Hs
Hexanal Hs
Hexanoic-acid Hs
Hexanol Hs
Hexyl-octanoate Hs
Isorhamnetin Leaf
Isorhamnetin-3-glucoside Leaf
Lignoceric-acid Seed 4,050 6,320
Limonene Hs
Linoleic-acid Seed 18,675 53,700
Linolenic-acid Seed 32,850 69,150
Methyl-dodecanoate Hs
Methyl-eugenol Hs
Nonanal Hs
Nonanoic-acid Hs
Nonanol Hs
Octanoic-acid Hs
Octanol Hs
Oleic-acid Seed 22,700 62,475
Palmitic-acid Seed 9,000 18,250
Phytosterol Seed 560
Protein Seed 296,000 374,000
Quercetin-3'-(6-sinapoyl-o-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-3,4'-di-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside Leaf
Quercetin-3,3',4'-tri-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside Leaf
Quercetin-3-(2-sinapoyl-o-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-3'-(6-sinapoyl-o-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-4'-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside Leaf
Sitosterol Seed 500
Stearic-acid Seed 2,900 6,600
Tetrahydrothiophene Hs
Trans,trans-2,4-heptadienal Hs
Trans-2-hexenal Hs
Trans-2-nonenal Hs
Trans-hexen-1-ol Hs
Undecanal Hs
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]