Echinacea purpurea Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
eastern purple-coneflower purple-coneflower

Echinacea purpurea is a species of flowering plant in the genus Echinacea of the family Asteraceae. Its cone-shaped flowering heads are usually, but not always, purple in the wild. It is native to eastern North America and present to some extent in the wild in much of the eastern, southeastern and midwest United States.

Echinacea purpurea

Medical use

Economic importance of Echinacea purpurea

Environmental ornamental
Medicines folklore

Gallery

Echinacea purpurea Echinacea purpurea Echinacea purpurea Echinacea purpurea Echinacea purpurea Echinacea purpurea Echinacea purpurea Echinacea purpurea Echinacea purpurea Echinacea purpurea Echinacea purpurea Echinacea purpurea Echinacea purpurea Echinacea purpurea Echinacea purpurea Echinacea purpurea

Geografical distribution

  • EUROPE
    Adventive
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Germany; Poland
    • East Europe: Ukraine
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Native
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Indiana, Michigan , Ohio
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Illinois, Iowa , Kansas , Missouri, Oklahoma , Wisconsin
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Tennessee
    • South-Central U.S.A.: United States - Texas
    Naturalized
    • Eastern Canada: Canada - Ontario

Biological activities

11B-HSD-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
5-HT-Inhibitor
Rutin found in Leaf
5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
ACE-Inhibitor
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
AP-1-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
ATPase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Abortifacient
Betaine found in Plant ;found in Root
Absorbent
Starch found in Root (120000 ppm)
Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Aggregant
Sucrose found in Root (34000 ppm)
Alcohol-Dehydrogenase-Inhibitor
Inulin found in Root (170000 ppm);found in Root
Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Caryophyllene found in Shoot
P-coumaric-acid found in Fruit Juice
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Allelochemic
Borneol found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Vanillin found in Plant ;found in Shoot (2.4 ppm)
Allelopathic
P-coumaric-acid found in Fruit Juice
Allergenic
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Shoot
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Vanillin found in Plant ;found in Shoot (2.4 ppm)
Analgesic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Borneol found in Shoot
Caryophyllene found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Androgenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Angiogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Potassium found in Root (8090 ppm)
Anorexic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
AntiAGE
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Chromium found in Root (1.9 ppm)
AntiBPH
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
AntiCFS
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Chromium found in Root (1.9 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
AntiCTS
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
AntiCVI
Rutin found in Leaf
AntiGTF
Quercetin found in Leaf
AntiHIV-Integrase
Cichoric-acid found in Flower (31000 ppm);found in Shoot ;found in Root (21000 ppm)
AntiHIV
Cichoric-acid found in Flower (31000 ppm);found in Shoot ;found in Root (21000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
AntiLyme
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Root (12 ppm)
AntiMS
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
AntiNF-kB
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
AntiPMS
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Calcium found in Root (3290 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Manganese found in Root (10.1 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiacetylcholine
Borneol found in Shoot
Antiacid
Glycine found in Plant
Antiacne
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Shoot
Chromium found in Root (1.9 ppm)
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Tin found in Root (17 ppm)
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antiacrodermatitic
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antiacrodynic
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Antiadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Antiaflatoxin
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiaggregant
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Rutoside found in Leaf
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Antiaging
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Chromium found in Root (1.9 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiakathisic
Iron found in Root (70 ppm)
Antialcoholic
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Manganese found in Root (10.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antialdosteronic
Glycine found in Plant
Antiallergic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Calcium found in Root (3290 ppm)
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antialopecic
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antialzheimeran
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antiamblyopic
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Antianaphylactic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiandrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Antianemic
Iron found in Root (70 ppm)
Manganese found in Root (10.1 ppm)
Vanillin found in Plant ;found in Shoot (2.4 ppm)
Antianginal
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Antiangiogenic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antianorectic
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Antianorexic
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antianxiety
Calcium found in Root (3290 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Antiapoplectic
Rutin found in Leaf
Antiarabiflavinotic
Riboflavin found in Root (12 ppm)
Antiarrhythmic
Calcium found in Root (3290 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Potassium found in Root (8090 ppm)
Antiarteriosclerotic
Silicon found in Root (30.1 ppm)
Antiarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Calcium found in Root (3290 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Manganese found in Root (10.1 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Shoot
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Antiatherogenic
Rutin found in Leaf
Antiatherosclerotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Calcium found in Root (3290 ppm)
Chromium found in Root (1.9 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Antibacterial
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Borneol found in Shoot
Bornyl-acetate found in Shoot
Caryophyllene found in Shoot
Echinacoside found in Root
P-coumaric-acid found in Fruit Juice
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Tin found in Root (17 ppm)
Antibronchitic
Borneol found in Shoot
Anticancer
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Rutin found in Leaf
Vanillin found in Plant ;found in Shoot (2.4 ppm)
Anticanker
Iron found in Root (70 ppm)
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Anticapillary-Fragility
Rutin found in Leaf
Rutoside found in Leaf
Anticarcinomic
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Anticariogenic
Caryophyllene found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Leaf
Anticarpal-Tunnel
Riboflavin found in Root (12 ppm)
Anticataract
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Riboflavin found in Root (12 ppm)
Rutin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Anticephalagic
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Root (12 ppm)
Anticervicaldysplasic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Root (12 ppm)
Anticheilitic
Iron found in Root (70 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Root (12 ppm)
Antichilblain
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Anticirrhotic
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Anticlastogen
P-coumaric-acid found in Fruit Juice
Rutin found in Leaf
Anticlimacteric
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Calcium found in Root (3290 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Anticoeliac
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Anticold
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Anticolitic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Anticomplementary
Arabinogalactan found in Shoot ;found in Tissue Culture
Quercetin found in Leaf
Anticonvulsant
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Rutin found in Leaf
Anticorneotic
Chromium found in Root (1.9 ppm)
Anticoronary
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Anticystitic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antidandruff
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antidecubitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Riboflavin found in Root (12 ppm)
Antidementia
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Rutin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antidepressant
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Calcium found in Root (3290 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Potassium found in Root (8090 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Antidermatitic
Caryophyllene found in Shoot
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antidiabetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Chromium found in Root (1.9 ppm)
Inulin found in Root (170000 ppm);found in Root
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Manganese found in Root (10.1 ppm)
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antidiarrheic
Inulin found in Root (170000 ppm);found in Root
Antidiscotic
Manganese found in Root (10.1 ppm)
Antidrepanocytic
Vanillin found in Plant ;found in Shoot (2.4 ppm)
Antidysgeuzic
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antidyskinetic
Manganese found in Root (10.1 ppm)
Antidysmenorrheic
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Antidysphagic
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Antieczemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antiedemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Caryophyllene found in Shoot
Rutin found in Leaf
Antielastase
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiencephalitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiencephalopathic
Glycine found in Plant
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antiendometriotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Antienterotic
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Antiepileptic
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Manganese found in Root (10.1 ppm)
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antierythemic
Rutin found in Leaf
Antiescherichic
Borneol found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Leaf
Vanillin found in Plant ;found in Shoot (2.4 ppm)
Antiestrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antifatigue
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Chromium found in Root (1.9 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Potassium found in Root (8090 ppm)
Antifeedant
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Borneol found in Shoot
Bornyl-acetate found in Shoot
Caryophyllene found in Shoot
Caryophyllene-epoxide found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antifertility
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
P-coumaric-acid found in Fruit Juice
Antifibromyalgic
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Antifibrosarcomic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antifibrotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antiflu
Cichoric-acid found in Flower (31000 ppm);found in Shoot ;found in Root (21000 ppm)
Echinacoside found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antifuruncular
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antigallstone
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Antigastric
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antigastritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Betaine found in Plant ;found in Root
Glycine found in Plant
Antigastrotic
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Antigingivitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Antiglaucomic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Rutin found in Leaf
Antiglossitic
Riboflavin found in Root (12 ppm)
Antiglycosuric
Chromium found in Root (1.9 ppm)
Antigonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Antigonadotropic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antigout
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Antihangover
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antihematuric
Rutin found in Leaf
Antihemorrhagic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Antihemorrhoidal
Rutin found in Leaf
Antihepatitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Antihepatotoxic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Echinacoside found in Root
P-coumaric-acid found in Fruit Juice
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antiherpetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antihiccup
Sucrose found in Root (34000 ppm)
Antihistaminic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antihomocystinuric
Betaine found in Plant ;found in Root
Antihydrophobic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antihyperactivity
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Antihyperkeratotic
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Antihyperkinetic
Calcium found in Root (3290 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Antihyperlipoproteinaemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Antihypertensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Calcium found in Root (3290 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Potassium found in Root (8090 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antihypoglycemic
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Antiichythyotic
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Antiimpotence
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antiinfective
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antiinfertility
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antiinflammatory
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Borneol found in Shoot
Caryophyllene found in Shoot
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antiinsomniac
Calcium found in Root (3290 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antiinsomnic
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Antikeratitic
Riboflavin found in Root (12 ppm)
Antikeshan
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Antilactobacillic
Vanillin found in Plant ;found in Shoot (2.4 ppm)
Antileishmanic
Arabinogalactan found in Shoot ;found in Tissue Culture
Caryophyllene found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antilepric
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antileukemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
P-coumaric-acid found in Fruit Juice
Quercetin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Antileukonychic
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antileukoplakic
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Antileukotriene
Quercetin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Antilipoperoxidant
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antilisteria
Vanillin found in Plant ;found in Shoot (2.4 ppm)
Antilithic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Antilupus
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Antilymphomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antimaculitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antimalarial
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antimastalgic
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Antimastitic
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Antimeasles
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Antimelanomic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Antimenopausal
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Calcium found in Root (3290 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Antimenorrhagic
Iron found in Root (70 ppm)
Antimetastatic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antimigraine
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Root (12 ppm)
Antimitral-valve-prolapse
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Antimutagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Vanillin found in Plant ;found in Shoot (2.4 ppm)
Antimyalgic
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Antimyoatrophic
Betaine found in Plant ;found in Root
Antimyocarditic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antinephritic
Rutin found in Leaf
Antinephrolytic
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Antinesidioblastosic
Starch found in Root (120000 ppm)
Antineuralgic
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Antineuramidase
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Antineuropathic
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antineurotic
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Antinitrosaminic
P-coumaric-acid found in Fruit Juice
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antinitrosic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Antinociceptive
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antinyctalopic
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antiobesity
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Calcium found in Root (3290 ppm)
Chromium found in Root (1.9 ppm)
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antionychyotic
Caryophyllene found in Shoot
Silicon found in Root (30.1 ppm)
Antiophidic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Antiophthalmic
Sucrose found in Root (34000 ppm)
Antiorchitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Antiosteoarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Antiosteoporotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Calcium found in Root (3290 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Manganese found in Root (10.1 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Root (790 ppm)
Silicon found in Root (30.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antiotitic
Borneol found in Shoot
Cichoric-acid found in Flower (31000 ppm);found in Shoot ;found in Root (21000 ppm)
Antiototic
Manganese found in Root (10.1 ppm)
Antioxidant
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Manganese found in Root (10.1 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Fruit Juice
Quercetin found in Leaf
Riboflavin found in Root (12 ppm)
Rutin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Sucrose found in Root (34000 ppm)
Vanillin found in Plant ;found in Shoot (2.4 ppm)
Antiozenic
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Antipancreatitic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antipapillomic
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Antiparkinsonian
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Antiparotitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Antipellagric
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Root (12 ppm)
Antiperiodontal
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiperiodontitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Calcium found in Root (3290 ppm)
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antiperistaltic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antipermeability
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiperoxidant
P-coumaric-acid found in Fruit Juice
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antipharyngitic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiphotophobic
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Root (12 ppm)
Antipityriasic
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Antiplaque
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antiplasmodial
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiplatelet
Rutin found in Leaf
Antipneumonic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Antipodriac
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antipolio
Cyanin found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Vanillin found in Plant ;found in Shoot (2.4 ppm)
Antipoliomyelitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Antiporphyric
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Antiprogestational
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Antiprolactin
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antiproliferant
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Antiprostaglandin
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Antiprostanoid
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiprostatadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Antiprostatitic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Glycine found in Plant
Quercetin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antiprotozoal
Rutin found in Leaf
Antipruritic
Glycine found in Plant
Antipsoriac
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antipurpuric
Rutin found in Leaf
Antipyretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Borneol found in Shoot
Antiradicular
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Cichoric-acid found in Flower (31000 ppm);found in Shoot ;found in Root (21000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Vanillin found in Plant ;found in Shoot (2.4 ppm)
Antiretinopathic
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Antiretinotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Antirheumatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Calcium found in Root (3290 ppm)
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antirhinitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Antisalmonella
Borneol found in Shoot
Antiscorbutic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Antiscotomic
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Antiseptic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
P-coumaric-acid found in Fruit Juice
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antishingles
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Antisickling
Glycine found in Plant
Vanillin found in Plant ;found in Shoot (2.4 ppm)
Antisilicotic
Aluminum found in Root (786 ppm)
Antispare-Tire
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antispasmodic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Borneol found in Shoot
Bornyl-acetate found in Shoot
Caryophyllene found in Shoot
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Fruit Juice
Potassium found in Root (8090 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antispasmophilic
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Antistaph
Echinacoside found in Root
Antistaphylococcic
Borneol found in Shoot
Caryophyllene found in Shoot
Antistomatitic
Cichoric-acid found in Flower (31000 ppm);found in Shoot ;found in Root (21000 ppm)
Echinacoside found in Root
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antistreptococcic
Caryophyllene found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antistress
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Calcium found in Root (3290 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Antistroke
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Potassium found in Root (8090 ppm)
Antisunburn
Cichoric-acid found in Flower (31000 ppm);found in Shoot ;found in Root (21000 ppm)
Echinacoside found in Root
Rutin found in Leaf
Antisyndrome-X
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Chromium found in Root (1.9 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Manganese found in Root (10.1 ppm)
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antithiamin
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antithrombic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antithrombogenic
Rutin found in Leaf
Antithyroid
Rutin found in Leaf
Antitic
Calcium found in Root (3290 ppm)
Antitinnitic
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antitriglyceride
Chromium found in Root (1.9 ppm)
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antitrypanosomic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antitumor-Promoter
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Vanillin found in Plant ;found in Shoot (2.4 ppm)
Antitumor
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Shoot
P-coumaric-acid found in Fruit Juice
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Vanillin found in Plant ;found in Shoot (2.4 ppm)
Antiulcer
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Shoot
Glycine found in Plant
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Antiulcerogenic
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Antivaginitic
Aluminum found in Root (786 ppm)
Antivaricose
Rutin found in Leaf
Antivertigo
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Antiviral
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Bornyl-acetate found in Shoot
Cichoric-acid found in Flower (31000 ppm);found in Shoot ;found in Root (21000 ppm)
Cyanin found in Flower
Echinacoside found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Vanillin found in Plant ;found in Shoot (2.4 ppm)
Antixerophthalmic
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Antiyeast
Borneol found in Shoot
Vanillin found in Plant ;found in Shoot (2.4 ppm)
Anxiolytic
Calcium found in Root (3290 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Root (790 ppm)
Potassium found in Root (8090 ppm)
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Apoptotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Artemicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Asthma-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Astringent
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Atherogenic
Sucrose found in Root (34000 ppm)
Attifuge
Caryophyllene-epoxide found in Shoot
Bacteristat
Cichoric-acid found in Flower (31000 ppm);found in Shoot ;found in Root (21000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Vanillin found in Plant ;found in Shoot (2.4 ppm)
Beta-Blocker
Potassium found in Root (8090 ppm)
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Bifidogenic
Inulin found in Root (170000 ppm);found in Root
Bradycardiac
Quercetin found in Leaf
Bruchiphobe
Betaine found in Plant ;found in Root
CNS-Depressant
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
CNS-Stimulant
Borneol found in Shoot
CNS-Toxic
Borneol found in Shoot
COMT-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutoside found in Leaf
COX-1-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
COX-2-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Calcium-Antagonist
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Tussilagine found in Root (60 ppm)
Calcium-Channel-Blocker
Calcium found in Root (3290 ppm)
Calmodulin-Antagonist
Quercetin found in Leaf
Cancer-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Glycine found in Plant
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Fruit Juice
Quercetin found in Leaf
Riboflavin found in Root (12 ppm)
Rutin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Vanillin found in Plant ;found in Shoot (2.4 ppm)
Candidicide
Aluminum found in Root (786 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Borneol found in Shoot
Caryophyllene found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Leaf
Vanillin found in Plant ;found in Shoot (2.4 ppm)
Capillariprotective
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Carcinogenic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Cardiomyopathogenic
Cobalt found in Root (14.8 ppm)
Cardioprotective
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Betaine found in Plant ;found in Root
Chromium found in Root (1.9 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Potassium found in Root (8090 ppm)
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Silicon found in Root (30.1 ppm)
Cardiotoxic
Potassium found in Root (8090 ppm)
Caspase-8-Inducer
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Catabolic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Chemopreventive
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Fruit Juice
Rutin found in Leaf
Choleretic
Borneol found in Shoot
P-coumaric-acid found in Fruit Juice
Rutoside found in Leaf
Vanillin found in Plant ;found in Shoot (2.4 ppm)
Circulotonic
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Cold-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Collagen-Sparing
Cichoric-acid found in Flower (31000 ppm);found in Shoot ;found in Root (21000 ppm)
Echinacoside found in Root
Collagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Collyrium
Sucrose found in Root (34000 ppm)
Colorant
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Copper-Antagonist
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Copper-Chelator
Quercetin found in Leaf
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Cytochrome-P450-1A2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Cytoprotective
Rutin found in Leaf
Cytotoxic
P-coumaric-acid found in Fruit Juice
Quercetin found in Leaf
Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Demulcent
Sucrose found in Root (34000 ppm)
Deodorant
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Depressant
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Detoxicant
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Differentiator
Quercetin found in Leaf
Diuretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Betaine found in Plant ;found in Root
Calcium found in Root (3290 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Potassium found in Root (8090 ppm)
Emetic
Cyanin found in Flower
Emmenagogue
Betaine found in Plant ;found in Root
Emollient
Starch found in Root (120000 ppm)
Encephalopathic
Aluminum found in Root (786 ppm)
Energizer
Chromium found in Root (1.9 ppm)
Ergogenic
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Erythrocytogenic
Cobalt found in Root (14.8 ppm)
Estrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Quercetin found in Leaf
Ethanolytic
Betaine found in Plant ;found in Root
Expectorant
Betaine found in Plant ;found in Root
Bornyl-acetate found in Shoot
Inulin found in Root (170000 ppm);found in Root
FLavor
Borneol found in Shoot
Bornyl-acetate found in Shoot
Caryophyllene found in Shoot
Vanillin found in Plant ;found in Shoot (2.4 ppm)
Febrifuge
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Fibrinolytic
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Fistula-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Flatugenic
Sucrose found in Root (34000 ppm)
Fungicide
Borneol found in Shoot
Caryophyllene found in Shoot
P-coumaric-acid found in Fruit Juice
Quercetin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Vanillin found in Plant ;found in Shoot (2.4 ppm)
Fungistat
Caryophyllene-epoxide found in Shoot
Gastroprotective
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Shoot
Gastrostimulant
Inulin found in Root (170000 ppm);found in Root
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Gonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
HIV-RT-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Hemostat
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Hepatomagenic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Hepatoprotective
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Betaine found in Plant ;found in Root
Borneol found in Shoot
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Hepatotoxic
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Herbicide
Borneol found in Shoot
Hyaluronidase-Inhibitor
Cichoric-acid found in Flower (31000 ppm);found in Shoot ;found in Root (21000 ppm)
Hypercholesterolemic
Sucrose found in Root (34000 ppm)
Hypertensive
Sodium found in Root (90 ppm)
Hypocholesterolemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Calcium found in Root (3290 ppm)
Chromium found in Root (1.9 ppm)
Inulin found in Root (170000 ppm);found in Root
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Rutin found in Leaf
Hypoglycemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Chromium found in Root (1.9 ppm)
Inulin found in Root (170000 ppm);found in Root
Manganese found in Root (10.1 ppm)
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Hypolipidemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Hypotensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Calcium found in Root (3290 ppm)
Chromium found in Root (1.9 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Potassium found in Root (8090 ppm)
Rutin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Immunomodulator
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Chromium found in Root (1.9 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Rutin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Immunostimulant
Arabinogalactan found in Shoot ;found in Tissue Culture
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Cichoric-acid found in Flower (31000 ppm);found in Shoot ;found in Root (21000 ppm)
Echinacoside found in Root
Inulin found in Root (170000 ppm);found in Root
Phosphorus found in Root (790 ppm)
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Immunosuppressant
Vanillin found in Plant ;found in Shoot (2.4 ppm)
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Inhalant
Borneol found in Shoot
Inotropic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Insect-Repellent
Borneol found in Shoot
Insecticide
Rutin found in Leaf
Insectifuge
Borneol found in Shoot
Bornyl-acetate found in Shoot
Caryophyllene found in Shoot
Caryophyllene-epoxide found in Shoot
Insectiphile
Rutin found in Leaf
Insulinogenic
Chromium found in Root (1.9 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Interferon-Synergist
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Interferonogenic
Arabinogalactan found in Shoot ;found in Tissue Culture
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Irritant
Borneol found in Shoot
Caryophyllene found in Shoot
Vanillin found in Plant ;found in Shoot (2.4 ppm)
Juvabional
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Larvicide
Caryophyllene found in Shoot
Caryophyllene-epoxide found in Shoot
Larvistat
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Laxative
Calcium found in Root (3290 ppm)
Inulin found in Root (170000 ppm);found in Root
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Leptingenic
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Lipolytic
Inulin found in Root (170000 ppm);found in Root
Lipotropic
Betaine found in Plant ;found in Root
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
P-coumaric-acid found in Fruit Juice
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Lithogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Litholytic
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
MAO-A-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
MMP-9-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Mast-Cell-Stabilizer
Quercetin found in Leaf
Memorigenic
Chromium found in Root (1.9 ppm)
Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Mitogenic
Arabinogalactan found in Shoot ;found in Tissue Culture
Mosquitocide
Caryophyllene found in Shoot
Mucogenic
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Betaine found in Plant ;found in Root
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Mucolytic
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Mutagenic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Myoprotective
Rutin found in Leaf
Myorelaxant
Borneol found in Shoot
Bornyl-acetate found in Shoot
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Rutin found in Leaf
NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
NEP-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
NO-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
NO-Synthase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Nematicide
Borneol found in Shoot
Neuroinhibitor
Glycine found in Plant
Neuroprotective
Quercetin found in Leaf
Neurotransmitter
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Osteogenic
Phosphorus found in Root (790 ppm)
Oviposition-Stimulant
Rutin found in Leaf
P450-Inducer
Quercetin found in Leaf
P450-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
PAF-Inhibitor
Rutin found in Leaf
PGE2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
PTK-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Perfumery
Borneol found in Shoot
Caryophyllene found in Shoot
Vanillin found in Plant ;found in Shoot (2.4 ppm)
Pesticide
Aluminum found in Root (786 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Betaine found in Plant ;found in Root
Borneol found in Shoot
Bornyl-acetate found in Shoot
Caryophyllene found in Shoot
Caryophyllene-epoxide found in Shoot
Cichoric-acid found in Flower (31000 ppm);found in Shoot ;found in Root (21000 ppm)
Cyanin found in Flower
Echinacoside found in Root
Germacrene-d found in Shoot (120 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Fruit Juice
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Tin found in Root (17 ppm)
Vanillin found in Plant ;found in Shoot (2.4 ppm)
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Phagocytotic
Arabinogalactan found in Shoot ;found in Tissue Culture
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Cichoric-acid found in Flower (31000 ppm);found in Shoot ;found in Root (21000 ppm)
Heteroxylan found in Shoot
Pheromone
Germacrene-d found in Shoot (120 ppm)
Phospholipase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Pigment
Cyanin found in Flower
Plasmodicide
Quercetin found in Leaf
Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Poultice
Starch found in Root (120000 ppm)
Prebiotic
Inulin found in Root (170000 ppm);found in Root
Preservative
Sucrose found in Root (34000 ppm)
Probiotic
Inulin found in Root (170000 ppm);found in Root
Probiotigenic
Inulin found in Root (170000 ppm);found in Root
Proliferant
Quercetin found in Leaf
Prooxidant
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Iron found in Root (70 ppm)
Prostaglandigenic
P-coumaric-acid found in Fruit Juice
Prostaglandin-Sparer
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
P-coumaric-acid found in Fruit Juice
Quercetin found in Leaf
Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Protisticide
Rutin found in Leaf
Quinone-Reductase-Inducer
Quercetin found in Leaf
Radioprotective
Rutin found in Leaf
Sedative
Borneol found in Shoot
Bornyl-acetate found in Shoot
Caryophyllene found in Shoot
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Serotoninergic
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Spermicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Spermigenic
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Sunscreen
Rutin found in Leaf
Sweetener
Sucrose found in Root (34000 ppm)
TNF-alpha-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Taenicide
Tin found in Root (17 ppm)
Teratologic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Termitifuge
Caryophyllene found in Shoot
Testosteronigenic
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Thymoprotective
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Tranquilizer
Borneol found in Shoot
Calcium found in Root (3290 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Trichomonicide
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Triglycerigenic
Sucrose found in Root (34000 ppm)
Tumorigenic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
P-coumaric-acid found in Fruit Juice
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Ubiquiot
Beta-carotene found in Root (2.2 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Ulcerogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Root
Uricogenic
Sucrose found in Root (34000 ppm)
Uricosuric
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Glycine found in Plant
Urinary-Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Uterorelaxant
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
VEGF-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Selenium found in Root (2.1 ppm)
Vasodilator
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Calcium found in Root (3290 ppm)
Magnesium found in Root (1860 ppm)
Niacin found in Root (68 ppm)
Potassium found in Root (8090 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Vasopressor
Rutin found in Leaf
Vulnerary
Ascorbic-acid found in Root (843 ppm);found in Root
Echinacin-b found in Root
Sucrose found in Root (34000 ppm)
Zinc found in Root (5.1 ppm)
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
iNOS-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
13-hydroxy-octadeca-cis-9-trans-11-cis-15-triennoic-acid Shoot
2,3-dicaffeoyl-tartaric-acid Shoot 3,400
2-caffeoyl-3-coumaroyl-tartaric-acid Shoot 120
2-caffeoyl-3-feruloyl-tartaric-acid Shoot 1,600
2-caffeoyl-tartaric-acid Shoot 1,000
2-feruloyl-tartaric-acid Shoot 400
3,4-epoxy-trideca-1,5-diene-7,9,11-triyne Root 800 11,000
Stem
4-o-methyl-glucuronoarabinoxylan Shoot 2,600
Aluminum Root 197 786
Arabinogalactan Shoot
Tissue Culture
Ascorbic-acid Root 212 843
Root
Ash Root 20,080 80,000
Beta-carotene Root 0.6 2.2
Beta-sitosterol Root
Betaine Plant
Root
Borneol Shoot
Bornyl-acetate Shoot
Calcium Root 826 3,290
Caryophyllene Shoot
Caryophyllene-epoxide Shoot
Chichoric-acid Flower
Leaf
Root
Stem
Chichoric-acid-dimethyl-ether Flower
Leaf
Stem
Root
Chichoric-acid-monomethyl-ether Flower
Leaf
Stem
Root
Chromium Root 0.5 1.9
Cichoric-acid Flower 12,000 31,000
Shoot
Root 123 21,000
Cichorienic-acid Root
Cinnamoyl-echinadiol Root 1,000
Cinnamoyl-echinaxanthol Root 1,000
Cobalt Root 4 14.8
Cyanidin-3-o-(6-o-malonyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside) Flower
Cyanin Flower
Dodeca-2,4,8,10-tetraen-1-oic-acid-isobutylamide Root 166.7
Dodeca-2-trans-4-cis-8,10-diynoic-acid-isobutylamide Shoot
Dodeca-2-trans-4-cis-diene-8,10-diynoic-acid-2-methyl-butylamide Root
Dodeca-2-trans-4-cis-diene-8,10-diynoic-acid-isobutylamide Root
Dodeca-2-trans-4-trans-10-trans-trien-8-ynoic-acid-isobutylamide Root
Dodeca-2-trans-4-trans-8-cis-10-cis-tetraenoic-acid-isobutylamide Root
Shoot
Dodeca-2-trans-4-trans-8-cis-trienoic-acid-isobutylamide Root
Shoot
Dodeca-2-trans-4-trans-dienoic-acid-isobutylamide Root
Shoot
Dodeca-2e,4e,8z,10e/z-tetraenoic-acid-isobutylamides Shoot
Dodeca-cis-2-trans-4-diene-8,10-diyn-1-oic-acid-isobutylamide Root 166.7
Dodeca-trans-2-cis-4-diene-8,10-diynoic-acid-2-methyl-butylamide Root 2.8
Dodeca-trans-2-cis-4-diene-8,10-diynoic-acid-isobutylamide Root 4.4
Dodeca-trans-2-trans-4-cis-8-cis-10-tetraenoic-acid-isobutylamide Root 16.7
Dodeca-trans-2-trans-4-cis-8-trans-10-tetraenoic-acid-isobutylamide Root 16.7
Dodeca-trans-2-trans-4-cis-8-trienoic-acid-isobutylamide Root 2.8
Dodeca-trans-2-trans-4-trans-10-trien-8-ynoic-acid-isobutylamide Root 1.1
Echinacea-factor-a Root
Echinacea-factor-b Root
Echinacea-polysaccharide Tissue Culture
Echinacea-polysaccharide-vii-a Root
Echinacea-purpurea-polysaccharide Shoot
Echinacea-purpurea-polysaccharide-i Root
Echinacin-b Root
Echinacoside Root
Eo Flower 1,300 4,800
Shoot 900 3,200
Root 628 2,500
Root 400 2,200
Fat Root 3,263 13,000
Fiber(crude) Root 111,000
Fiber(dietary) Root 512,000
Germacra-4(15)-5-trans-10(14)-trien-1-beta-ol Shoot 42.1
Germacranediol-epoxide-cinnamic-acid-ester Root
Germacrene-alcohol Shoot
Germacrene-d Shoot 120
Glycine Plant
Glycine-betaine Flower 16,450
Leaf 11,200
Root 4,500
Stem 5,650
Gum Root 20,080 80,000
Heteroxylan Shoot
Inulin Root 42,670 170,000
Root
Iron Root 18 70
Isotussilagine Root 15 60
Kaempferol-3-0-rutinoside Leaf
Magnesium Root 467 1,860
Manganese Root 3 10.1
Methyl-p-hydroxycinnamate Shoot
Niacin Root 17 68
P-coumaric-acid Fruit Juice
P-hydroxycinnamic-acid-methyl-ester Plant
Pentadeca-trans-2-cis-9-diene-12,14-diynoic-acid-(2-hydroxy-isobutyl)-amide Shoot 10
Pentadeca-trans-2-cis-9-diene-12,14-diynoic-acid-isobutylamide Shoot 8
Phosphorus Root 198 790
Polysaccharide Plant
Polysaccharide-a Tissue Culture
Polysaccharide-e Tissue Culture
Polysaccharide-f Tissue Culture
Potassium Root 2,031 8,090
Protein Root 23,092 92,000
Quercetin Leaf
Quercetin-7-glucoside Leaf
Resin Root 5,020 20,000
Rhamnoarabinogalactan Root
Shoot
Riboflavin Root 3 12
Rutin Leaf
Rutoside Leaf
Selenium Root 0.5 2.1
Silicon Root 8 30.1
Sodium Root 23 90
Starch Root 30,120 120,000
Sucrose Root 34,000
Thiamine Root 0.7 2.6
Tin Root 4.3 17
Tridec-1-ene-3-5-7-9-11-pentayne Flower 5,000
Stem 100
Root 1.7 12,500
Trideca-1,3-diene-5,7,9,11-tetrayne Root 100
Trideca-1-11-diene-3-5-7-9-tetrayne Flower
Root 100
Trideca-2-trans-7-cis-diene-10,12-diynoic-acid-isobutylamide Root
Trideca-8,10,12-triene-2,4,6-triyne Flower
Root 200 300
Trideca-trans-2-cis-7-diene-10,12-diynoic-acid-(2-methyl-butyl)-amide Shoot 1.2
Trideca-trans-2-cis-7-diene-10,12-diynoic-acid-isobutylamide Root 4.4
Shoot 20
Trideca-trans-2-trans-6-cis-8-triene-10,12-diynoic-acid-isobutylamide Shoot 2 3.2
Tussilagin Plant
Tussilagine Root 15 60
Undeca-2-cis-4-trans-diene-8,10-diynoic-acid-isobutylamide Root
Undeca-2-trans-4-cis-8,10-diynoic-acid-isobutylamide Shoot
Undeca-2-trans-4-cis-diene-8,10-diynoic-acid-2-methyl-butylamide Root
Undeca-2-trans-4-cis-diene-8,10-diynoic-acid-isobutylamide Root
Undeca-cis-2-trans-4-diene-2,4-diyn-1-oic-acid-isobutylamide Root 166.7
Undeca-cis-2-trans-4-diene-8,10-diynoic-acid-isobutylamide Root 12.8
Undeca-trans-2-cis-4-diene-8,10-diynoic-acid-2-methyl-butylamide Root 1.7
Undeca-trans-2-cis-4-diene-8,10-diynoic-acid-isobutylamide Root 5.6
Vanillin Plant
Shoot 2.4
Water Root 749,000
Zinc Root 1.3 5.1
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]