Dillenia indica Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
dillenia elephant-apple

Dillenia indica is a species of Dillenia native to southeastern Asia, from India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka east to southwestern China and Vietnam, and south through Thailand to Malaysia and Indonesia. It is an evergreen large shrub or small to medium-sized tree growing to 15 m tall. The leaves are 15–36 cm long, with a conspicuously corrugated surface with impressed veins. Its branches are used to make good firewood. The flowers are large, 15–20 cm diameter, with five white petals and numerous yellow stamens. Its characteristic round fruits are large, greenish yellow, have many seeds and are edible. The fruit is a 5–12 cm diameter aggregate of 15 carpels, each carpel containing five seeds embedded in an edible but fibrous pulp. The fruit pulp is bitter-sour and used in Indian cuisine in curries, jam, and jellies. It is often mixed with coconut and spices to make chutneys. In India, it is not commercially cultivated, but is found wild in the Terai & Dooars region and Katha Reserve Forest, Burihiding RF, Duarmara RF, Tarani RF, Dumduma RF, Nalni RF, Philobari RF, Takowani RF, Kakojan RF, Digboi RF, Bogapani RF and Upper Dihing RF.

Dillenia indica

Medical use

Economic importance of Dillenia indica

Food additives flavoring
Environmental ornamental
Materials tanin/dyestuf

Gallery

Dillenia indica Dillenia indica Dillenia indica Dillenia indica Dillenia indica Dillenia indica Dillenia indica Dillenia indica Dillenia indica Dillenia indica Dillenia indica Dillenia indica Dillenia indica

Geografical distribution

  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • China: China - Yunnan
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Native
    • Indian Subcontinent: India; Sri Lanka
    • Indo-China: Thailand; Vietnam
    • Malesia: Indonesia; Malaysia

Biological activities

Anthelmintic
Betulinic-acid found in Bark (13000 ppm);found in Fruit ;found in Pericarp (1900 ppm);found in Wood (2500 ppm);found in Stem Bark ;found in Pericarp (19000 ppm);found in Leaf (6000 ppm);found in Heart Wood ;found in Bark (7500 ppm)
AntiHIV
Betulin found in Fruit ;found in Leaf (1050 ppm);found in Stem Bark
Betulinic-acid found in Bark (13000 ppm);found in Fruit ;found in Pericarp (1900 ppm);found in Wood (2500 ppm);found in Stem Bark ;found in Pericarp (19000 ppm);found in Leaf (6000 ppm);found in Heart Wood ;found in Bark (7500 ppm)
Antibacterial
Betulinic-acid found in Bark (13000 ppm);found in Fruit ;found in Pericarp (1900 ppm);found in Wood (2500 ppm);found in Stem Bark ;found in Pericarp (19000 ppm);found in Leaf (6000 ppm);found in Heart Wood ;found in Bark (7500 ppm)
Anticancer
Betulinic-acid found in Bark (13000 ppm);found in Fruit ;found in Pericarp (1900 ppm);found in Wood (2500 ppm);found in Stem Bark ;found in Pericarp (19000 ppm);found in Leaf (6000 ppm);found in Heart Wood ;found in Bark (7500 ppm)
Anticarcinomic
Betulin found in Fruit ;found in Leaf (1050 ppm);found in Stem Bark
Betulinic-acid found in Bark (13000 ppm);found in Fruit ;found in Pericarp (1900 ppm);found in Wood (2500 ppm);found in Stem Bark ;found in Pericarp (19000 ppm);found in Leaf (6000 ppm);found in Heart Wood ;found in Bark (7500 ppm)
Antiedemic
Betulinic-acid found in Bark (13000 ppm);found in Fruit ;found in Pericarp (1900 ppm);found in Wood (2500 ppm);found in Stem Bark ;found in Pericarp (19000 ppm);found in Leaf (6000 ppm);found in Heart Wood ;found in Bark (7500 ppm)
Antifeedant
Betulin found in Fruit ;found in Leaf (1050 ppm);found in Stem Bark
Antiflu
Betulin found in Fruit ;found in Leaf (1050 ppm);found in Stem Bark
Antiinflammatory
Betulin found in Fruit ;found in Leaf (1050 ppm);found in Stem Bark
Betulinic-acid found in Bark (13000 ppm);found in Fruit ;found in Pericarp (1900 ppm);found in Wood (2500 ppm);found in Stem Bark ;found in Pericarp (19000 ppm);found in Leaf (6000 ppm);found in Heart Wood ;found in Bark (7500 ppm)
Antileukemic
Betulinic-acid found in Bark (13000 ppm);found in Fruit ;found in Pericarp (1900 ppm);found in Wood (2500 ppm);found in Stem Bark ;found in Pericarp (19000 ppm);found in Leaf (6000 ppm);found in Heart Wood ;found in Bark (7500 ppm)
Antimalarial
Betulinic-acid found in Bark (13000 ppm);found in Fruit ;found in Pericarp (1900 ppm);found in Wood (2500 ppm);found in Stem Bark ;found in Pericarp (19000 ppm);found in Leaf (6000 ppm);found in Heart Wood ;found in Bark (7500 ppm)
Antimelanomic
Betulinic-acid found in Bark (13000 ppm);found in Fruit ;found in Pericarp (1900 ppm);found in Wood (2500 ppm);found in Stem Bark ;found in Pericarp (19000 ppm);found in Leaf (6000 ppm);found in Heart Wood ;found in Bark (7500 ppm)
Antinociceptive
Betulinic-acid found in Bark (13000 ppm);found in Fruit ;found in Pericarp (1900 ppm);found in Wood (2500 ppm);found in Stem Bark ;found in Pericarp (19000 ppm);found in Leaf (6000 ppm);found in Heart Wood ;found in Bark (7500 ppm)
Antiplasmodial
Betulinic-acid found in Bark (13000 ppm);found in Fruit ;found in Pericarp (1900 ppm);found in Wood (2500 ppm);found in Stem Bark ;found in Pericarp (19000 ppm);found in Leaf (6000 ppm);found in Heart Wood ;found in Bark (7500 ppm)
Antitumor
Betulin found in Fruit ;found in Leaf (1050 ppm);found in Stem Bark
Betulinic-acid found in Bark (13000 ppm);found in Fruit ;found in Pericarp (1900 ppm);found in Wood (2500 ppm);found in Stem Bark ;found in Pericarp (19000 ppm);found in Leaf (6000 ppm);found in Heart Wood ;found in Bark (7500 ppm)
Antiviral
Betulin found in Fruit ;found in Leaf (1050 ppm);found in Stem Bark
Betulinic-acid found in Bark (13000 ppm);found in Fruit ;found in Pericarp (1900 ppm);found in Wood (2500 ppm);found in Stem Bark ;found in Pericarp (19000 ppm);found in Leaf (6000 ppm);found in Heart Wood ;found in Bark (7500 ppm)
Aphidifuge
Betulin found in Fruit ;found in Leaf (1050 ppm);found in Stem Bark
Apoptotic
Betulinic-acid found in Bark (13000 ppm);found in Fruit ;found in Pericarp (1900 ppm);found in Wood (2500 ppm);found in Stem Bark ;found in Pericarp (19000 ppm);found in Leaf (6000 ppm);found in Heart Wood ;found in Bark (7500 ppm)
Cytotoxic
Betulin found in Fruit ;found in Leaf (1050 ppm);found in Stem Bark
Betulinic-acid found in Bark (13000 ppm);found in Fruit ;found in Pericarp (1900 ppm);found in Wood (2500 ppm);found in Stem Bark ;found in Pericarp (19000 ppm);found in Leaf (6000 ppm);found in Heart Wood ;found in Bark (7500 ppm)
Hypolipemic
Betulin found in Fruit ;found in Leaf (1050 ppm);found in Stem Bark
Phospholipase-A2-Inhibitor
Betulinic-acid found in Bark (13000 ppm);found in Fruit ;found in Pericarp (1900 ppm);found in Wood (2500 ppm);found in Stem Bark ;found in Pericarp (19000 ppm);found in Leaf (6000 ppm);found in Heart Wood ;found in Bark (7500 ppm)
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Betulin found in Fruit ;found in Leaf (1050 ppm);found in Stem Bark
Betulinic-acid found in Bark (13000 ppm);found in Fruit ;found in Pericarp (1900 ppm);found in Wood (2500 ppm);found in Stem Bark ;found in Pericarp (19000 ppm);found in Leaf (6000 ppm);found in Heart Wood ;found in Bark (7500 ppm)
Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor
Betulin found in Fruit ;found in Leaf (1050 ppm);found in Stem Bark

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
Betulin Fruit
Leaf 1,050
Stem Bark
Betulinic-acid Bark 13,000
Fruit
Pericarp 1,900
Wood 2,500
Stem Bark
Pericarp 19,000
Leaf 6,000
Heart Wood
Bark 7,500
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]