Cynara cardunculus subsp. cardunculus Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
artichoke artichoke thistle cardoon globe artichoke Scotch thistle Scottish thistle Spanish artichoke
Cynara cardunculus subsp. cardunculus

Economic importance of Cynara cardunculus subsp. cardunculus

Environmental ornamental
Human food beverage base vegetable
Materials potential as fiber
Medicines source of cynarin
Weed potential sed contaminant

Gallery

Cynara cardunculus subsp. cardunculus Cynara cardunculus subsp. cardunculus Cynara cardunculus subsp. cardunculus Cynara cardunculus subsp. cardunculus Cynara cardunculus subsp. cardunculus Cynara cardunculus subsp. cardunculus Cynara cardunculus subsp. cardunculus Cynara cardunculus subsp. cardunculus Cynara cardunculus subsp. cardunculus Cynara cardunculus subsp. cardunculus Cynara cardunculus subsp. cardunculus Cynara cardunculus subsp. cardunculus Cynara cardunculus subsp. cardunculus Cynara cardunculus subsp. cardunculus

Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Native
    • Macaronesia: Spain - Canary Islands
    • Northern Africa: Algeria ; Libya ; Morocco ; Tunisia
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Naturalized
    • Western Asia: Cyprus; Turkey
  • AUSTRALASIA
    Naturalized
    • Australia: Australia
    • New Zealand: New Zealand
  • EUROPE
    Native
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Croatia; Greece; Italy
    • Southwestern Europe: France ; Portugal; Spain
    Naturalized
    • Europe
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Naturalized
    • Southwestern U.S.A.: United States - California
    • Southern Mexico: Mexico - Guanajuato, Michoacan, Queretaro
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Naturalized
    • Western South America: Ecuador
    • Southern South America: Argentina; Chile
    Cultivated
    • Western South America: Peru

Biological activities

11B-HSD-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf
Naringenin found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Linoleic-acid found in Flower (3055 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Flower (330 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Flower (1925 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Flower (200 ppm)
5-HT-Inhibitor
Rutin found in Leaf
5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
ACE-Inhibitor
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
ATPase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Acaricide
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Alcohol-Dehydrogenase-Inhibitor
Inulin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Essential Oil
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Cosmosiin found in Flower ;found in Stem ;found in Leaf
Cynaroside found in Flower ;found in Stem ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Isochlorogenic-acid-b found in Leaf
Luteolin found in Leaf
Naringenin found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Allelochemic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Allelopathic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Allergenic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Essential Oil
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Cynaropicrin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Mufa found in Flower (330 ppm)
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Flower (330 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Oleic-acid found in Flower (330 ppm)
Analgesic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Essential Oil
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Hesperidin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Flower (6 ppm)
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Androgenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Boron found in Flower (5 ppm)
Anemiagenic
Mufa found in Flower (330 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Flower (330 ppm)
Anesthetic
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Angiogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Fiber found in Flower (224000 ppm)
Potassium found in Flower (29780 ppm)
Anorexic
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Anthelmintic
Tannin found in Plant
Anti-LDL
Hesperidin found in Leaf
AntiADD
Apigenin found in Leaf
AntiAGE
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
AntiBPH
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
AntiCFS
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
AntiCTS
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
AntiCVI
Rutin found in Leaf
AntiDNA
Hesperidin found in Leaf
AntiEBV
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
AntiGTF
Quercetin found in Leaf
AntiHIV-Integrase
Dicaffeoylquinic-acid found in Leaf ;found in Root
AntiHIV
Apigenin found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Dicaffeoylquinic-acid found in Leaf ;found in Root
Luteolin found in Leaf
Naringenin found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
AntiLegionella
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
AntiLyme
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Flower (7 ppm)
Thiamin found in Flower (6 ppm)
AntiMS
Linoleic-acid found in Flower (3055 ppm)
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Pufa found in Flower (4185 ppm)
AntiPMS
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Calcium found in Flower (5286 ppm)
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Manganese found in Flower (17 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
AntiRNA
Hesperidin found in Leaf
AntiSpina-Bifida
Folacin found in Flower (4.7 ppm)
AntiTNF
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Antiacetylcholinesterase
Naringenin found in Flower
Antiacne
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Essential Oil
Linoleic-acid found in Flower (3055 ppm)
Pufa found in Flower (4185 ppm)
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antiacrodermatitic
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antiacrodynic
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Antiadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Antiadenoviral
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antiadrenergic
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Antiaflatoxin
Apigenin found in Leaf
Naringenin found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Antiaggregant
Apigenin found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Naringenin found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antiaging
Apigenin found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiakathisic
Iron found in Flower (101 ppm)
Antialcoholic
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Manganese found in Flower (17 ppm)
Thiamin found in Flower (6 ppm)
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antiallergenic
Hesperidin found in Leaf
Antiallergic
Apigenin found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Calcium found in Flower (5286 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Pantothenic-acid found in Flower (23 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antialopecic
Linoleic-acid found in Flower (3055 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Flower (330 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Flower (1925 ppm)
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antialzheimeran
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Naringenin found in Flower
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Flower (6 ppm)
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antiamblyopic
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Antiamnesic
Naringenin found in Flower
Antiamyloid-Beta
Naringenin found in Flower
Antianaphylactic
Linoleic-acid found in Flower (3055 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiandrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Linoleic-acid found in Flower (3055 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Flower (330 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Flower (1925 ppm)
Antianemic
Copper found in Flower (24 ppm)
Folacin found in Flower (4.7 ppm)
Iron found in Flower (101 ppm)
Manganese found in Flower (17 ppm)
Antianginal
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Antiangiogenic
Apigenin found in Leaf
Luteolin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antianorectic
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Thiamin found in Flower (6 ppm)
Antianorexic
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antianxiety
Calcium found in Flower (5286 ppm)
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Antiapoplectic
Rutin found in Leaf
Antiarabiflavinotic
Riboflavin found in Flower (7 ppm)
Antiarachidonate
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Antiarrhythmic
Apigenin found in Leaf
Calcium found in Flower (5286 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Potassium found in Flower (29780 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Antiarteriosclerotic
Linoleic-acid found in Flower (3055 ppm)
Antiarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Calcium found in Flower (5286 ppm)
Copper found in Flower (24 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Flower (3055 ppm)
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Manganese found in Flower (17 ppm)
Pantothenic-acid found in Flower (23 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Essential Oil
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Antiatherogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Luteolin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antiatherosclerotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Calcium found in Flower (5286 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antibackache
Thiamin found in Flower (6 ppm)
Antibacterial
Apigenin found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Essential Oil
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Cosmosiin found in Flower ;found in Stem ;found in Leaf
Cynarin found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Shoot
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Hesperetin found in Leaf
Lauric-acid found in Flower (135 ppm)
Luteolin found in Leaf
Naringenin found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Antiberiberi
Thiamin found in Flower (6 ppm)
Antibradykinic
Hesperidin found in Leaf
Antibronchoconstrictor
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Anticancer
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Naringenin found in Flower
Rutin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Anticanker
Iron found in Flower (101 ppm)
Thiamin found in Flower (6 ppm)
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Anticapillary-Fragility
Hesperidin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Anticarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf
Anticarcinomic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Luteolin found in Leaf
Anticardiospasmic
Thiamin found in Flower (6 ppm)
Anticariogenic
Caryophyllene found in Essential Oil
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Anticarpal-Tunnel
Riboflavin found in Flower (7 ppm)
Anticataract
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Luteolin found in Leaf
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Riboflavin found in Flower (7 ppm)
Rutin found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Flower (6 ppm)
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Anticephalagic
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Pantothenic-acid found in Flower (23 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Flower (7 ppm)
Anticervicaldysplasic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Folacin found in Flower (4.7 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Flower (7 ppm)
Anticheilitic
Folacin found in Flower (4.7 ppm)
Iron found in Flower (101 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Flower (7 ppm)
Antichilblain
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Anticholinergic
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Anticlastogen
Rutin found in Leaf
Anticlimacteric
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Calcium found in Flower (5286 ppm)
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Anticoeliac
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Anticold
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Anticolitic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Flower (6 ppm)
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Anticonvulsant
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Rutin found in Leaf
Anticoronary
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Flower (3055 ppm)
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Anticystitic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antidandruff
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antidecubitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Flower (7 ppm)
Thiamin found in Flower (6 ppm)
Antideliriant
Thiamin found in Flower (6 ppm)
Antidementia
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Rutin found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Flower (6 ppm)
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antidepressant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Calcium found in Flower (5286 ppm)
Folacin found in Flower (4.7 ppm)
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Potassium found in Flower (29780 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antidermatic
Luteolin found in Leaf
Antidermatitic
Apigenin found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Essential Oil
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Pantothenic-acid found in Flower (23 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antidiabetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Copper found in Flower (24 ppm)
Fiber found in Flower (224000 ppm)
Inulin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Manganese found in Flower (17 ppm)
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antidiarrheic
Inulin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Antidiscotic
Manganese found in Flower (17 ppm)
Antidysenteric
Tannin found in Plant
Antidysgeuzic
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antidyskinetic
Manganese found in Flower (17 ppm)
Antidysmenorrheic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Antidyspeptic
Cynarin found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Shoot
Thiamin found in Flower (6 ppm)
Antidysphagic
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Antieczemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Flower (3055 ppm)
Pufa found in Flower (4185 ppm)
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antiedemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Essential Oil
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Taraxasterol found in Leaf
Antielastase
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiencephalitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiencephalopathic
Thiamin found in Flower (6 ppm)
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antiendometriotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Antienterotic
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Antiepileptic
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Manganese found in Flower (17 ppm)
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antierythemic
Rutin found in Leaf
Antiescherichic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Naringenin found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiestrogenic
Apigenin found in Leaf
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf
Naringenin found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antifatigue
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Copper found in Flower (24 ppm)
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Pantothenic-acid found in Flower (23 ppm)
Potassium found in Flower (29780 ppm)
Thiamin found in Flower (6 ppm)
Antifeedant
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Essential Oil
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Grosshemin found in Plant
Hesperetin found in Leaf
Luteolin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Antifertility
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Antifibrinolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Flower (3055 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Flower (1925 ppm)
Antifibromyalgic
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Antifibrosarcomic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antifibrotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Naringenin found in Flower
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antiflu
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Hesperidin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antifuruncular
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antigallstone
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Antigastric
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antigastritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Thiamin found in Flower (6 ppm)
Antigastrotic
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Antigenotoxic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Antigingivitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Folacin found in Flower (4.7 ppm)
Antiglaucomic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Rutin found in Leaf
Antiglossitic
Folacin found in Flower (4.7 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Flower (7 ppm)
Antigonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Antigonadotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antigranular
Linoleic-acid found in Flower (3055 ppm)
Antihangover
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Thiamin found in Flower (6 ppm)
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antiheartburn
Thiamin found in Flower (6 ppm)
Antihematuric
Rutin found in Leaf
Antihemolytic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Antihemorrhagic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Antihemorrhoidal
Rutin found in Leaf
Antihepatitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Antihepatoadenomic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antihepatotoxic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Dicaffeoylquinic-acid found in Leaf ;found in Root
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Naringenin found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Stigmasterol found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Antiherpetic
Apigenin found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf
Naringenin found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Flower (6 ppm)
Antihistaminic
Apigenin found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Hesperidin found in Leaf
Linoleic-acid found in Flower (3055 ppm)
Luteolin found in Leaf
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antihydrophobic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antihyperactivity
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Antihypercholesterolemic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Pantothenic-acid found in Flower (23 ppm)
Antihyperkeratotic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Antihyperkinetic
Calcium found in Flower (5286 ppm)
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Antihyperlipidemic
Dicaffeoylquinic-acid found in Leaf ;found in Root
Antihyperlipoproteinaemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Antihypertensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Calcium found in Flower (5286 ppm)
Fiber found in Flower (224000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Potassium found in Flower (29780 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Antihyperthyroid
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Luteolin-7-o-glucoside found in Leaf
Antihypoglycemic
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Antiichythyotic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Antiimpotence
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antiinfective
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antiinfertility
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antiinflammatory
Apigenin found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Essential Oil
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Copper found in Flower (24 ppm)
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Hesperidin found in Leaf
Linoleic-acid found in Flower (3055 ppm)
Luteolin found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Mufa found in Flower (330 ppm)
Naringenin found in Flower
Neo-chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Oleic-acid found in Flower (330 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Stigmasterol found in Leaf
Taraxasterol found in Leaf
Antiinsomniac
Calcium found in Flower (5286 ppm)
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antiinsomnic
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Antikeratitic
Riboflavin found in Flower (7 ppm)
Antikeratotic
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Antileishmanic
Caryophyllene found in Essential Oil
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antilepric
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antileukemic
Apigenin found in Leaf
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf
Naringenin found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antileukonychic
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antileukoplakic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Antileukotriene-D4
Linoleic-acid found in Flower (3055 ppm)
Mufa found in Flower (330 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Flower (330 ppm)
Antileukotriene
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Hesperidin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antileukotrienogenic
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Antilipolytic
Cynarin found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Shoot
Hesperetin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Antilipoperoxidant
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antilithic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Antilupus
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Antilymphomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Luteolin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antimaculitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antimalarial
Beta-selinene found in Essential Oil
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antimastalgic
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Antimastitic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Antimeasles
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Antimelanogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Antimelanomic
Apigenin found in Leaf
Luteolin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antimenopausal
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Calcium found in Flower (5286 ppm)
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Antimenorrhagic
Iron found in Flower (101 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Flower (3055 ppm)
Antimetastatic
Apigenin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antimigraine
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Flower (7 ppm)
Thiamin found in Flower (6 ppm)
Antimitotic
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Antimitral-valve-prolapse
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Antimutagenic
Apigenin found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf
Naringenin found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Antimyelotoxic
Folacin found in Flower (4.7 ppm)
Antimyocarditic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Flower (6 ppm)
Antineoplastic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Antinephritic
Rutin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Antinephrolytic
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Antineuralgic
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Thiamin found in Flower (6 ppm)
Antineuramidase
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Antineurasthenic
Thiamin found in Flower (6 ppm)
Antineuritic
Thiamin found in Flower (6 ppm)
Antineuropathic
Folacin found in Flower (4.7 ppm)
Thiamin found in Flower (6 ppm)
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antineurotic
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Antinitrosaminic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antinitrosating
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Antinitrosic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Antinociceptive
Copper found in Flower (24 ppm)
Luteolin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Stigmasterol found in Leaf
Antinyctalopic
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antiobesity
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Calcium found in Flower (5286 ppm)
Fiber found in Flower (224000 ppm)
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antionychyotic
Caryophyllene found in Essential Oil
Antiophidic
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Stigmasterol found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Antiorchitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Antiosteoarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Boron found in Flower (5 ppm)
Antiosteoporotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Boron found in Flower (5 ppm)
Calcium found in Flower (5286 ppm)
Copper found in Flower (24 ppm)
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Manganese found in Flower (17 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Flower (6240 ppm)
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antiototic
Manganese found in Flower (17 ppm)
Antiozenic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Antipancreatitic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antipapillomic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Antiparkinsonian
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Antiparotitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Antipellagric
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Flower (7 ppm)
Antiperiodontal
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiperiodontitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Calcium found in Flower (5286 ppm)
Folacin found in Flower (4.7 ppm)
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antiperistaltic
Apigenin found in Leaf
Naringenin found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antipermeability
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiperoxidant
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Dicaffeoylquinic-acid found in Leaf ;found in Root
Isochlorogenic-acid-b found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antiperoxidative
Naringenin found in Flower
Antipharyngitic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiphotophobic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Flower (7 ppm)
Antipityriasic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Antiplaque
Folacin found in Flower (4.7 ppm)
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antiplasmodial
Beta-selinene found in Essential Oil
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiplatelet
Rutin found in Leaf
Antipneumonic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Antipodriac
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antipolio
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Luteolin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antipoliomyelitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Thiamin found in Flower (6 ppm)
Antipolyneuritic
Pufa found in Flower (4185 ppm)
Antiporphyric
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Antiprogestational
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Antiprolactin
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antiproliferant
Apigenin found in Leaf
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Essential Oil
Luteolin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Antiprostaglandin
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Hesperidin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Antiprostanoid
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antiprostatadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Antiprostatitic
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Linoleic-acid found in Flower (3055 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antiprotozoal
Rutin found in Leaf
Antipsoriac
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antipsychotic
Folacin found in Flower (4.7 ppm)
Antipurpuric
Rutin found in Leaf
Antipyretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Antiradicular
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Naringenin found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Antirenitic
Tannin found in Plant
Antiretinopathic
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Antiretinotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Antirheumatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Calcium found in Flower (5286 ppm)
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antirhinitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Antisalmonella
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Antiscorbutic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Antiscotomic
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Antiseptic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Isochlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antiserotonin
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Antishingles
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Antisindhis
Naringenin found in Flower
Antispare-Tire
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antispasmodic
Apigenin found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Essential Oil
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Naringenin found in Flower
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Potassium found in Flower (29780 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Antispasmophilic
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Antistaphylococcic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Essential Oil
Cynarin found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Shoot
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Naringenin found in Flower
Antistomatitic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Hesperidin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antistreptococcic
Caryophyllene found in Essential Oil
Cynarin found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antistress
Apigenin found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Calcium found in Flower (5286 ppm)
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Antistroke
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Potassium found in Flower (29780 ppm)
Antisunburn
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Cynarin found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Shoot
Rutin found in Leaf
Antisyndrome-X
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Manganese found in Flower (17 ppm)
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antithiamin
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antithrombic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Leaf
Antithrombogenic
Rutin found in Leaf
Antithromboxane
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Antithyroid
Apigenin found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antitic
Calcium found in Flower (5286 ppm)
Antitinnitic
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antitriglyceride
Hesperidin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antitrypanosomic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Antitumor-Promoter
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Naringenin found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Antitumor
Apigenin found in Leaf
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Essential Oil
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Cynaropicrin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Fiber found in Flower (224000 ppm)
Grosheimin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot
Grosshemin found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf
Naringenin found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Antitussive
Luteolin found in Leaf
Antiulcer
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Essential Oil
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Fiber found in Flower (224000 ppm)
Hesperidin found in Leaf
Naringenin found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Antiulcerogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antivaccinia
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Hesperidin found in Leaf
Antivaricose
Rutin found in Leaf
Antivertigo
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Antiviral
Apigenin found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Hesperetin found in Leaf
Hesperidin found in Leaf
Lauric-acid found in Flower (135 ppm)
Luteolin found in Leaf
Naringenin found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Stigmasterol found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Antixerophthalmic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Anxiolytic
Apigenin found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Calcium found in Flower (5286 ppm)
Hesperidin found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Flower (6240 ppm)
Potassium found in Flower (29780 ppm)
Aphidifuge
Luteolin found in Leaf
Naringenin found in Flower
Apifuge
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Apoptotic
Apigenin found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Luteolin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Aromatase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf
Luteolin found in Leaf
Naringenin found in Flower
Artemicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Stigmasterol found in Leaf
Arteriodilator
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Asthma-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Astringent
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Autotoxic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Bacteristat
Quercetin found in Leaf
Beta-Blocker
Fiber found in Flower (224000 ppm)
Potassium found in Flower (29780 ppm)
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Luteolin found in Leaf
Bifidogenic
Inulin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Bradycardiac
Quercetin found in Leaf
Bronchorelaxant
Scopoletin found in Leaf
CNS-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Cynarin found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Shoot
CNS-Depressant
Apigenin found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Hesperidin found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Leaf
CNS-Stimulant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Leaf
COMT-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
COX-1-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Lauric-acid found in Flower (135 ppm)
COX-2-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Lauric-acid found in Flower (135 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Calcium-Antagonist
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Cynaroside found in Flower ;found in Stem ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Hesperidin found in Leaf
Luteolin found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Calcium-Channel-Blocker
Calcium found in Flower (5286 ppm)
Calmodulin-Antagonist
Quercetin found in Leaf
Cancer-Preventive
Apigenin found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Fiber found in Flower (224000 ppm)
Hesperetin found in Leaf
Isochlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Linoleic-acid found in Flower (3055 ppm)
Luteolin found in Leaf
Mucilage found in Plant
Mufa found in Flower (330 ppm)
Myristic-acid found in Flower (135 ppm)
Naringenin found in Flower
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Flower (330 ppm)
Pantothenic-acid found in Flower (23 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Riboflavin found in Flower (7 ppm)
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Stigmasterol found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Candidicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Essential Oil
Cosmosiin found in Flower ;found in Stem ;found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Lauric-acid found in Flower (135 ppm)
Naringenin found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Capillariprotective
Hesperidin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Linoleic-acid found in Flower (3055 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Cardiac
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Cardioprotective
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Copper found in Flower (24 ppm)
Fiber found in Flower (224000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Potassium found in Flower (29780 ppm)
Cardiotoxic
Potassium found in Flower (29780 ppm)
Carminative
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Caspase-8-Inducer
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Catabolic
Hesperidin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Chelator
Tannin found in Plant
Chemopreventive
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Luteolin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Cholagogue
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Cynarin found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Choleretic
1,4-dicaffeoylquinic-acid found in Flower
Apigenin found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Cynarin found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Shoot
Dicaffeoylquinic-acid found in Leaf ;found in Root
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Hesperidin found in Leaf
Heteroside-b found in Flower
Luteolin found in Leaf
Mufa found in Flower (330 ppm)
Naringenin found in Flower
Oleic-acid found in Flower (330 ppm)
Scolymoside found in Flower ;found in Leaf ;found in Shoot
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Cholesterolytic
Cynarin found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Shoot
Glyceric-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Glycolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Circulotonic
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Clastogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Co-carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Cold-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Collagen-Sparing
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Cynarin found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Shoot
Collagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Colorant
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Comedolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Flower (3055 ppm)
Contraceptive
Copper found in Flower (24 ppm)
Copper-Antagonist
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Copper-Chelator
Quercetin found in Leaf
Cosmetic
Myristic-acid found in Flower (135 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Flower (200 ppm)
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf
Hesperidin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Cytochrome-P450-1A1-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf
Cytochrome-P450-1A2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Cytochrome-P450-Inhibitor
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Naringenin found in Flower
Cytoprotective
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Cynarin found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Shoot
Rutin found in Leaf
Cytotoxic
Apigenin found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Cynaropicrin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Grosshemin found in Plant
Luteolin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Leaf
DNA-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
DNA-Protective
Apigenin found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Naringenin found in Flower
Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf
Luteolin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Demulcent
Mucilage found in Plant
Deodorant
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Dermatitigenic
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Mufa found in Flower (330 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Flower (330 ppm)
Detoxicant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Differentiator
Apigenin found in Leaf
Luteolin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Diuretic
Apigenin found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Calcium found in Flower (5286 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Cynarin found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Shoot
Fiber found in Flower (224000 ppm)
Glyceric-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Glycolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Luteolin found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Potassium found in Flower (29780 ppm)
Embryotoxic
Naringenin found in Flower
Enterorelaxant
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Ergogenic
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Estrogenic
Apigenin found in Leaf
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Boron found in Flower (5 ppm)
Luteolin found in Leaf
Naringenin found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Stigmasterol found in Leaf
Expectorant
Inulin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
FLavor
Caryophyllene found in Essential Oil
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Mufa found in Flower (330 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Flower (330 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Flower (1925 ppm)
Phenyl-acetaldehyde found in Flower
Stearic-acid found in Flower (200 ppm)
Febrifuge
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Fibrinolytic
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Fistula-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Fungicide
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Essential Oil
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Cynaropicrin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Naringenin found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Fungistat
Hesperetin found in Leaf
Naringenin found in Flower
Gastroprotective
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Essential Oil
Gastrostimulant
Inulin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Gonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
HIF-1alpha-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf
HIV-RT-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Hematopoietic
Folacin found in Flower (4.7 ppm)
Hemolytic
Palmitic-acid found in Flower (1925 ppm)
Hemostat
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Hepatocarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Hepatomagenic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Hepatoprotective
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Cynarin found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Shoot
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Hesperetin found in Leaf
Linoleic-acid found in Flower (3055 ppm)
Luteolin found in Leaf
Naringenin found in Flower
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Hepatoregenerative
Cynarin found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Shoot
Hepatotonic
Cynarin found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Shoot
Glyceric-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Glycolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Heteroside-b found in Flower
Hepatotoxic
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Hepatotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Herbicide
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Histamine-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Hyaluronidase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf
Luteolin found in Leaf
Hydrocholerectic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Hypercholesterolemic
Lauric-acid found in Flower (135 ppm)
Myristic-acid found in Flower (135 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Flower (1925 ppm)
Hyperemic
Cynarin found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Shoot
Hypertensive
Sodium found in Flower (6840 ppm)
Hypocholesterolemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Calcium found in Flower (5286 ppm)
Copper found in Flower (24 ppm)
Cynarin found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Shoot
Cynaroside found in Flower ;found in Stem ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Dicaffeoylquinic-acid found in Leaf ;found in Root
Fiber found in Flower (224000 ppm)
Inulin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Linoleic-acid found in Flower (3055 ppm)
Luteolin found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Mucilage found in Plant
Mufa found in Flower (330 ppm)
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Flower (330 ppm)
Rutin found in Leaf
Stearic-acid found in Flower (200 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Leaf
Hypoglycemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Inulin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Manganese found in Flower (17 ppm)
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Hypolipidemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Cynarin found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Hesperidin found in Leaf
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Hypotensive
Apigenin found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Calcium found in Flower (5286 ppm)
Fiber found in Flower (224000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Potassium found in Flower (29780 ppm)
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Hypotriglyceridemic
Cynarin found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Shoot
Hypouricemic
Fiber found in Flower (224000 ppm)
ICAM-1-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf
Luteolin found in Leaf
IKK-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf
Luteolin found in Leaf
Immunomodulator
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Copper found in Flower (24 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Flower (3055 ppm)
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Rutin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Immunostimulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Inulin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Phosphorus found in Flower (6240 ppm)
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Immunosuppressant
Tannin found in Plant
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Inotropic
Apigenin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Insecticide
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Rutin found in Leaf
Insectifuge
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Essential Oil
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Flower (3055 ppm)
Mufa found in Flower (330 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Flower (330 ppm)
Thiamin found in Flower (6 ppm)
Insectiphile
Rutin found in Leaf
Insulinogenic
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Interferon-Synergist
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Interferonogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Interleukin-6-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf
Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Luteolin found in Leaf
Irritant
Caryophyllene found in Essential Oil
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Glycolic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Mufa found in Flower (330 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Flower (330 ppm)
Juvabional
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Larvicide
Caryophyllene found in Essential Oil
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Larvistat
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Laxative
Calcium found in Flower (5286 ppm)
Fiber found in Flower (224000 ppm)
Inulin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Leptingenic
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Leukotriene-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Lipolytic
Cynarin found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Shoot
Inulin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Hesperidin found in Leaf
Luteolin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Lithogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Litholytic
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Lubricant
Myristic-acid found in Flower (135 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Flower (1925 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Flower (200 ppm)
Lyase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
MAO-A-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
MAO-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
MAPK-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf
Luteolin found in Leaf
MMP-9-Inhibitor
Luteolin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Mast-Cell-Stabilizer
Quercetin found in Leaf
Metal-Chelator
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor
Luteolin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Metastatic
Linoleic-acid found in Flower (3055 ppm)
Mosquitocide
Caryophyllene found in Essential Oil
Motor-Depressant
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Mucogenic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Mucolytic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Musculotropic
Apigenin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Mutagenic
Apigenin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Myoprotective
Rutin found in Leaf
Myorelaxant
Apigenin found in Leaf
Luteolin found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Leaf
NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
NEP-Inhibitor
Luteolin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf
Luteolin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
NO-Genic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
NO-Inhibitor
Luteolin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
NO-Synthase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Nematicide
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Linoleic-acid found in Flower (3055 ppm)
Myristic-acid found in Flower (135 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Flower (1925 ppm)
Neuroprotective
Naringenin found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Flower (6 ppm)
Neurotoxic
Cynaropicrin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Neurotransmitter
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Nodulation-Signal
Apigenin found in Leaf
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Osteogenic
Phosphorus found in Flower (6240 ppm)
Oviposition-Stimulant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Ovulant
Stigmasterol found in Leaf
P21-Inducer
Apigenin found in Leaf
P450-Inducer
Quercetin found in Leaf
P450-Inhibitor
Naringenin found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
PAF-Inhibitor
Rutin found in Leaf
PGE2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
PKC-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf
PTK-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf
Luteolin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Percutaneostimulant
Mufa found in Flower (330 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Flower (330 ppm)
Perfumery
Beta-selinene found in Essential Oil
Caryophyllene found in Essential Oil
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Mufa found in Flower (330 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Flower (330 ppm)
Phenyl-acetaldehyde found in Flower
Stearic-acid found in Flower (200 ppm)
Pesticide
Apigenin found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Essential Oil
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Cynarin found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Shoot
Cynaropicrin found in Leaf ;found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Grosshemin found in Plant
Hesperetin found in Leaf
Hesperidin found in Leaf
Isochlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Luteolin found in Leaf
Naringenin found in Flower
Palmitic-acid found in Flower (1925 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Thiamin found in Flower (6 ppm)
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Phagocytotic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Phospholipase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Phytoalexin
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Phytohormonal
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Plasmodicide
Quercetin found in Leaf
Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf
Prebiotic
Inulin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Preservative
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
ProHLDL
Hesperidin found in Leaf
Probiotic
Inulin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Probiotigenic
Inulin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Progestational
Apigenin found in Leaf
Proliferant
Luteolin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Prooxidant
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Iron found in Flower (101 ppm)
Propecic
Linoleic-acid found in Flower (3055 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Flower (330 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Flower (1925 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Flower (200 ppm)
Prostaglandigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Leaf
Prostaglandin-Synthetase-Inhibitor
Luteolin found in Leaf
Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf
Luteolin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Protisticide
Rutin found in Leaf
Psychotropic
Tannin found in Plant
Quinone-Reductase-Inducer
Apigenin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Radioprotective
Apigenin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Schizophrenigenic
Copper found in Flower (24 ppm)
Sedative
Apigenin found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Caryophyllene found in Essential Oil
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Leaf
Serotonin-Inhibitor
Naringenin found in Flower
Serotoninergic
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Soap
Palmitic-acid found in Flower (1925 ppm)
Spermicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Spermigenic
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Succinoxidase-Inhibitor
Luteolin found in Leaf
Sunscreen
Apigenin found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Rutin found in Leaf
Suppository
Stearic-acid found in Flower (200 ppm)
Sweetener
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Cynarin found in Leaf (1000 ppm);found in Shoot
TNF-alpha-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf
Luteolin found in Leaf
Naringenin found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Teratogenic
Naringenin found in Flower
Teratologic
Quercetin found in Leaf
Termiticide
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Termitifuge
Caryophyllene found in Essential Oil
Testosteronigenic
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Thymoprotective
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf
Luteolin found in Leaf
Naringenin found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Tranquilizer
Calcium found in Flower (5286 ppm)
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Trichomonicide
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Trichomonistat
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Trypsin-Enhancer
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Tumorigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Leaf
Ubiquiot
Beta-carotene found in Flower (20 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Ulcerogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Leaf
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Uricosuric
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Folacin found in Flower (4.7 ppm)
Urinary-Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Uterorelaxant
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Uterosedative
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Leaf
Uterotrophic
Apigenin found in Leaf
Naringenin found in Flower
VEGF-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf
Luteolin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Varroacide
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Vasodilator
Apigenin found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Calcium found in Flower (5286 ppm)
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Fiber found in Flower (224000 ppm)
Luteolin found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Flower (4275 ppm)
Niacin found in Flower (82 ppm)
Potassium found in Flower (29780 ppm)
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Vasopressor
Hesperidin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
Vermifuge
Eugenol found in Essential Oil
Vulnerary
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (828 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot ;found in Leaf
Neo-chlorogenic-acid found in Leaf
Zinc found in Flower (36 ppm)
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Folacin found in Flower (4.7 ppm)
Luteolin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor
Naringenin found in Flower
Quercetin found in Leaf
Rutin found in Leaf
iNOS-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Leaf
Luteolin found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Leaf

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
1,3-di-o-caffeoylquinic-acid Flower
1,4-dicaffeoylquinic-acid Flower
1,5-di-o-caffeoylquinic-acid Flower
1-caffeoylquinic-acid Flower
11,13-dihydroxy-8-deoxygrosheimin Leaf
13-chloro-11-hydroxy-8-deoxygrosheimin Leaf
3,5-di-o-caffeoylquinic-acid Leaf
3-caffeoylquinic-acid Flower
4,5-dicaffeoyl-quinic-acid Leaf
4-caffeoylquinic-acid Flower
5-caffeoylquinic-acid Flower
8-epigrosheimin Leaf
Aesculetin-6-o-beta-d-glucoside Leaf
Alpha-cadrene Flower
Apigenin Leaf
Apigenin-4',7-diglucoside Flower
Apigenin-7-o-rutinoside Leaf
Stem
Apigenin-7-rutinoside Flower
Leaf
Stem
Ascorbic-acid Flower 0 828
Ash Flower 10,600 106,000
Beta-carotene Flower 1 20
Beta-selinene Essential Oil
Beta-sitosterol Leaf
Beta-taraxasterol Plant
Boron Flower 2 5
Caffeic-acid Flower
Leaf
Caffeoyl-4-quinic-acid Flower
Calcium Flower 120 5,286
Carbohydrates Flower 105,000 755,000
Caryophyllene Essential Oil
Chlorogenic-acid Flower
Shoot
Leaf
Copper Flower 2 24
Cosmoside Leaf
Cosmosiin Flower
Stem
Leaf
Cryptochlorogenic-acid Leaf
Cyanidol-3,5-diglucoside Flower
Cyanidol-3-caffeylglucoside Plant
Cyanidol-3-caffeylsophoroside Plant
Cyanidol-5-glucoside-3-caffeoylsophoroside Flower
Cyanidol-5-glucoside-3-caffeylsophoroside Plant
Cyanidol-dicaffeylsophoroside Plant
Cyanidol-glucoside Plant
Cyanidol-sophoroside Plant
Cyanopicrine Leaf
Cynara-scolymus-guaianolide-i Leaf
Cynara-scolymus-guaianolide-ii Leaf
Cynaragenin Leaf
Cynarapicrin Leaf
Cynaratriol Flower
Leaf
Cynarin Leaf 200 1,000
Shoot
Cynarogenin Leaf
Cynarolide Leaf 330
Plant
Cynaropicrin Leaf
Plant
Shoot
Cynaroside Flower
Stem
Shoot
Leaf
Cynarotrioside Leaf 12
Decanal Essential Oil
Dehydrocynaropicrin Leaf
Dicaffeoylquinic-acid Leaf
Root
Eugenol Essential Oil
Fat Flower 1,000 20,000
Ferulic-acid Plant
Fiber Flower 11,400 224,000
Flavonoids Flower 1,000 10,000
Folacin Flower 0.7 4.7
Glyceric-acid Flower
Leaf
Glycolic-acid Flower
Leaf
Grosheimin Leaf
Shoot
Grosshemin Plant
Grosulfeimin Leaf
Guaianolides Flower
Hesperetin Leaf
Hesperidin Leaf
Heteroside-b Flower
Hex-1-en-3-one Flower
Inulin Flower
Leaf
Iron Flower 11 101
Isoamberboin Leaf
Isoamerboin Plant
Isochlorogenic-acid Leaf
Isochlorogenic-acid-b Leaf
Kilocalories Flower 470 3,120
Lauric-acid Flower 20 135
Linoleic-acid Flower 460 3,055
Linolenic-acid Flower 170 1,130
Luteolin Leaf
Luteolin-3'-o-beta-d-glucoside Flower
Luteolin-4',7-diglucoside Flower
Luteolin-4'-o-beta-d-glucoside Flower
Leaf
Luteolin-4'-o-glucoside Leaf
Luteolin-4-beta-d-glucoside Flower
Luteolin-7-beta-d-glucoside Flower
Luteolin-7-beta-rutinoside Flower
Luteolin-7-gentiobioside Leaf
Luteolin-7-o-alpha-l-rhamnosyl-glucoside Leaf
Luteolin-7-o-glucoside Leaf
Luteolin-7-o-rhamnoglucoside Leaf
Luteolin-7-o-rutinoside Flower
Leaf
Stem
Luteolin-7-rutinoside Flower
Leaf
Stem
Luteolin-7-rutinoside-4'-glucoside Plant
Magnesium Flower 555 4,275
Manganese Flower 2 17
Maritimein Leaf
Mucilage Plant
Mufa Flower 50 330
Myristic-acid Flower 20 135
Naringenin Flower
Naringenin-7-o-beta-d-glucoside Flower
Naringenin-7-o-rutinoside Flower
Naringenin-7-rutinoside Flower
Neo-chlorogenic-acid Leaf
Niacin Flower 10 82
Non-trans-2-en-al Flower
O-diphenolics Flower 20,000
Oct-1-en-3-one Flower
Oleic-acid Flower 50 330
Oxidase Leaf
Palmitic-acid Flower 290 1,925
Pantothenic-acid Flower 3 23
Phenolics Plant 20,000
Phenyl-acetaldehyde Flower
Phosphorus Flower 860 6,240
Phytate Flower 90 900
Potassium Flower 3,500 29,780
Protein Flower 31,000 276,000
Pseudotaraxasterol Leaf
Pufa Flower 630 4,185
Quercetin Leaf
Riboflavin Flower 0.6 7
Rutin Leaf
Scolimoside Leaf
Scolymoside Flower
Leaf
Shoot
Scopoletin Leaf
Sfa Flower 350 2,325
Sodium Flower 850 6,840
Stearic-acid Flower 30 200
Stigmasterol Leaf
Syringoside Leaf
Tannin Plant
Taraxasterol Leaf
Thiamin Flower 0.7 6
Tridec-1-ene-3-5-7-9-11-pentayne Root
Trideca-1-11-diene-3-5-7-9-tetrayne Root
Vit-b-6 Flower 1 8
Water Flower 773,000 854,870
Zinc Flower 4 36
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]