Conyza canadensis Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
butterweed Canadian fleabane Canadian horseweed hogweed horseweed

Conyza canadensis is an annual plant native throughout most of North America and Central America. Common names include Horseweed, Canadian Horseweed, Canadian Fleabane, Coltstail, Marestail and Butterweed.

Conyza canadensis

Economic importance of Conyza canadensis

Medicines folklore
Weed potential sed contaminant

Gallery

Conyza canadensis Conyza canadensis Conyza canadensis Conyza canadensis Conyza canadensis Conyza canadensis Conyza canadensis Conyza canadensis Conyza canadensis Conyza canadensis Conyza canadensis Conyza canadensis Conyza canadensis Conyza canadensis

Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Naturalized
    • Macaronesia: Portugal - Azores, Madeira Islands; Spain - Canary Islands
    • Northern Africa: Algeria; Libya; Morocco; Tunisia
    • Southern Africa: Lesotho; South Africa; Swaziland
    • Western Indian Ocean: Mauritius; Reunion
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Naturalized
    • Western Asia: Cyprus; Israel; Syria; Turkey
    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation - Ciscaucasia
    • Siberia: Russian Federation - Krasnoyarsk , Western Siberia
    • China: China
    • Eastern Asia: Japan; Korea; Taiwan
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Naturalized
    • Indian Subcontinent: Bhutan; India
    • North Indian Ocean: British Indian Ocean Terr - Diego Garcia
  • EUROPE
    Naturalized
    • Northern Europe: Denmark; Finland; Norway; Sweden; United Kingdom
    • Middle Europe: Belgium; Czech Republic; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Slovakia; Switzerland
    • East Europe: Belarus; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Russian Federation - European part; Ukraine
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Greece ; Italy ; Macedonia; Montenegro; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia
    • Southwestern Europe: France ; Portugal; Spain
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Native
    • Eastern Canada: Canada - Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec
    • Western Canada: Canada - Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Saskatchewan
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wisconsin
    • Northwestern U.S.A.: United States - Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Alabama, Arkansas, Florida , Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia
    • South-Central U.S.A.: United States - New Mexico, Texas
    • Southwestern U.S.A.: United States - Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah
    • Northern Mexico: Mexico - Chihuahua, Durango, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Zacatecas
    • Southern Mexico: Mexico - Aguascalientes, Campeche, Chiapas, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Veracruz
  • PACIFIC
    Naturalized
    • North-Central Pacific: U.S. Outlying Islands - Midway Islands; United States - Hawaii
    • Northwestern Pacific: Guam; Marshall Islands; Northern Mariana Islands; Palau; U.S. Outlying Islands - Wake Island
    • Southwestern Pacific: Fiji; New Caledonia; Niue
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Native
    • Mesoamerica: Belize; Costa Rica; El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Nicaragua; Panama
    Naturalized
    • Caribbean: Antigua and Barbuda; Barbados; Cayman Islands; Cuba; Dominica; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Jamaica; Martinique; Netherlands Antilles; Puerto Rico; St. Kitts and Nevis; St. Lucia; St. Vincent and Grenadines
    • Northern South America: French Guiana; Suriname; Venezuela
    • Western South America: Ecuador; Peru

Biological activities

11B-HSD-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
ACE-Inhibitor
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Acaricide
Citronellal found in Plant
Additive
Succinic-acid found in Plant
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Allelopathic
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Allergenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Citral found in Plant
Citronellal found in Plant
Dipentene found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Analgesic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Androgenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Angiogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Anorexic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Anthelmintic
Tannin found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
AntiADD
Apigenin found in Plant
AntiHIV
Apigenin found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
AntiLegionella
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
AntiMRSA
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Antiacetylcholinesterase
D-limonene found in Essential Oil
Antiadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antiadenoviral
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antiadenovirus
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Antiaflatoxin
Apigenin found in Plant
Antiaggregant
Apigenin found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antiaging
Apigenin found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antiallergenic
Citral found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Antiallergic
Apigenin found in Plant
Citral found in Plant
Antianacarditic
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Antianaphylactic
Citral found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Antiandrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antiangiogenic
Apigenin found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Antiarrhythmic
Apigenin found in Plant
Antiasthmatic
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Antiatherogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antibacterial
Apigenin found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Citral found in Plant
Citronellal found in Plant
Dipentene found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Terpinyl-acetate found in Plant (238 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Antibronchitic
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Anticancer
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Citral found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Anticarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Anticarcinomic
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Anticariogenic
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Anticolitic
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Anticomplementary
Apigenin found in Plant
Antidecubitic
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Antidepressant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antidermatitic
Apigenin found in Plant
Antidermatotic
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Antidiarrheic
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Antidote
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Antidysenteric
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Antiedemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antielastase
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antiencephalitic
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Antienteritic
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Antiescherichic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Antiestrogenic
Apigenin found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antifatigue
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Antifeedant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Succinic-acid found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Antifertility
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antifibrinolytic
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Antiflu
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Antigargantitic
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Antigingivitic
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Antigonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antigonadotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antihelicobacter
Citral found in Plant
Antihemolytic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antihemorrhoidal
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Antihepatoadenomic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antihepatotoxic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Antiherpetic
Apigenin found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Citral found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Antihistaminic
Apigenin found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Citral found in Plant
Antihypercholesterolemic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antihyperlipoproteinaemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antihypertensive
Tannin found in Plant
Antihyperthyroid
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antiinflammatory
Apigenin found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Citral found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Antileishmanic
Citral found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Antileukemic
Apigenin found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Antileukotriene
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antilipolytic
Tannin found in Plant
Antilymphomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antimelanogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antimelanomic
Apigenin found in Plant
D-limonene found in Essential Oil
Antimetastatic
Apigenin found in Plant
Antimutagenic
Apigenin found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Antinephritic
Tannin found in Plant
Antinitrosaminic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Antiobesity
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Antiophidic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Antioxidant
Apigenin found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Citral found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Antiperiodontitic
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Antiperistaltic
Apigenin found in Plant
Antiperoxidant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Antipharyngitic
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Antipolio
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Antiprogestational
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antiproliferant
Apigenin found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antiprostaglandin
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antiprostatadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antiprostatitic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antiproteolytic
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Antipyretic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antiradicular
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Antirenitic
Tannin found in Plant
Antirhinitic
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Antiseptic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Citral found in Plant
Citronellal found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Antishock
Citral found in Plant
Antisickling
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Antispasmodic
Apigenin found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Citral found in Plant
Antistaphylococcic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Citronellal found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Antistomatitic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Antistreptococcic
Citronellal found in Plant
Antistress
Apigenin found in Plant
Antisunburn
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antithiamin
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antithyroid
Apigenin found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antitonsilitic
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Antitumor-Promoter
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
D-limonene found in Essential Oil
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Antitumor
Apigenin found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Citral found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Antiulcer
Citral found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Antiulcerogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antivaccinia
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antiviral
Apigenin found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Citral found in Plant
Dipentene found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Anxiolytic
Apigenin found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Apoptotic
Apigenin found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Citral found in Plant
D-limonene found in Essential Oil
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Aromatase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Artemicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Ascaricide
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Astringent
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Bacteristat
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Barbituate-Synergist
Citral found in Plant
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Bronchodilator
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Bronchorelaxant
Citral found in Plant
Bruchiphobe
Succinic-acid found in Plant
CNS-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
CNS-Depressant
Apigenin found in Plant
COX-1-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
COX-2-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Calcium-Antagonist
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Citral found in Plant
Cancer-Preventive
Apigenin found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Citral found in Plant
D-limonene found in Essential Oil
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Succinic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Candidicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Citronellal found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Citral found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Caspase-3-Inducer
Citral found in Plant
Caspase-8-Inducer
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Chelator
Tannin found in Plant
Chemopreventive
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Citral found in Plant
D-limonene found in Essential Oil
Cholagogue
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Choleretic
Apigenin found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Clastogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Co-carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Collagen-Sparing
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Cytochrome-P450-1A1-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Cytoprotective
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cytotoxic
Apigenin found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Citral found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
DNA-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
DNA-Protective
Apigenin found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Detoxicant
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Differentiator
Apigenin found in Plant
D-limonene found in Essential Oil
Diuretic
Apigenin found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Dye
Succinic-acid found in Plant
Embryotoxic
Citronellal found in Plant
Emetic
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Estrogenic
Apigenin found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Citral found in Plant
Expectorant
Citral found in Plant
Dipentene found in Plant
FLavor
Citral found in Plant
Citronellal found in Plant
D-limonene found in Essential Oil
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Terpinyl-acetate found in Plant (238 ppm)
Febrifuge
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Floral-Inhibitor
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Fungicide
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Citral found in Plant
Citronellal found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Glaucomagenic
Citral found in Plant
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Plant
Glutathionigenic
Citral found in Plant
Gonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
HIF-1alpha-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Hemostat
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Hepatocarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Hepatoprotective
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Hepatotoxic
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Hepatotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Herbicide
Citral found in Plant
Histamine-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Hyaluronidase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Hypocholesterolemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
D-limonene found in Essential Oil
Hypoglycemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Hypolipidemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Hypotensive
Apigenin found in Plant
ICAM-1-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
IKK-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Immunomodulator
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Immunostimulant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Immunosuppressant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Inotropic
Apigenin found in Plant
Insecticide
D-limonene found in Essential Oil
Insectifuge
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Citronellal found in Plant
D-limonene found in Essential Oil
Terpinyl-acetate found in Plant (238 ppm)
Insulin-Sparing
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Interleukin-6-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Irritant
Citronellal found in Plant
Dipentene found in Plant
Laxative
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Leukotriene-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Litholytic
D-limonene found in Essential Oil
Lyase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
MAO-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
MAPK-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Metal-Chelator
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Motor-Depressant
Citronellal found in Plant
Musculotropic
Apigenin found in Plant
Mutagenic
Apigenin found in Plant
Myorelaxant
Apigenin found in Plant
Citral found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Citral found in Plant
NO-Inhibitor
Citral found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
NO-Synthase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Nematicide
Citral found in Plant
Citronellal found in Plant
Nephrotoxic
D-limonene found in Essential Oil
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Nodulation-Signal
Apigenin found in Plant
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
P21-Inducer
Apigenin found in Plant
P450-2B1-Inhibitor
Citral found in Plant
Citronellal found in Plant
D-limonene found in Essential Oil
PKC-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
PTK-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Perfumery
Citral found in Plant
Citronellal found in Plant
Succinic-acid found in Plant
Terpinyl-acetate found in Plant (238 ppm)
Pesticide
Apigenin found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Citral found in Plant
Citronellal found in Plant
D-limonene found in Essential Oil
Dipentene found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Succinic-acid found in Plant
Tannic-acid found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
Terpinyl-acetate found in Plant (238 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Progestational
Apigenin found in Plant
Prooxidant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Prostaglandigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Prostatitigenic
Citral found in Plant
Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Psychotropic
Tannin found in Plant
Quinone-Reductase-Inducer
Apigenin found in Plant
Radioprotective
Apigenin found in Plant
Sedative
Apigenin found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Citral found in Plant
Citronellal found in Plant
Dipentene found in Plant
Spermicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Styptic
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Sunscreen
Apigenin found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
TNF-alpha-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Teratogenic
Citral found in Plant
Citronellal found in Plant
Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Trichomonicide
Citral found in Plant
Trypanocide
Citral found in Plant
Tumorigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
Citral found in Plant
Ubiquiot
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Plant
Ulcerogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Uterotrophic
Apigenin found in Plant
VEGF-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Vasodilator
Apigenin found in Plant
Vulnerary
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant
iNOS-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Plant

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
Alpha-spinosterol Plant
Apigenin Plant
Beta-sitosterol Plant
Caffeic-acid Plant
Citral Plant
Citronellal Plant
D-limonene Essential Oil
Dipentene Plant
Dl-terpineol Plant 437 673
Eo Plant 2,600 6,000
Gallic-acid Leaf
Linalol Plant
Matricaria-methyl-ester Plant 520 1,200
Succinic-acid Plant
Tannic-acid Leaf
Tannin Plant
Terpinyl-acetate Plant 154 238
Vanillic-acid Plant
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]