Centaurea cyanus Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
bachelor's-button blaver blue bottle blue-poppy bluebonnets brushes corn-pinks cornflower hurtsickle thimbles witch's-bells

Centaurea cyanus, commonly known as cornflower, bachelor's button, bluebottle, boutonniere flower, hurtsickle or cyani flower, is an annual flowering plant in the family Asteraceae, native to Europe. "Cornflower" is also used for chicory, and a few other Centaurea species; to distinguish C. cyanus from these it is sometimes called common cornflower. It may also be referred to as basketflower, though the term also refers to the Plectocephalus group of Centaurea, which is probably a distinct genus. It is an annual plant growing to 16-35 inches tall, with grey-green branched stems. The leaves are lanceolate, 1–4 cm long. The flowers are most commonly an intense blue colour, produced in flowerheads 1.5–3 cm diameter, with a ring of a few large, spreading ray florets surrounding a central cluster of disc florets. The blue pigment is protocyanin, which in roses is red. In the past it often grew as a weed in crop fields, hence its name. It is now endangered in its native habitat by agricultural intensification, particularly over-use of herbicides, destroying its habitat; in the United Kingdom it has declined from 264 sites to just 3 sites in the last 50 years.

Centaurea cyanus

Medical use

Economic importance of Centaurea cyanus

Bee plants honey production
Environmental ornamental
Medicines folklore
Weed potential sed contaminant

Gallery

Centaurea cyanus Centaurea cyanus Centaurea cyanus Centaurea cyanus Centaurea cyanus Centaurea cyanus Centaurea cyanus Centaurea cyanus Centaurea cyanus Centaurea cyanus Centaurea cyanus Centaurea cyanus Centaurea cyanus

Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Naturalized
    • Southern Africa: South Africa
    Adventive
    • Northern Africa: Algeria; Morocco; Tunisia
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Western Asia: Iraq ; Turkey
    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation - Ciscaucasia
    Naturalized
    • Siberia: Russian Federation - Eastern Siberia, Western Siberia
    • Middle Asia: Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan
    • Russian Far East: Russian Federation - Amur, Primorye
    • China: China - Qinghai, Xinjiang
    Adventive
    • Western Asia: Lebanon
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Naturalized
    • Indian Subcontinent: India - Uttar Pradesh; Pakistan
  • AUSTRALASIA
    Naturalized
    • New Zealand: New Zealand
    Adventive
    • Australia: Australia - New South Wales
  • EUROPE
    Native
    • Northern Europe: Finland
    • Middle Europe: Belgium; Czech Republic; Germany; Hungary
    • East Europe: Belarus; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Greece; Italy ; Macedonia; Montenegro; Serbia; Slovenia
    • Southwestern Europe: France; Portugal; Spain
    Naturalized
    • Northern Europe: Norway; Sweden; United Kingdom
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Netherlands; Poland; Slovakia; Switzerland
    • East Europe: Russian Federation - European part; Ukraine
    • Southeastern Europe: Greece - Crete; Romania
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Naturalized
    • Subarctic America: Greenland
    • Canada
    • United States
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Naturalized
    • Western South America: Ecuador - Pichincha
    • Southern South America: Argentina; Chile

Biological activities

11B-HSD-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
ATPase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Shoot
Acidulant
Acetic-acid found in Flower
Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Shoot
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Apiin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Cynaroside found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Shoot
Quercimeritrin found in Shoot
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Umbelliferone found in Shoot
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Allelochemic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Umbelliferone found in Shoot
Allelopathic
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Syringic-acid found in Flower
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Allergenic
Benzoic-acid found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Shoot
Alpha-Glucosidase-Inhibitor
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Analgesic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Shoot
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Androgenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Anesthetic
Benzoic-acid found in Flower
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Angiogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Anorexic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Anthelmintic
Tannin found in Flower
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
AntiADD
Apigenin found in Shoot
AntiEBV
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
AntiGTF
Quercetin found in Shoot
AntiHIV
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Tannin found in Flower
AntiLegionella
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
AntiPMS
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antiadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Antiadenoviral
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Antiadrenergic
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Antiaflatoxin
Apigenin found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Antiaggregant
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Cichoriin found in Flower
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Hispidulin found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Rutoside found in Plant
Antiaging
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antiakathisic
Iron found in Plant
Antiallergic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antialzheimeran
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antianaphylactic
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antiandrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Antianemic
Iron found in Plant
Antiangiogenic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antiarrhythmic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Apiin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Antiarthritic
Quercetin found in Shoot
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Antiasthmatic
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Shoot
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Antiatherogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Antiatherosclerotic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antibacterial
Acetic-acid found in Flower
Apigenin found in Shoot
Benzoic-acid found in Flower
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Cnicin found in Flower
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Isorhamnetin found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Flower
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Shoot
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Tannin found in Flower
Umbelliferone found in Shoot
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Antibiotic
Cnicin found in Flower
Antibradykinic
Apiin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot
Antibronchoconstrictor
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Anticancer
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Tannin found in Flower
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Anticanker
Iron found in Plant
Anticapillary-Fragility
Quercetol found in Plant
Rutoside found in Plant
Anticarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Anticarcinomic
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Anticariogenic
Quercetin found in Shoot
Tannin found in Flower
Anticataract
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Anticheilitic
Iron found in Plant
Anticholinergic
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Anticlastogen
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Anticolitic
Quercetin found in Shoot
Anticomplementary
Apigenin found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Anticystitic
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antidandruff
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Antidepressant
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antidermatic
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Antidermatitic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antidermatotic
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Antidiabetic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antidiarrheic
Tannin found in Flower
Antidysenteric
Tannin found in Flower
Antidysmenorrheic
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Antieczemic
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Antiedemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Umbelliferone found in Shoot
Antielastase
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antiencephalitic
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antiescherichic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antiestrogenic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antifatigue
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Antifeedant
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Cichoriin found in Flower
Cnicin found in Flower
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Antifertility
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Antifibrosarcomic
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antiflu
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antigastric
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antigenotoxic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Antigingivitic
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Antigonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Antigonadotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antihemolytic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Antihepatoadenomic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Antihepatotoxic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Hispidulin found in Shoot
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Shoot
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Tannin found in Flower
Antiherpetic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Shoot
Quercimeritrin found in Shoot
Antihistaminic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Isorhamnetin found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Umbelliferone found in Shoot
Antihydrophobic
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antihypercholesterolemic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Antihyperlipoproteinaemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Antihypertensive
Quercetin found in Shoot
Tannin found in Flower
Antihyperthyroid
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Antiichthyosic
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Antiimplantation
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Antiinflammatory
Apigenin found in Shoot
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Cnicin found in Flower
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Isorhamnetin found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Neo-chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Shoot
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Umbelliferone found in Shoot
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Antiischemic
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Antileishmanic
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antileukemic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Shoot
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Antileukotriene
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antileukotrienogenic
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Antilipolytic
Tannin found in Flower
Antilipoperoxidant
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antilymphocytic
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Antilymphomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Antimalarial
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antimelanogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Antimelanomic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antimenorrhagic
Iron found in Plant
Antimetastatic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antimitotic
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Umbelliferone found in Shoot
Antimutagenic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
N-nonacosane found in Flower
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Flower
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Shoot
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Tannin found in Flower
Umbelliferone found in Shoot
Antimyocarditic
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antineoplastic
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Antinephritic
Tannin found in Flower
Antineuralgic
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Antinitrosaminic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antinociceptive
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antioncychomycotic
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Antiophidic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Tannin found in Flower
Antiotitic
Acetic-acid found in Flower
Benzoic-acid found in Flower
Antioxidant
Apigenin found in Shoot
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Hispidulin found in Shoot
Isochlorogenic-acid found in Shoot
Isorhamnetin found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Flower
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Shoot
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Syringic-acid found in Flower
Tannin found in Flower
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Antipancreatitic
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antiperiodic
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Antiperiodontal
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antiperiodontic
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Antiperistaltic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antipermeability
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antiperoxidant
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Hispidulin found in Shoot
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Shoot
Syringic-acid found in Flower
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Antipharyngitic
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antiplaque
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antiplasmodial
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antipodagric
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Antipodriac
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antipolio
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Cyanin found in Flower
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antiprogestational
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Antiproliferant
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Antiprostaglandin
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Umbelliferone found in Shoot
Antiprostanoid
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antiprostatadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Antiprostatitic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antipsoriac
Quercetin found in Shoot
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Antipyretic
Benzoic-acid found in Flower
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Antiradicular
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Hispidulin found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Flower
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Shoot
Syringic-acid found in Flower
Tannin found in Flower
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Antirenitic
Tannin found in Flower
Antirheumatic
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Antisalmonella
Acetic-acid found in Flower
Benzoic-acid found in Flower
Antiseborrheic
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Antiseptic
Benzoic-acid found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Isochlorogenic-acid found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Umbelliferone found in Shoot
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Antiserotonin
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Antisickling
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Flower
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Antisilicotic
Aluminum found in Flower
Antispasmodic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Apiin found in Leaf ;found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Isorhamnetin found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Shoot
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Umbelliferone found in Shoot
Antistaphylococcic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Umbelliferone found in Shoot
Antistomatitic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Antistreptococcic
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antistress
Apigenin found in Shoot
Antisunburn
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Antithiamin
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antithrombic
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antithyroid
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Antitrypanosomic
Quercetin found in Shoot
Antitumor-Promoter
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Tannin found in Flower
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Antitumor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Cnicin found in Flower
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Hispidulin found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Shoot
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Tannin found in Flower
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Antitussive
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Antitympanitic
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Antiulcer
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Tannin found in Flower
Antiulcerogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Antivaccinia
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Antivaginitic
Acetic-acid found in Flower
Aluminum found in Flower
Antiviral
Apigenin found in Shoot
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Cyanin found in Flower
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Shoot
Quercimeritrin found in Shoot
Tannin found in Flower
Antiyeast
Benzoic-acid found in Flower
Anxiolytic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Aphidifuge
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Apoptotic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Shoot
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Aromatase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Artemicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Arteriodilator
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Ascaricide
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Autotoxic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Bacteristat
Quercetin found in Shoot
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Bradycardiac
Quercetin found in Shoot
Bronchorelaxant
Scopoletin found in Shoot
CNS-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
CNS-Depressant
Apigenin found in Shoot
Scopoletin found in Shoot
CNS-Stimulant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Scopoletin found in Shoot
COMT-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Shoot
Rutoside found in Plant
COX-1-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
COX-2-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Calcium-Antagonist
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Cynaroside found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Calmodulin-Antagonist
Quercetin found in Shoot
Cancer-Preventive
Apigenin found in Shoot
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Hispidulin found in Shoot
Isochlorogenic-acid found in Shoot
Isorhamnetin found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Mucilage found in Flower
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Shoot
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Tannin found in Flower
Umbelliferone found in Shoot
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Candidicide
Aluminum found in Flower
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Shoot
Umbelliferone found in Shoot
Capillariprotective
Quercetin found in Shoot
Carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Shoot
Tannin found in Flower
Cardiac
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Cardioprotective
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Caspase-8-Inducer
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Catabolic
Quercetin found in Shoot
Chelator
Tannin found in Flower
Chemopreventive
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Cholagogue
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Choleretic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Benzoic-acid found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Rutoside found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Umbelliferone found in Shoot
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Clastogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Co-carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Collagen-Sparing
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Comedolytic
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Copper-Chelator
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Counterirritant
Arnidiol found in Flower
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Tannin found in Flower
Cytochrome-P450-1A1-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Cytochrome-P450-1A2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Shoot
Cytoprotective
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Cytotoxic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Cnicin found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Shoot
Scopoletin found in Shoot
DNA-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
DNA-Protective
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Demulcent
Mucilage found in Flower
Dermatitigenic
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Differentiator
Apigenin found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Diuretic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Emetic
Cnicin found in Flower
Cyanin found in Flower
Encephalopathic
Aluminum found in Flower
Estrogenic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Expectorant
Acetic-acid found in Flower
Benzoic-acid found in Flower
FLavor
Benzoic-acid found in Flower
Febrifuge
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Fungicide
Acetic-acid found in Flower
Benzoic-acid found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Shoot
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Umbelliferone found in Shoot
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Fungistat
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Flower
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Shoot
Tannin found in Flower
Glutathione-Depleting
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Gonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
HIF-1alpha-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
HIV-RT-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Hemostat
Quercetin found in Shoot
Hepatocarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Hepatomagenic
Quercetin found in Shoot
Hepatoprotective
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Isorhamnetin found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Tannin found in Flower
Hepatotoxic
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Hepatotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Herbicide
Cnicin found in Flower
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Histamine-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Hyaluronidase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Hydrocholerectic
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Hypocholesterolemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Cynaroside found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Mucilage found in Flower
Hypoglycemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Hypolipidemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Hypotensive
Apigenin found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Scopoletin found in Shoot
ICAM-1-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
IKK-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Immunostimulant
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Immunosuppressant
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Flower
Tannin found in Flower
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Inotropic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Insectifuge
Benzoic-acid found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Cichoriin found in Flower
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Insectiphile
Quercimeritrin found in Shoot
Insulinogenic
Quercetin found in Shoot
Interferonogenic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Interleukin-6-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Irritant
Cnicin found in Flower
JNK-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Juvabional
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Keratitigenic
Acetic-acid found in Flower
Keratolytic
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Larvistat
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Laxative
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Leukotriene-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Shoot
Tannin found in Flower
Umbelliferone found in Shoot
Lyase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
MAO-A-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Shoot
MAO-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Isorhamnetin found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Tannin found in Flower
MAPK-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
MMP-9-Inhibitor
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Mast-Cell-Stabilizer
Quercetin found in Shoot
Metal-Chelator
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Mucolytic
Acetic-acid found in Flower
Musculotropic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Mutagenic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Myorelaxant
Apigenin found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Scopoletin found in Shoot
NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
NEP-Inhibitor
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
NO-Genic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
NO-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
NO-Synthase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Natriuretic
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Nephrotoxic
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Neuroprotective
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Nodulation-Signal
Apigenin found in Shoot
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Shoot
Tannin found in Flower
Osteolytic
Acetic-acid found in Flower
Oviposition-Stimulant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
P21-Inducer
Apigenin found in Shoot
P450-Inducer
Quercetin found in Shoot
P450-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Shoot
PAF-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
PGE2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Shoot
PKC-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
PTK-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Perfumery
Acetic-acid found in Flower
Umbelliferone found in Shoot
Pesticide
Acetic-acid found in Flower
Aluminum found in Flower
Apigenin found in Shoot
Benzoic-acid found in Flower
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Cnicin found in Flower
Cyanin found in Flower
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Isochlorogenic-acid found in Shoot
Isorhamnetin found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Flower
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Shoot
Quercimeritrin found in Shoot
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Tannin found in Flower
Umbelliferone found in Shoot
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Phagocytotic
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Phospholipase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Shoot
Photoactive
Umbelliferone found in Shoot
Phytoalexin
Benzoic-acid found in Flower
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Flower
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Phytohormonal
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Pigment
Cyanin found in Flower
Pelargonin found in Flower
Plasmodicide
Quercetin found in Shoot
Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Preservative
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Progestational
Apigenin found in Shoot
Proliferant
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Prooxidant
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Iron found in Plant
Prostaglandigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Flower
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Shoot
Prostaglandin-Synthetase-Inhibitor
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Protisticide
Acetic-acid found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Psychotropic
Tannin found in Flower
Quinone-Reductase-Inducer
Apigenin found in Shoot
Isorhamnetin found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Radioprotective
Apigenin found in Shoot
Secretogogue
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Flower
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Sedative
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Spermicide
Acetic-acid found in Flower
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Succinoxidase-Inhibitor
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Sunscreen
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Umbelliferone found in Shoot
Sweetener
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
TNF-alpha-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Teratologic
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Thermogenic
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Tineacide
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Tumorigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
Benzoic-acid found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
P-coumaric-acid found in Flower
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Shoot
Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Shoot
Ubiquiot
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Flower
Protocatechuic-acid found in Flower
Syringic-acid found in Flower
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Ulcerogenic
Acetic-acid found in Flower
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Salicylic-acid found in Flower
Uricosuric
Benzoic-acid found in Flower
Uterosedative
Ferulic-acid found in Flower
Scopoletin found in Shoot
Uterotrophic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
VEGF-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Vasodilator
Apigenin found in Shoot
Isorhamnetin found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Verrucolytic
Acetic-acid found in Flower
Vulnerary
Benzoic-acid found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Neo-chlorogenic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Flower ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
Tannin found in Flower
Umbelliferone found in Shoot
cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot
iNOS-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Luteolin found in Plant ;found in Shoot
Quercetin found in Shoot

Search

Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
Acetic-acid Flower
Aluminum Flower
Apigenin Shoot
Apigenin-4'-o-(6-o-malonyl-beta-d-glucoside)-7-o-beta-d-glucuronide Flower
Apigenin-4'-o-beta-d-glucoside Shoot
Apigenin-4'-o-beta-d-glucoside-7-o-beta-d-glucuronide Flower
Apigenin-7-glucoside Leaf
Apiin Leaf
Shoot
Arnidiol Flower
Benzoic-acid Flower
Beta-sitosterol Flower
C-glycosyl-flavone-7-o-methyl-vitexin Flower
Caffeic-acid Flower
Shoot
Centaur-x Plant
Shoot
Centaur-x-1 Shoot
Centaur-x-3 Shoot
Centaur-y Plant
Shoot
Centaur-y-1 Shoot
Centaur-y-2 Shoot
Centaurocyanin Flower
Chlorogenic-acid Flower
Shoot
Cichoriin Flower
Cis-caffeic-acid Flower
Cis-sinapic-acid Flower
Cnicin Flower
Cosmossiin Shoot
Cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside Flower
Cyanidin-3-(6'-malonyl-glucoside) Stem
Cyanidin-5-o-beta-d-glucoside-3-o-beta-d-(6-succinyl-glucoside) Inflorescence
Cyanin Flower
Cyanocentaurein Flower
Cyanocentaurin Flower 975
Cynaroside Shoot
Fat Seed 158,000 181,000
Ferulic-acid Flower
Fragarin Flower
Graveobioside Shoot
Hispidulin Shoot
Iron Plant
Isochlorogenic-acid Shoot
Isorhamnetin Shoot
Kaempferol Plant
Shoot
Kaempferol-3-0-glucoside Plant
Luteolin Plant
Shoot
Mucilage Flower
N-nonacosane Flower
Neo-chlorogenic-acid Flower
Shoot
O-hydroxyphenylacetic-acid Flower
P-coumaric-acid Flower
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid Flower
P-hydroxyphenylacetic-acid Flower
Pelargonidin-3,5-diglucoside Flower
Pelargonidin-3-(6"-succinyl-glucoside)-5-glucoside Flower
Pelargonin Flower
Polyenes Plant
Polygalacturonic-acids Flower
Polyynes Plant
Populnin Shoot
Protein Plant 194,000 254,000
Protocatechuic-acid Flower
Protocyanin Flower 11.6
Quercetin Shoot
Quercetol Plant
Quercimeretrin Plant
Quercimeritrin Shoot
Rutoside Plant
Salicylic-acid Flower
Scopoletin Shoot
Succinylcyanin Flower
Syringic-acid Flower
Tannin Flower
Trans-caffeic-acid Flower
Trans-sinapic-acid Flower
Trideca-3,5,7,9-tetrain-1,11-dien Root
Trideca-5,7,9-triin-1,3,11-trien Root
Umbelliferone Shoot
Vanillic-acid Flower
Wax Hull Husk
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]