Calendula officinalis Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
calendula garden-marigold marigold pot-marigold ruddles Scotch-marigold Scottish-marigold

Calendula officinalis is a plant in the genus Calendula of the family Asteraceae. It is probably native to southern Europe, though its long history of cultivation makes its precise origin unknown, and it may possibly be of garden origin. It is also widely naturalised further north in Europe and elsewhere in warm temperate regions of the world.

Calendula officinalis

Medical use

Economic importance of Calendula officinalis

Food additives coloring flavoring
Environmental ornamental
Medicines folklore

Gallery

Calendula officinalis Calendula officinalis Calendula officinalis Calendula officinalis Calendula officinalis Calendula officinalis Calendula officinalis Calendula officinalis Calendula officinalis Calendula officinalis Calendula officinalis Calendula officinalis Calendula officinalis

Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Naturalized
    • Macaronesia: Portugal - Azores, Madeira Islands; Spain - Canary Islands
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Naturalized
    • Western Asia: Turkey
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Naturalized
    • Indian Subcontinent: India - Haryana, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh
  • AUSTRALASIA
    Naturalized
    • Australia: Australia
    • New Zealand: New Zealand
  • EUROPE
    Naturalized
    • Northern Europe: Norway; United Kingdom
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Germany; Switzerland
    • East Europe: Belarus; Moldova; Russian Federation - European part; Ukraine
    • Southeastern Europe: Bosnia and Herzegovina; Croatia; Greece; Italy ; Montenegro; Serbia; Slovenia
    • Southwestern Europe: France; Spain
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Naturalized
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, Ohio, Pennsylvania
    • Southwestern U.S.A.: United States - California
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Naturalized
    • Western South America: Ecuador - Pichincha
    • Southern South America: Argentina; Chile

Biological activities

11B-HSD-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (177500 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (73000 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (67000 ppm)
Palmitoleic-acid found in Seed (20500 ppm)
5-HT-Inhibitor
Rutin found in Flower
5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
ATPase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Abortifacient
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Alcohol-Dehydrogenase-Inhibitor
Inulin found in Root
Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Caryophyllene found in Flower
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Allelochemic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Allelopathic
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Syringic-acid found in Flower
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Allergenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Caryophyllene found in Flower
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Oleic-acid found in Seed (73000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Oleic-acid found in Seed (73000 ppm)
Analgesic
Alpha-amyrin found in Flower
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Beta-amyrin found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Caryophyllene found in Flower
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Gentisic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Androgenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Anemiagenic
Oleic-acid found in Seed (73000 ppm)
Angiogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Anorexic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Anthelmintic
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
AntiAGE
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
AntiCFS
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
AntiCRP
Gamma-tocopherol found in Leaf
AntiCTS
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
AntiCVI
Rutin found in Flower
AntiEBV
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Lupeol found in Flower
AntiGTF
Quercetin found in Plant
AntiHIV
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
AntiLegionella
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
AntiLyme
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
AntiMS
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (177500 ppm)
AntiPGE2
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
AntiPMS
Calcium found in Leaf (30400 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
AntiTGF-beta
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Antiacne
Caryophyllene found in Flower
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (177500 ppm)
Antiadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Antiadenoviral
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antiaflatoxin
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiaggregant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Antiaging
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiallergic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (30400 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Antialopecic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (177500 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (73000 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (67000 ppm)
Antialzheimeran
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antianaphylactic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (177500 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiandrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (177500 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (73000 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (67000 ppm)
Antianginal
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf
Ubiquinone found in Root
Antiangiogenic
Lupeol found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Antianxiety
Calcium found in Leaf (30400 ppm)
Antiapoplectic
Rutin found in Flower
Antiarrhythmic
Calcium found in Leaf (30400 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Antiarteriosclerotic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (177500 ppm)
Antiarthritic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (30400 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (177500 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiatherogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Antiatherosclerotic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (30400 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Gamma-tocopherol found in Leaf
Lutein found in Flower
Malic-acid found in Flower (6400 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Antibacterial
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Caryophyllene found in Flower
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Gentisic-acid found in Flower
Isorhamnetin-3-rutinoside found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant
Lauric-acid found in Plant (17500 ppm)
Malic-acid found in Flower (6400 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Anticancer
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gamma-tocopherol found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Anticapillary-Fragility
Rutin found in Flower
Anticarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Anticarcinomic
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Anticariogenic
Caryophyllene found in Flower
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
Anticataract
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Anticervicaldysplasic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Anticlastogen
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Anticlimacteric
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (30400 ppm)
Anticold
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Anticolitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Anticomplement
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Anticomplementary
Quercetin found in Plant
Anticonvulsant
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower
Anticoronary
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (177500 ppm)
Anticystitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antidandruff
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Antidecubitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Antidementia
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Rutin found in Flower
Antidepressant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Calcium found in Leaf (30400 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antidermatitic
Caryophyllene found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Antidermatotic
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Antidiabetic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Inulin found in Root
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Antidiarrheic
Inulin found in Root
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
Antidysenteric
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
Antieczemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (177500 ppm)
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Antiedemic
Alpha-amyrin found in Flower
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Beta-amyrin found in Flower
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Caryophyllene found in Flower
Faradiol found in Flower
Lupeol found in Flower
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Rutin found in Flower
Taraxasterol found in Flower
Antielastase
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiencephalitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiendometriotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Antierythemic
Rutin found in Flower
Antiescherichic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiestrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Antifatigue
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Antifeedant
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Caryophyllene found in Flower
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Gentisic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Antifertility
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Antifibrinolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (177500 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (67000 ppm)
Antifibromyalgic
Malic-acid found in Flower (6400 ppm)
Antifibrosarcomic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antifibrotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Antiflu
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Lupeol found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Antigallstone
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Antigastric
Quercetin found in Plant
Antigastritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Antigenotoxic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Antigingivitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Ubiquinone found in Root
Antiglaucomic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Rutin found in Flower
Antigonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Antigonadotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Antigranular
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (177500 ppm)
Antihangover
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Antihematuric
Rutin found in Flower
Antihemolytic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Antihemorrhagic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Antihemorrhoidal
Rutin found in Flower
Antihepatitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Antihepatoadenomic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antihepatotoxic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Stigmasterol found in Flower
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
Antiherpetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Antihistaminic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (177500 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Antihydrophobic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antihypercholesterolemic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Antihyperglycemic
Lupeol found in Flower
Antihyperkinetic
Calcium found in Leaf (30400 ppm)
Antihyperlipidemic
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Antihyperlipoproteinaemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Antihypertensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (30400 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
Antihyperthyroid
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Antiichthyosic
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Antiimplantation
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antiinfarctal
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf
Antiinfertility
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Antiinflammatory
Alpha-amyrin found in Flower
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Beta-amyrin found in Flower
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Caryophyllene found in Flower
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Faradiol found in Flower
Gamma-tocopherol found in Leaf
Gentisic-acid found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (177500 ppm)
Lupeol found in Flower
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Oleic-acid found in Seed (73000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Flower
Taraxasterol found in Flower
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Antiinsomniac
Calcium found in Leaf (30400 ppm)
Antiischemic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Ubiquinone found in Root
Antileishmanic
Caryophyllene found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Antilepric
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Antileukemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Antileukotriene-D4
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (177500 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (73000 ppm)
Antileukotriene
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Antilipolytic
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
Antilipoperoxidant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antilithic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Lupeol found in Flower
Antilymphocytic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antilymphomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Antimaculitic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Lutein found in Flower
Antimalarial
Lupeol found in Flower
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Antimeasles
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Antimelanogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Antimelanomic
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Antimenopausal
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (30400 ppm)
Antimenorrhagic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (177500 ppm)
Antimetastatic
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Antimigraine
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Antimutagenic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
Antimyocarditic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antinephritic
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Rutin found in Flower
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
Antineuralgic
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Antineuramidase
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Antineuropathic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf
Antinitrosaminic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antinitrosic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Antinociceptive
Alpha-amyrin found in Flower
Beta-amyrin found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Stigmasterol found in Flower
Antinyctalopic
Lutein found in Flower
Antiobesity
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (30400 ppm)
Antioncychomycotic
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Antionychyotic
Caryophyllene found in Flower
Antiophidic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Stigmasterol found in Flower
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
Antiorchitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Antiosteoarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Antiosteoporotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (30400 ppm)
Antioxalate
Lupeol found in Flower
Antioxidant
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Campesterol found in Flower
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Cholesterol found in Flower
Gamma-tocopherol found in Leaf
Gentisic-acid found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant
Lauric-acid found in Plant (17500 ppm)
Lupeol found in Flower
Lutein found in Flower
Lycopene found in Flower
Myristic-acid found in Seed (16100 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Flower
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (67000 ppm)
Pentadecanoic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Flower
Syringic-acid found in Flower
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
Ubiquinone found in Root
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Antipancreatitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiparkinsonian
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Antiparotitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Antiperiodic
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Antiperiodontal
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiperiodontic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Antiperiodontitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (30400 ppm)
Ubiquinone found in Root
Antiperistaltic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipermeability
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiperoxidant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Lupeol found in Flower
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Syringic-acid found in Flower
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Antipharyngitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiplaque
Kaempferol found in Plant
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiplasmodial
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiplatelet
Rutin found in Flower
Antipneumonic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Antipodagric
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Antipodriac
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipolio
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipoliomyelitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Antiprogestational
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Antiproliferant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Caryophyllene found in Flower
Lutein found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Antiprostaglandin
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Gamma-tocopherol found in Leaf
Lupeol found in Flower
Antiprostanoid
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiprostatadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Antiprostatitic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (177500 ppm)
Lycopene found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiprotozoal
Rutin found in Flower
Antipsoriac
Quercetin found in Plant
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Antipurpuric
Rutin found in Flower
Antipyretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Antiradicular
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant
Lutein found in Flower
Lycopene found in Flower
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Syringic-acid found in Flower
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
Ubiquinone found in Root
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Antirenitic
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
Antiretinotic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Antirheumatic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (30400 ppm)
Gentisic-acid found in Flower
Lupeol found in Flower
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Antirhinitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Antisarcomic
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Antiscorbutic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Antiseborrheic
Malic-acid found in Flower (6400 ppm)
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Antiseptic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant
Malic-acid found in Flower (6400 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Antiserotonin
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antishingles
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Antisickling
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Flower
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Antispasmodic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Caryophyllene found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Antistaphylococcic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Caryophyllene found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antistomatitic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antistreptococcic
Caryophyllene found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Antistress
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (30400 ppm)
Antistroke
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf
Antisunburn
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Rutin found in Flower
Antisyndrome-X
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Antithiamin
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antithrombic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antithrombogenic
Rutin found in Flower
Antithyroid
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Rutin found in Flower
Antitic
Calcium found in Leaf (30400 ppm)
Antitrypanosomic
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Antitubercular
Malic-acid found in Flower (6400 ppm)
Antitumor-Promoter
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Antitumor
Alpha-amyrin found in Flower
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Caryophyllene found in Flower
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Gamma-tocopherol found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Plant
Lupeol found in Flower
Lycopene found in Flower
Malic-acid found in Flower (6400 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Antitympanitic
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Antiulcer
Alpha-amyrin found in Flower
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Beta-amyrin found in Flower
Caryophyllene found in Flower
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
Antiulcerogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antiurethrotic
Lupeol found in Flower
Antivaccinia
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antivaricose
Rutin found in Flower
Antiviral
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Gentisic-acid found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant
Lauric-acid found in Plant (17500 ppm)
Lupeol found in Flower
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Stigmasterol found in Flower
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
Anxiolytic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Calcium found in Leaf (30400 ppm)
Apoptotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Aromatase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Artemicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Stigmasterol found in Flower
Ascaricide
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Asthma-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Autotoxic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Bacteristat
Malic-acid found in Flower (6400 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Beta-Blocker
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Bifidogenic
Inulin found in Root
Bradycardiac
Quercetin found in Plant
Bruchiphobe
Malic-acid found in Flower (6400 ppm)
CNS-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
CNS-Stimulant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
COMT-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
COX-1-Inhibitor
Lauric-acid found in Plant (17500 ppm)
COX-2-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Lauric-acid found in Plant (17500 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Calcium-Antagonist
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Calcium-Channel-Blocker
Calcium found in Leaf (30400 ppm)
Calmodulin-Antagonist
Quercetin found in Plant
Cancer-Preventive
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (177500 ppm)
Lycopene found in Flower
Mucilage found in Flower (15000 ppm)
Myristic-acid found in Seed (16100 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Oleic-acid found in Seed (73000 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Flower
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Candidicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Caryophyllene found in Flower
Lauric-acid found in Plant (17500 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Capillariprotective
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (177500 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
Cardioprotective
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Gamma-tocopherol found in Leaf
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Cardiotonic
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Caspase-8-Inducer
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Catabolic
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Chelator
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
Chemopreventive
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Cholagogue
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Choleretic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant
Oleic-acid found in Seed (73000 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Circulotonic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf
Clastogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Co-carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cold-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Collagen-Sparing
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Collagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Colorant
Lutein found in Flower
Lycopene found in Flower
Rubixanthin found in Plant
Violaxanthin found in Plant
Comedolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (177500 ppm)
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Copper-Chelator
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Cosmetic
Myristic-acid found in Seed (16100 ppm)
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Gamma-tocopherol found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Plant
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
Cytochrome-P450-1A2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Cytoprotective
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Cytotoxic
Alpha-amyrin found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Lupeol found in Flower
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
DNA-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
DNA-Protective
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Demulcent
Mucilage found in Flower (15000 ppm)
Dermatitigenic
Oleic-acid found in Seed (73000 ppm)
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Detoxicant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Differentiator
Quercetin found in Plant
Diuretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Calcium found in Leaf (30400 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Elastase-Inhibitor
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Estrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Stigmasterol found in Flower
Expectorant
Inulin found in Root
FLavor
Caryophyllene found in Flower
Oleic-acid found in Seed (73000 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (67000 ppm)
FPTase-Inhibitor
Lupeol found in Flower
Febrifuge
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Fistula-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Fungicide
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Caryophyllene found in Flower
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Fungistat
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Flower
Gastroprotective
Alpha-amyrin found in Flower
Beta-amyrin found in Flower
Caryophyllene found in Flower
Gastrostimulant
Inulin found in Root
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
Gonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
HIV-RT-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Hemolytic
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (67000 ppm)
Hemopoietic
Malic-acid found in Flower (6400 ppm)
Hemostat
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Hepatocarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Hepatomagenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Hepatoprotective
Alpha-amyrin found in Flower
Beta-amyrin found in Flower
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Isorhamnetin-3-glucoside found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (177500 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
Hepatotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Histamine-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Hypercholesterolemic
Lauric-acid found in Plant (17500 ppm)
Myristic-acid found in Seed (16100 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (67000 ppm)
Hypocholesterolemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Calcium found in Leaf (30400 ppm)
Campesterol found in Flower
Gamma-tocopherol found in Leaf
Inulin found in Root
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (177500 ppm)
Lycopene found in Flower
Mucilage found in Flower (15000 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (73000 ppm)
Rutin found in Flower
Stigmasterol found in Flower
Hypoglycemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Inulin found in Root
Quercetin found in Plant
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Hypolipemic
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Hypolipidemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Hypotensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (30400 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Lupeol found in Flower
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Rutin found in Flower
ICAM-1-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Immunomodulator
Alpha-tocopherol found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (177500 ppm)
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Rutin found in Flower
Immunostimulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Inulin found in Root
Ubiquinone found in Root
Immunosuppressant
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Flower
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Inotropic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Insecticide
Rutin found in Flower
Insectifuge
Alpha-amyrin found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Caryophyllene found in Flower
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (177500 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (73000 ppm)
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Insectiphile
Rutin found in Flower
Insulinogenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Interferonogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Irritant
Caryophyllene found in Flower
Oleic-acid found in Seed (73000 ppm)
JNK-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Juvabional
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Keratolytic
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Larvicide
Beta-amyrin found in Flower
Caryophyllene found in Flower
Larvistat
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Laxative
Calcium found in Leaf (30400 ppm)
Inulin found in Root
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Leucocytogenic
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Leukotriene-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Lipolytic
Inulin found in Root
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
Lithogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Lubricant
Myristic-acid found in Seed (16100 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (67000 ppm)
Lyase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
MAO-A-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
MAO-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
MMP-9-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Mast-Cell-Stabilizer
Quercetin found in Plant
Metal-Chelator
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Metastatic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (177500 ppm)
Mosquitocide
Beta-amyrin found in Flower
Caryophyllene found in Flower
Mucolytic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Mutagenic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Mycobactericide
Malic-acid found in Flower (6400 ppm)
Myoprotective
Rutin found in Flower
Myorelaxant
Rutin found in Flower
NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
NEP-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
NO-Genic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
NO-Inhibitor
Gamma-tocopherol found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
NO-Synthase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Natriuretic
Gamma-tocopherol found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Plant
Nematicide
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (177500 ppm)
Myristic-acid found in Seed (16100 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (67000 ppm)
Neuroprotective
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
Oviposition-Stimulant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Rutin found in Flower
Ovulant
Stigmasterol found in Flower
P450-Inducer
Quercetin found in Plant
P450-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
PAF-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
PGE2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
PKC-Inhibitor
Gamma-tocopherol found in Leaf
PTK-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Percutaneostimulant
Oleic-acid found in Seed (73000 ppm)
Perfumery
Caryophyllene found in Flower
Oleic-acid found in Seed (73000 ppm)
Pesticide
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Caryophyllene found in Flower
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Gentisic-acid found in Flower
Isorhamnetin-3-rutinoside found in Flower
Kaempferol found in Plant
Lupeol found in Flower
Malic-acid found in Flower (6400 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Flower
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (67000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Phagocytotic
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Ubiquinone found in Root
Phospholipase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Phytoalexin
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Flower
Piscicide
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Plasmodicide
Quercetin found in Plant
Prebiotic
Inulin found in Root
Probiotic
Inulin found in Root
Probiotigenic
Inulin found in Root
Proliferant
Quercetin found in Plant
Prooxidant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Lutein found in Flower
Lycopene found in Flower
Propecic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (177500 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (73000 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (67000 ppm)
Prostaglandigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Flower
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Protisticide
Kaempferol found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Psychotropic
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
Quinone-Reductase-Inducer
Kaempferol found in Plant
Lutein found in Flower
Quercetin found in Plant
Radioprotective
Rutin found in Flower
Secretogogue
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Flower
Sedative
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Caryophyllene found in Flower
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Stigmasterol found in Flower
Sialogogue
Malic-acid found in Flower (6400 ppm)
Soap
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (67000 ppm)
Palmitoleic-acid found in Seed (20500 ppm)
Spermicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Sunscreen
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Rutin found in Flower
Sweetener
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Galactose found in Flower
TNF-alpha-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
TOPO-2-Inhibitor
Lupeol found in Flower
Teratologic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Termitifuge
Caryophyllene found in Flower
Thermogenic
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Tineacide
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Tranquilizer
Calcium found in Leaf (30400 ppm)
Tumorigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Ubiquiot
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Lutein found in Flower
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid found in Flower
Syringic-acid found in Flower
Vanillic-acid found in Flower
Violaxanthin found in Plant
Ulcerogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Flower
Salicylic-acid found in Plant (0.34 ppm)
Uricosuric
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Urinary-Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Uterotonic
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Uterotrophic
Kaempferol found in Plant
VEGF-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Vasodilator
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (30400 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
Vasopressor
Oleanolic-acid found in Flower
Rutin found in Flower
Vulnerary
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (3100 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Flower
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Leaf (64500 ppm)
cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower
iNOS-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
12-ursene-3,6,21-triol Plant
2,4-methylene-cholesterol Flower
24-methylcholest-5,22-dien-3-beta-ol Sprout Seedling
24-methylcholest-7-en-7-beta-ol Sprout Seedling
28-isofucosterol Flower
4-alpha-methyl-24-methylene-cholest-7en-3beta-ol Plant
4-alpha-methylstigmasta-7,24(28)-dien-3beta-ol Plant
4-beta-methylergosta-7,24(28)-dien-3-beta-ol Flower
4-beta-methylstigmasta-7,24(28)-dien-3beta-ol Plant
5-phytyltoluquinone Plant
6-phytyltoluquinone Plant
7-methyltocol Plant
8-methyl-tocol Plant
9'-cis-lutein Flower
Flower
9-hydroxy-trans-10,cis-12-octadecadienic-acid Seed
Alkaloids Plant 190,000
Alpha-amyrin Flower
Alpha-tocopherol Leaf
Alpha-tocopherolquinone Plant
Arnadiol Flower
Ascorbic-acid Flower 1,330 3,100
Aurochrome Flower
Auroxanthin Flower
Beta-amyrin Flower
Beta-sitosterol Flower
Brein Flower
Caffeic-acid Plant
Calcium Leaf 30,400
Calendine Flower 100
Calendol Plant
Calendrin Plant
Calenduladiol Flower
Calendulosides Root
Campestanol Shoot
Campesterol Flower
Carotenoids Flower 30,000
Caryophyllene Flower
Ceryl-alcohol Flower
Chlorogenic-acid Flower
Cholest-7-en-3-beta-ol Sprout Seedling
Cholestanol Sprout Seedling
Cholesterol Flower
Chrysanthemaxanthin Flower
Cis-flavoxanthin Flower
Cis-luteoxanthin Flower
Citroxanthin Plant
Dimorphecolic-acid Seed
Eo Flower 200 4,000
Erythrodiol Flower
Faradiol Flower
Fat Seed 260,000 450,000
Flavochrome Flower
Plant
Flavonoids Flower 3,300 8,000
Flavoxanthin Flower
Fucostanol Plant
Galactose Flower
Gamma-tocopherol Leaf
Gentisic-acid Flower
Heliantriol-c Flower
Heliantriol-f Flower
Inulin Root
Isorhamnetin-3-glucoside Flower
Isorhamnetin-3-o-rutinoside Flower
Isorhamnetin-3-rutinoside Flower
Kaempferol Plant
Lapenetriol Flower
Lauric-acid Plant 10,000 17,500
Linoleic-acid Seed 100,000 177,500
Linolenic-acid Seed 18,600 32,200
Longispinogenine Flower
Lup-20(29)-ene-3beta,16beta,28-triol Flower
Lupeol Flower
Lutein Flower
Lutein-epoxide Flower
Luteoxanthin Flower
Lycopene Flower
Malic-acid Flower 6,400
Maniladiol Flower
Methyl-pentose Flower
Mucilage Flower 15,000
Mutatochrome Plant
Mutaxanthin Flower
Myristic-acid Seed 10,300 16,100
Narcissin Flower
Neolycopene Flower
Olean-12-ene-3beta,16beta,28-triol Flower
Oleanolic-acid Flower
Oleic-acid Seed 42,300 73,000
P-coumaric-acid Plant
P-hydroxy-benzoic-acid Flower
P-hydroxyphenylacetic-acid Flower
Palmitic-acid Seed 38,900 67,000
Palmitoleic-acid Seed 12,000 20,500
Pentadecanoic-acid Flower
Phytofluene Flower
Plastoquinone Plant
Protein Flower 6,400
Pseudotaraxasterol Flower
Psi-taraxasterol Flower
Pyrogallol-tannin Flower
Quercetin Plant
Resin Flower 34,000
Rubixanthin Plant
Rutin Flower
Salicylic-acid Plant 0.34
Saponin Flower
Saponosides Plant
Stigmast-7-en-3-beta-ol Sprout Seedling
Stigmastanol Sprout Seedling
Stigmasterol Flower
Syringic-acid Flower
Tannin Leaf 64,500
Tarax-20-ene-3beta,16beta,22alpha-triol Flower
Tarax-20-ene-3beta,16beta,30-triol Flower
Taraxasterol Flower
Trans-8,trans-10,cis-12-octadecatrienic-acid Seed
Ubiquinone Root
Uronic-acid Flower
Ursa-12-ene-3beta,16beta,21-triol Plant
Ursadiol Plant
Ursatriol Flower
Vanillic-acid Flower
Violaxanthin Plant
Zeta-carotene Flower
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]